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Constitutional Review
ISSN : 24600016     EISSN : 25483870
Constitutional Review is a law journal published by the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia twice a year. The primary purpose of this journal is to disseminate research, conceptual analysis and other writings of scientific nature on constitutional issues. Articles published cover various topics on constitutions, constitutional courts, constitutional court decisions and issues on constitutional law either in Indonesia or other countries all over the world. This journal is designed to be an international law journal and intended as a forum for legal scholarship which discusses ideas and insights from law professors, legal scholars, judges and practitioners.
Articles
44
Articles
Constitutional Retrogression in Indonesia Under President Joko Widodo's Government: What Can the Constitutional Court Do?

Satrio, Abdurrachman

Constitutional Review Vol 4, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia

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Abstract

This paper examines whether constitutional retrogression, the process through which democratically elected rulers use formal legal measures gradually to undermine democracy, has occurred in Indonesia, especially during the reign of President Joko Widodo. To this end, the paper analyzes the impact of the Widodo government's policies on three fundamental requirements of a democratic state: a democratic electoral system, rights to speech and association, and the rule of law. The paper finds that Widodo's government, in its efforts to contain the threat of Islamist populism, has indeed undermined all three of these elements to varying degrees. While Indonesia's democracy may yet be saved by the Constitutional Court, an institution that Widodo's government has until now failed to control, the Court cannot save democracy by itself. Its chances of doing so will depend on public support.

Harmonization of Regulation Based on Pancasila Values Through the Constitutional Court of Indonesia

Sudrajat, Tedi

Constitutional Review Vol 4, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia

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Abstract

The legal system which is adopted and applied in Indonesia was based on the formation from the founding fathers which is adjusted to the condition and the spirit of Indonesia as a nation known for its legal system as Pancasila. Ideally, Pancasila serves as the philosophy for the nation of Indonesia, as state's ideology and as the basis of the state. However, in reality, vertical conflicts (government and society) and horizontal conflict (inter-society) have created a variety of concerns, in which the sense of nationalism and diversity has diminished. The trigger is because Pancasila can only be understood as the ideology and the basis of the state, without saturating the meaning contained therein. The paradigm development of Pancasila based on legal state should demand the development of a democratic constitutional state, which juxtaposes the principles of a rule-of-law (nomocracy) with harmonious and complementary principles of the sovereignty of the people (democracy). This role can be solved by the Constitutional Court to harmonize the ideology of Pancasila in the Indonesia legal substance. When the legal development is integrated into meaning, the legal development which characterized by Pancasila can be realized to resolve the variety of community conflicts.

Megapolitical Cases before the Constitutional Court of Indonesia since 2004: An Empirical Study

Dressel, Björn, Inoue, Tomoo

Constitutional Review Vol 4, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia

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Abstract

The Constitutional Court of Indonesia is considered one of Asia’s most activist courts. Here we investigate empirically possible determinants of the decisions of its judges over the period 2003–18. The findings are based on a unique data set of 80 high-profile political cases, complemented by data on the socio-biographic profiles of 26 judges who served during that period. Testing for common perceptions of the Constitutional Court since its inception, we first describe patterns in judicial decision-making across time and court composition before testing specifically for the impact of the judges’ professional backgrounds, presidential administrations, the influence of the Chief Justice, and cohort behaviour. The analysis finds declining dissent among justices on the bench over time and also provides evidence of strategic behaviour of justices at the ending of their own terms. But there is little statistical evidence that judicial behaviour has been affected by work background (except for those coming from the executive branch), appointment track or generation – hence suggesting that justices seem to retain more independence than the public seems to perceive. We then discuss the results in the context of Indonesia’s evolving constitutional democracy and look at the implications for comparative studies of judicial behaviour.

