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Cakrawala: Jurnal Studi Islam
CAKRAWALA is a scientific journal of Islamic studies managed by the Faculty of Islamic Studies, Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang. This journal is issued twice a year and it is a tool for researchers, academics, and practitioners who are interested in the field of Islamic Studies and wished to channel their thoughts and findings, mainly related to Islamic Law and Islamic Economics. The articles contained are the results of research, critical and comprehensive scientific study which are relevant and current issues covered by the journals.
Articles
46
Articles
Pendekatan Integratif dalam Studi Islam

Noor, Fuad Arif

Cakrawala: Jurnal Studi Islam Vol 13 No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang

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Abstract

Integrative approaches are studies which employ a method or means of view and analysis of fused and integrated, and integrative analysis can be grouped into two. First, integrative between all texts related to the issue that is being shelled or discussed. Second, integrative between nash with other sciences related to the issue being discussed. Sciences to Islamization is the product of ijtihad scientists (scholars/mujtahid). With the placement of such a level, then the sciences to Islamization is known today is not identical to the revelation. Moreover, it is no secret that the practice of education and instruction in Islam has been too much emphasis on textual sources and truth. So forget about the fact that when the idea of thoughts, ideas and beliefs are transformed into the text-based faith that is practised and operationalised in the field, it will automatically appear different understanding and interpretation. Integration between public science and the science of religion is primarily founded on a tauhidiq system, which puts God as the beginning and end of everything. Due to the belief of monotheism and belief in the values of religion can be born from any science, including the science that had been classified in the general sciences. As an academic community would be a challenge to realise that Islam is mercy all nature, which still thinking about the direction of the benefit of the world and the hereafter. Then it is not something impossible if PTAI someday become a center of knowledge on the condition that there is the commitment to hold a substantial change, including a reinterpretation of Islam, reforming the position of some of the terms of his teaching, through development, reconstructed starting with the deconstruction of Islamic studies, and develop science -ilmu Islam.

Hibah Harta Pada Anak Angkat: Telaah Sosiologis terhadap Bagian Maksimal Sepertiga

Abdoeh, Nor Muhammad

Cakrawala: Jurnal Studi Islam Vol 13 No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang

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Abstract

Salah satu cara yang digunakan dalam hukum Islam untuk memperoleh harta adalah hibah. Proses penghibahan dalam hukum Islam tidak bisa dilepaskan dari batasan harta yang dihibahkan. Fenomena di masyarakat terkadang terjadi dualisme hukum yang kontradiksi antara hukum dalam teori dan hukum dalam praktek. Fenomena di masyarakat banyak orang yang menghibahkan hartanya kepada anak angkatnya dengan semua harta yang dimilikinya di depan Notaris. Hal ini menjadi persoalan tentang posisi anak angkat yang sebenarnya di mata hukum. Tujuan penulisan ini adalah untuk mengetahui konsep penghibahan harta dilihat dari kacamata sosiologis. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan sosiologis, yaitu dengan melihat fenomena masyarakat atau peristiwa sosial budaya sebagai jalan untuk memahami hukum yang berlaku dalam masyarakat. Kesimpulan dari tulisan ini adalah pada masa Rasulullah sangatlah dipengaruhi oleh keberadaan nabi sendiri sebagai panutan dan pedoman syari’ah dalam segala aspek kehidupan. Beda halnya pada masa sekarang, penghibahan harta dipengaruhi oleh faktor dari keturunan dan faktor keilmuan agama

Pandangan Al-Qur’an Tentang Perempuan: Kritik Terhadap Tuduhan Kaum Feminisme

Triantoro, Dony Arung

Cakrawala: Jurnal Studi Islam Vol 13 No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang

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Abstract

The pheniminists appear to respond to the oppression and backwardness of women to men. The allegations of western feminism against womens backwardness over men are due to religious teachings as contained in the QS. an-Nisa : 1, 11, 12 and 34. This article aims to answer the allegations of phenimism by comparing opinions between classical and contemporary mufassirs. The methods used in this article are through literature studies. This article finds that the classical mufassir in understanding the revelation of the nafs in the QS. an-Nisa : 1 as Adam, while contemporary mufassir understand it as one (same) type. Then the classical mufassir in understanding ar-rijalu qawwamuna ala an-nisa in the QS. an-Nisa: 34 because of the intellectual, physical, and educational advantages of men. Whereas contemporary mufassirs understand mens leadership over women with mens duty to safeguard, protect and control and suffice womens needs as a consequence of that leadership. Then the classical mufassir in understanding men gains inheritance over women in QS. an-Nisa: 11-12 is due to his intellectual and responsibility towards women, while contemporary mufassirs interpret the verse by the cancellation of the law that was in the ignorance of women who did not inherit. Finally this article indicates that allegations of feminism are basically directed to the interpretation of classical mufassir in understanding the verses concerning the position of women

Penerapan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia Islami pada Unit Usaha Syariah

