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Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal
ISSN : 08531629     EISSN : 08531629     DOI : -
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi Biosfera : A Scientific Journal merupakan peer reviewed jurnal yang diterbitkan oleh Fakultas Biologi Universitas Jenderal Soedirman. Media ini mewadahi hasil-hasil penelitian di bidang biologi tropika yang terbit tiga kali setahun (Januari, Mei, September).
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Articles 8 Documents
Search results for , issue " Vol 22, No 1 (2005)" : 8 Documents clear
Transfer Gen Penanda Pada Kentang (Solanum tuberosum L.) CV Panda dan Atlantik dengan Bantuan Agrobacterium Habibah, Noor Aini; B, Sri Nanan
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal Vol 22, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.mib.2005.22.1.91

Abstract

This research was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of marker gene transfer of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) explant tissues, which were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 carrying binary vector pBI121. Nodes and leaf segments from shoot cultures of Panda and Atlantic cultivars were used as explants. The marker gene transfer procedure was initiated with explant pre-conditioning, followed with co-cultivating and selecting of putative transformant cells. Explants were pre-conditioned over-night in callus induction medium containing basal medium of MS (Murashige & Skoog, 1962) supplemented with 5 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.1 mg/l benzyl adenine. After 10 min. inoculation in  A. tumefaciens suspension, explants were co-cultivated for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days. After co-cultivation, explant tissues were placed on callus induction medium added with 150 mg/l kanamycin. Successful marker gene transfer was calculated as the percentage of total explants producing callus on selection medium. Results showed that more co-cultivated nodal explants became resistant to kanamycin than co-cultivated leaf explants. The highest efficiency of transformation (45%) of nodal explants was observed in Panda cultivar whereas that in Atlantik was only 30%. The most efficient transformation of leaf explants was observed in Panda cultivar (20%) whereas that in Atlantik was15%. The PCR analysis detected the presence of NPTII gene in transgenic tissues.
Zoea Syndrome (ZS) pada Larva Udang Vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei) Haliman, Rubiyanto Widodo
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal Vol 22, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.mib.2005.22.1.77

Abstract

White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture in Indonesia has been well developed since 1999.  Among the problems occurred during the culture period in the hatchery, Zoea Syndrome (ZS) is the most serious.  An observation has been done to determine the prevalence and the clinical signs of this syndrome. Nauplii were collected from hatcheries in East Java (3 hatcheries) and Central Java (1 hatchery) and subject to PCR test in order to obtain TSV free nauplii.  The results showed that TSV free nauplii could also be infected by ZS, where the prevalence could reach 100%.  There was also a possibility that Vibrio sp. was involved in  ZS infection.
Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Mikrob Pendegradasi Senyawa Nitril Thontowi, Ahmad; Sunarko, Bambang
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal Vol 22, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.mib.2005.22.1.87

Abstract

Biotransformation of nitrile compound using microbe represents the best way in eliminating  toxicity. Besides, microbes and enzymes of nitriles degradation can be used in synthesis of various chemical compounds with a high economic value. The purpose of this research is to obtain microbial potential for nitriles degradation, to obtain information of physiological of chosen microbe and the characteristic of its enzyme. We have conducted are isolation and selection of microbial nitriles degradation, perception of growth pattern, determination of influence various and concentration of nitriles on microbial growth, determination of enzymes specificity and inductivity, and determination of optimum pH and temperature. The result of microbial isolation from various sources of waste obtained by 12 isolates at acetonitrile, 18 isolates at benzonitrile, 8 isolates at adiponitrile, 1 isolate at lactonitrile, and 1 isolate at ß- aminopropionitrile. GLB5 isolate was selected from 46 isolates, because this isolate can grow at some tested nitriles. The best growth of GLB5 isolate in acetonitrile 360 mM, benzonitrile 30 mM, 3-sianopiridin 15 mM, and ß- aminopropionitrile 140 mM. The growth of GLB5 isolate in acetonitrile 360 mM were experienced a lag phase during 8 hours, and an exponential phase during 40 hours. Time of cell doubling during 7 hours and 42 minutes, and specific growth rate (µ) equal to 0,09 h-1. The character of nitriles degradation enzymes from GLB5 whole cell was inductive, with optimum activity at pH and temperature equal to 7.2 and 40oC.
Kandungan Bahan Aktif Fomesafen dalam Biji Kedelai dan Kacang Hijau dari Tanaman yang Ditumbuhkan pada Tanah Bekas Paparan Reflex Dwiati, Murni; Budisantoso, Iman
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal Vol 22, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.mib.2005.22.1.78

Abstract

A research has been conducted to understand the responses of soybean and mungbean to the persistence of Reflex residuals in soils referring to its active substance contents, i.e. fomesafen, in the plants grown in Reflex-exposed soils. The study was carried out experimentally in glass house from June to November 2003 employing Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with treatments arranged factorial. Two factors were used, the first of which was plant species (soybean and mungbean) while the second was Reflex concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm). Each treatment combination was replicated three times. The parameters examined comprised of fomesafen contents in the seeds, number of seeds per pod,  weight of 100 seeds, and weight of total seeds. To measure fomesafen contents in the seeds, Gas Liquid Chromatograph with ECD detector and column containing 10% OV-101 chromosorb WHF 80/100 mesh of 2m lengths and 3 mm diameter was applied. Fomesafen residuals in the soils of 5 month persistence had no harmful effect on both soybean and mungbean plants. As well, they had no significant effect on the production variables of both plants. Soybean seeds planted in the 5-month Reflex-exposed soils still contained fomesafen while the corresponding mungbean seeds did not.
Kebiasaan Makanan Ikan Beloso (Saurida undosquamis) di Perairan Laut Cina Selatan Bagian Selatan (LCS) Ridho, Moh. Rasyid; Kaswadji, Richardus F.; Jaya, Indra; Nurhakim, Subhat
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal Vol 22, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.mib.2005.22.1.181