Indonesia’s Judicial Review Regime in Comparative Perspective

Roux, Theunis

Constitutional Review Vol 4, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia

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Abstract

This paper provides a comparative perspective on judicial review in Indonesia after the establishment of the Constitutional Court in 2003. It starts by retelling the well-known story of the "transformation of American law" over the first half of the last century. As narrated by Morton Horwitz, that story is about how nineteenth-century industrialisation processes destabilised the premises of "Classical Legal Thought", and then about how the legal realist movement exploited the ensuing crisis to transform the way Americans think about law and its relationship to other social systems. Mining this story for generalisable concepts, the paper argues that the establishment of strong-form judicial review necessarily draws on and, in turn, influences prevailing conceptions of legal and political authority. These conceptions vary along a continuum, in the first case, from public confidence in law's autonomy to a conception of law as deeply immersed in politics, and, in the second case, from a conception of legitimate political authority as contingent on a fairly won democratic mandate to a conception of political authority as residing in the power holder's capacity to promote important social goals, such as national security or economic prosperity. Each of these variables may change independently of the other. In certain situations, however, they may also combine to form a relatively stable judicial review regime – a hegemonic legitimating ideology in which conceptions of legal and political authority lock into and mutually support each other. The fourth section uses this conceptual framework to assess the Indonesian Constitutional Court's approach to its mandate after 2003. Under its first two chief justices, the paper notes, the Court engaged in a concerted effort to build public understanding of its legitimate role in national politics. The Court's abrupt switch between its first Chief Justice, Jimly Asshiddiqie's legalist conception of law's authority and his successor, Mohammad Mahfud's more instrumentalist conception, however, has impeded the consolidation of a determinate judicial review regime. Given the considerable threats still confronting Indonesia's democracy, this situation is worrisome. The Court urgently needs to present a coherent account of its legitimate claim to authority if it is to continue playing an effective role.

Korean Constitutional Court and Constitutionalism in Political Dynamics: Focusing on Presidential Impeachment

Kim, Jin Wook

Constitutional Review Vol 4, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia

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Abstract

The Constitutional Court of Korea, which should be a product of the June Democracy Movement in 1987, has transformed Korea's constitutionalism ever since its inception. The recent two impeachment cases decided respectively in 2004 against President Roh and in 2017 against President Park might be classic examples of how the state institutions including the Court interact with other institutions in a very political case in terms of political dynamics. In the impeachment case against President Roh, the Court positioned itself strategically by establishing the 'grave violation of law’ rationale, where it sided with the impeaching parliament by finding three counts of violations of law but dismissed the case in its entirety through the operation of the 'grave violation of law'. In the impeachment case against President Park, the Court basically followed the grave violation logic but reached a different conclusion to remove the President, which might be another strategic position taken by the Court, which is in line with the will of the super-majority of the Korean public. This paper aims to discuss how the Constitutional Court has developed its strategic position in terms of political dynamics, by analyzing the two presidential impeachment cases.

Referencing International Human Rights Law In Indonesian Constitutional Adjudication

Bisariyadi, Bisariyadi

Constitutional Review Vol 4, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia

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Abstract

The power of the Indonesian Constitutional Court to review laws is a constitutional adjudication process. It is a forum to resolve constitutional issues where a citizen can challenge Law that has injured his rights. The Court's reasoning provides audiences with the debates for its deliberation. Audiences may find reference to the international human rights law. It is an interesting practice. However, there is no studies yet about the information on the statistic of the Court made reference to international human rights law. As such, this study aims to identify reference to international human rights law in the Court's decision on judicial review cases from 2003 to 2016. Additionally, this study also aims to answer the question of what underlies the Court to made reference to international human rights law. As many studies show, the objective of Constitutional Court's references to the international human rights law is to strengthen constitutional rights protection. Nonetheless, the Court did not pay any interests to the global agenda of transnational constitutionalism or a convergence of rights and legal pluralism. The article is divided into 5 (five) sections, commencing with the introduction. The second part discusses the status of international human rights law in Indonesia. As the third presents information on Court's decision which cited international human rights law. Then, the fourth presents typical function of the decision that made reference to international human rights law. It concluded that the practice of referring to international law demonstrates the open attitude of Indonesian constitutional justices to the universal nature of fundamental rights.