Mulato, Tri

Cakrawala: Jurnal Studi Islam Vol 13 No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang

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Abstract

Shariah banking currently has a strong legal law with the presence of law number 21 of 2008 on shariah banking. It is very influential on the existence of sharia banking is increasingly in demand by many circles. Shariah banking continues driven in order to innovate in developing products to be able to reach a targeted market share of 5%. There are three types of sharia banking in Indonesia, namely Shariah Commercial Bank, Shariah Business Unit, and Peoples Bank of Sharia Financing. Of the three different types of Islamic banks are Shariah Business Unit itself, because not stand alone still follow the conventional bank, so much influence from the parent. Particularly related to the human resources of syariah banks, the syariah business unit is still in the shade of its parent, which is conventional bank, whereas both of them should be different. In this paper discussed about the implementation of Islamic human resource development in the Islamic business unit. The type of research conducted is a research or research by taking data from various sources that are then processed and drawn conclusions related to Islamic human resources. The results of this paper show / conclude there are some things related to the process of developing resources in Islamic banks are in line with the development of Islamic human resources. However, it is found that the application of Islamic human resources development has not been in line with the recruitment pattern of shariah business unit that has not been able to perform its own recruitment but still follow its conventional parent provisions. So that related to the criteria to be tb sharia bank has not been fulfilled.

Membangun Entrepreneurship Islami dalam Perspektif Hadits

Wijayanti, Ratna

Cakrawala: Jurnal Studi Islam Vol 13 No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang

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Abstract

Salah satu kesempurnaan Islam adalah dengan mengharuskan kepada umatnya agar bisa hidup mandiri dengan bekerja atau berbisnis dengan jalan yang benar. Islam tidak hanya mengajarkan untuk beribadah saja, tetapi Islam juga mengajarkan umatnya untuk mandiri dan bekerja keras salah satunya dengan berwirausaha atau Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship dalam Islam mempunyai pengertian bahwa kewirausahaan adalah segala aktivitas bisnis yang diusahakan secara perniagaan dalam rangka memproduksi suatu barang atau jasa dengan jalan tidak bertentangan dengan syariat. Agar kegiatan kewirausahaan dianggap sebagai ibadah diantaranya adalah tetap melakukan Ibadah, Sholat, dan Puasa dan ibadah-ibadah lain di antara kesibukan sebagai entrepreneur; Hindari melakukan hal-hal yang dilarang oleh Allah; Pelajari sikap seorang pengusaha muslim yang baik; Bisnis yang baik perencanaan strategi (tidak pergi dari ajaran Islam); mengetahui aturan (hukum) bermuamalah secara islami. Dalam Al Quran dan sunnah terdapat pengajaran bagi seorang entrepreuneur untuk terus berkarya dan bekerja keras, seperti dalam surat Al jumu’ah ayat 10 yang memerintahkan untuk mencari rezeki serta terdapat hadits nabi yang menganjurkan untuk selalu berinovasi yang artinya Dari Ashim bin Ubaidillah, dari Salim, dari bapaknya, dia berkata, Rasulullah SAW. telah bersabda “sesungguhnya Allah mencintai seorang mukmin yang berkarya/ bekerja keras.” dan di dalam riwayat Ibnu Abdan, “pemuda yang berkarya/ bekerja keras.”

Faktor Eksternal dan Internal yang Mempengaruhi Profitabilitas Bank Syariah di Indonesia

Ardana, Yudhistira

Cakrawala: Jurnal Studi Islam Vol 13 No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang

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Abstract

This study aims to determine the influence of external factors (inflation and BI rate) and internal (CAR, REO, FDR, and NPF) on the level of profitability of sharia banks in Indonesia as measured by ROA. The data used in this study is the data of Sharia Commercial Bank and Sharia Business Unit in Indonesia from 2011 to 2018 using monthly data. This research uses error correction model which is commonly abbreviated as ECM. The results show that the external and internal variables together significantly influence the ROA variable. Individually, CAR, NPF and Inflation variables have no significant effect on ROA, while FDR and REO variables in both short and long term have significant effect on ROA. BI rate in this study has no significant effect on ROA in the short term, but has a significant effect on ROA variable in the long term

Pendidikan Nasionalisme-Agamis dalam Pandangan K.H. Ahmad Dahlan dan K.H. Hasyim Asyari

Nurhadi, Rofiq

Cakrawala: Jurnal Studi Islam Vol 12 No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang

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Abstract

Penelitian ini difokuskan untuk menggali khazanah intelektual yang telah dihasilkan oleh para tokoh pendidikan Indonesia di masa lampau mengenai hubungan antara nasionalisme dan agama. Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan Historis-Sosiologis. Adapun analisis dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode interpretasi, koherensi intern dan komparasi. Penelitian ini dimulai dari asumsi bahwa diantara penekanan dari berbagai khazanah pemikiran tokoh-tokoh pendidikan Indonesia masa lampau adalah penekanan pada semangat nasionalisme-agamis. Dari hasil kajian terhadap pemikiran K.H. Ahmad Dahlan, dan K.H. Hasyim Asy’ari diketahui bahwa meskipun setting sosial munculnya pemikiran pendidikan dua tokoh pendidikan ini sama yaitu konteks penjajahan, namun mereka memiliki paradigma yang berbeda tentang bagaimana pendidikan itu seharusnya diselenggarakan. K.H. Ahmad Dahlan melihat kebijakan politik Belanda dan sistem pendidikan yang ada waktu itu tidak menguntungkan bagi upaya kebangkitan Islam dan pembebasan dari belenggu penjajahan. Dari sini muncul ide modernisasi pendidikan Islam. K.H. Hasyim As’ary melihat modernisasi pendidikan ala Barat dapat memudarkan nilai-nilai agama dan nilai-nilai luhur budaya Bangsa yang dapat mengendorkan semangat juang melawan penjajahan. Dari sini muncul semangat tradisionalisme. Pemikiran K.H. Ahmad Dahlan memiliki komitmen yang tinggi terhadap pembangunan nasionalisme melalui pengembangan pendidikan Islam yang berkemajuan dan menghilangkan dikotomi antara santri dan non santri. Sedang pemikiran K.H. Hasyim Asy’ari memiliki komitmen yang tinggi terhadap pembangunan nasionalisme melalui pembangunan moral bangsa berdasar nilai-nilai agama Islam dan budaya bangsa.

Analisis Pengaruh Penerapan Kinerja Maqasid terhadap Manajemen Risiko pada Perbankan Syariah

Farida, Farida, Dewi, Veni Soraya

Cakrawala: Jurnal Studi Islam Vol 12 No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang

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Abstract

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi kinerja maqasid perbankan syariah dan menganalisis sejauh mana penerapan kinerja Maqasid mampu memberikan pengaruh terhadap manajemen risiko yang ada di perbankan syariah, khususnya risiko kredit yang akan ditanggung oleh setiap bank syariah. Target khusus yang ingin dicapai melalui penelitian ini: 1) Terdeskripsikannya faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi kinerja maqasid perbankan syariah. 2) terealisasikanya peran kinerja maqasid dalam memberikan pengaruh terhadap manajemen risiko kredit bank syariah. 3) Dikeluarkannya regulasi/aturan tentang kepatuhan praktik transaksi perbankan syariah yang sesuai konsep maqasid syariah oleh pemerintah. 4) Diterapkannya maqasid syariah dalam segala aktivitas bank syariah. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah regresi linier berganda berdasarkan data yang diperoleh dari laporan keuangan bank syariah yang ada di Indonesia tahun 2012-2016. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengembangan pengetahuan, menciptakan kesadaran masyarakat akan keberadaan bank syariah, peningkatkan keterampilan baru, kontrak yang adil, produk dan jasa yang terjangkau, penghapusan ketidakadilan, serrta distribusi pendapatan dan kekayaan tidak pengaruh terhadap risiko kredit. Sedangkan  profitabilitas berpengaruh negative terhadap risiko kredit, dan investasi pada sektor riil berpengaruh positif terhadap risiko kredit.

Kinerja Beberapa Bank Syariah Berdasar Tingkat Efisiensi Melalui Pengukuran DEA

Cahyaningsih, Pinaestri, Purnomo, Didit, Harun, Harun, Hasmarini, Maulidyah Indira

Cakrawala: Jurnal Studi Islam Vol 12 No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang

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Abstract

The purpose of this research is to find out the efficiency of Islamic Banking in 2015-2016 period. Samples both input and output from 4 Islamic Banking were used in this research included deposit, asset, personnel load, financing, and operational profit. Every changes of variable in that data can show the condition of Islamic Banking. The method uses in this research is called by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with intermediation approach. The result shows that only Bukopin Islamic Banking and BNI Islamic Banking who have reached 100 percent efficiency during this research period. The highest inefficiency is experienced by Mandiri Islamic Banking. Mandiri Islamic Banking was insufficiency during this research period.  Meanwhile, the BCA Islamic Banking underwent inefficiency three times in 2016

Masalah dan Solusi Model Pengembangan Pembiayaan Pertanian dari Aspek Keuangan Syari’ah

Maulida, Sri, Yunani, Ahmad

Cakrawala: Jurnal Studi Islam Vol 12 No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang

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Abstract

This study aims to discuss the problems and solutions in terms of sharia financial aspects of the development of agricultural financing. This study used multiple linear regression analysis with ordinary least square method (OLS) combined with a descriptive explorative approach and developed by using literature review approach or literature study. The theory or conceptual approach is done by referring from several sources, such as books, scientific journals, and the internet. All existing idea descriptions are combined into a single frame of thought. The results showed that the variable of problem financing in agriculture sector had a significant negative effect on the profitability of sharia banking, therefore the application of financing concept for farmers through Sharia Finance Cooperative or Baitul Maal bi Tamwil (BMT) using Bai Salam".