Abstract

The objective of this research is to understand the food habit of the lizard fish (Saurida undosquamis) in Southern South China Sea.For this purpose, purposive random sampling was conducted over 19 stations in trawlable bottom waters using swept area method and sample of 250 of S. undosquamis were examined for their stomach content. The lengths of S. undosquamis under this observation were 15,0-26,8 cm. The result showed that the S. undosquamis is demersal fish that distributed diurnally. The food habit of the S. undosquamis in South China Sea was different between the day and the night. The food habit of S. undosquamis in the day are mainly small demersal fishes, especially Leiognathus leusiscus and Upeneus sulphureus that have the same diurnal distribution pattern as  S. undosquamis. Meanwhile, during the night time, the food habit of  S. undosquamis was dominated by shrimps.
Upaya Pemanfaatan Rekaman Suara Burung dan Analisis Spektrogram untuk Menyusun Metode Klasifikasi Berdasarkan Suara (Sonotaksonomi) Irwandi, Marwan; Mahmud, A. Hadi; Abdulah, Abdulah
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal Vol 22, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.mib.2005.22.1.79

Abstract

This research explores possibility to classify bird species based on it sound.  Sound data (time-domain) plotting and its spectrum (frequency domain) are used to identify five kind of bird consist of Loriculus galgulus, Chloropsis sonnerati, Pycnonotus melanicterus, Lanius schach, and Sturnus contra.  There are indications that exist of equality sound parameter from the samples such as number of element, number of peak spectrum, dominant frequency and maximum frequency. This result open the possibility to develop method of bird species classification based on bird sound (sono-taxonomy).
Studi Perbandingan Komunitas Ikan dan Udang Daerah Hilir ke Arah Hulu pada Dua Sungai di Kawasan Cagar Alam Leuweung Sancang Garut-Jawa Barat Dewantoro, Gema Wahyu; Zulham, Edi S; P, Asep Rudi
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal Vol 22, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.mib.2005.22.1.89

Abstract

A comparative study on fish and shrimp community from downstream to upper area at two river in natural preserve Leuweung Sancang, Garut, West-Java has been conducted. The aim of the study was to examine how far influence threat damaged fish and shrimp at both river. The result showed 3 species of fish and 3 species of shrimp at Ciporeang river, and 3 species of fish and 1 species of shrimp at Cipangisikan river.
Pengaruh Jenis dan Konsentrasi Bahan Nabati terhadap Perkembangan Aspergillus flavus pada Medium PDA dan Biji Kacang Tanah Sumartini, Sumartini; Yusnawan, Eriyanto
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal Vol 22, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.mib.2005.22.1.85

Abstract

An experiment aimed to obtain botanical fungicide and its concentration to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus was done in the mycology laboratory, Indonesia Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute, Malang on June–August 2003. Kancil and Mahesa varieties of groundnut,  A. flavus  fungus, garlic, onion and ginger were used in this experiment.  The effectiveness of botanical fungicide extracts to inhibit A. flavus on PDA was done by culturing A. flavus (5 mm diameter) in the petridish ( θ = 9 cm). This experiment was arranged in a factorial completely randomized design with 5 replications. Factor A was botanical fungicide extracts (garlic, onion, ginger, and sterile water) and factor B was botanical fungicide concentrations (10%, 15%, 20%, dan 25%). The level concentration of botanical fungicide extracts  were poured into Petridish containing PDA medium before culturing A. flavus. The growth diameter of A. flavus was measured as a parameter. A similar experiment for testing  the effectiveness of botanical fungicide extracts to inhibit A. flavus was also done on groundnut kernel.  It was arranged in completely randomized design factorial, 3 replications. Fifty groundnut kernels were dipped on botanical fungicide extract for 3 minutes, placed on plastic tray (30 x 24 x 5 cm3) and layered with wet tissue sterile before used. After botanical fungicide extracts on kernels were air dried, the kernels were inoculated with spore suspension (approximately 104 spore/ml). Disease intensity of A. flavus was measured as a parameter. The result showed that the garlic extract treatment was more effective than those of onion extract, ginger extract and without botanical fungicide. The growth rate of  colony diameter of  A. flavus on PDA medium were 0.15 cm, 3.88 cm, 2.59 cm, and 4.30 cm respectively. The used of garlic extract at a concentration 10% on PDA could inhibit colony diameter growth of A. flavus by 97% as compared to without botanical fungicide extract. The garlic extract treatment, onion extract, ginger extract and without botanical fungicide extract showed that disease intensity A. flavus on groundnut kernels were 13.21%, 22.00%, 20.74%, and 25.18% respectively. An effective concentration to inhibit A. flavus infection on groundnut kernels was achieved by using garlic extract 20%. The use of its extract could reduce 73% of disease intensity. This result was different from the treatment on PDA. This was due to the ability of A. flavus to degrade cell walls. This process takes time meanwhile much of botanical fungicides extract have evapoured.

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