Relation between the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia and the Legislators according to the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia

Laksono, Fajar, Sudarsono, Sudarsono, Hidayat, Arief, Safaat, Muchammad Ali

Constitutional Review Vol 3, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia

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Abstract

This research aims to analyze and to describe the relation between the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia (CC) with the People Representatives’ Council and the President of the Republic of Indonesia as legislators by looking on implementation of CC’s decision through the legislation in the period 2004-2015. Using doctrinal research, it can be seen how the constitutional mandate in the CC’s decision are implemented by the legislator through the legislation. The results are: (a) legal opinions of the CC’s decision have a binding power; (b) a constitutional mandate in the legal opinion is intended as guidance for the legislators regarding what the 1945 Constitution requires; (c) directives to the legislator in the legal opinions should be implemented because it is the implementation of the principle of checks and balances according to the 1945 Constitution, (d) implementation of the CC’s decisions through legislation does not have standard mechanism and does not become the priority of legislation, and (e) relation between the CC with the legislators can not be categorized in black and white in cooperative or confrontative, but shows ups and downs between cooperative and confrontative relations. Cooperative relations are realized when the constitutional mandate is formulated strongly so it is implemented by the legislator as the formula. Relationships tend to be cooperative in the implementation of the constitutional mandate of the decision, but not a priority of legislation. Meanwhile, the confrontative relations is seen from the constitutional mandate of the CC decisions which are not implemented.

Laws of Ratification of an International Treaty in Indonesian Laws Hierarchy

Sidharta, Noor

Constitutional Review Vol 3, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia

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Abstract

This journal article discusses the laws of ratification of an international treaty in Indonesian laws hierarchy. This journal uses a normative research approach where a draft agreement and laws are used as primary data apart from the laws and international treaties. There are some issues that still unsettled related to the legal status of the laws of ratification of an international treaty that have impacts in the implementation of the treaty. The laws of ratification of an international treaty now is still classified as general laws whose the content of the norm has been discussed by the People’s Representatives Council, therefore the laws of ratification of an international treaty automatically become the object of Judicial Review at the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia. The cancellation of the laws of ratification of an international treaty impacts the cancellation of the deal on the treaty and it has failed the pacta sunt servanda principle, which becomes the basis of a treaty. To solve problems related to the cancellation of laws of ratification of an international treaty at the Constitutional Court, there are several efforts on state administration by classifying the laws which differ the general laws from the laws whose contents are related to the international treaty. Furthermore, a progressive new method on the state administration is needed by giving a Judicial Preview right to the Constitutional Court to conduct a review on the bill of the ratification of an international treaty based on its suitability to the constitution.

The Indonesian Constitutional Court and the Democratic Institutions in Judicial Review

Omara, Andy

Constitutional Review Vol 3, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia

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Abstract

This paper focuses on the relationship between the Indonesian Constitutional Court, the legislature, and the executive in judicial review. It aims to explain the Court strategies in deciding judicial review cases related to the right to work in relation with the executive and the legislature. It appears that while constitutionally the Court is granted with a strong form of judicial review (as reflected in the finality of its decisions), it also employed other approaches in deciding cases related to the right to work. These approaches include the declaration of incompatibility, conditional decision, and the invalidation of a statute in its entirety. This paper argues that Katharine G. Young’s typology of judicial review is quite helpful as an interpretive tool to understand the Court approaches when it decided cases related the right to work. The use of various approaches by the Court affected the relationship between the Court, the executive, and the legislature. This is because the executive and the legislature are the implementing agencies of the Court rulings.

A Commentary: the Inadmissibility of Non-Indonesian Citizens in Judicial Review before the Indonesian Constitutional Court

Mahendra, Bayu

Constitutional Review Vol 3, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia

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Abstract

The Constitutional Court of Indonesia, in its judgment No 2-3/PUU—V/2007, ruled that non-Indonesian citizens have no legal standing to file judicial review before the Court. In determining the legal standing, the Court rejected applicants’ constitutional loss which should actually serve as the substantial examination in judicial review but rather addressed this question on the basis of applicant’s citizenship. This inadmissibility ruling, however, raises question on what legal standing actually mean in the context of judicial review. This paper reviews the Court’s consideration in determining legal standing status and examines future legal consequences of such reasoning. By revisiting the substance of legal standing and judicial review derived from the 1945 Constitution, relevant Statutes, Court’s practices and case law, as well as the dissenting opinion of the judges in this case, it is found that the Court overruled the substance to procedural examination on the basis of citizenship and therefore failed to address the actual question of legal standing. This paper concludes that the Court’s reasoning has abandoned the constitutional loss as the very substance of legal standing and to which amounts to immunity of legal standing provision from a judicial review. Consequently, non-Indonesian citizens will never be recognized in judicial review mechanism before the Indonesian Constitutional Court.