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INTEGRITAS
ISSN : 2477118X     EISSN : -
Terbit sejak 2015, Jurnal Antikorupsi INTEGRITAS (p-ISSN: 2477-118X; e-ISSN: 2615-7977) merupakan jurnal yang menyebarluaskan hasil penelitian atau kajian konseptual tentang korupsi dan subyek yang berelasi dengan korupsi. Jurnal Antikorupsi INTEGRITAS terbit dua nomor dalam setahun ditujukan untuk kalangan pakar, akademisi, peneliti, praktisi, penyelenggara negara, pegiat antikorupsi, dan masyarakat pada umumnya.
Articles
64
Articles
Formularium Nasional (FORNAS) dan e-Catalogue Obat Sebagai Upaya Pencegahan Korupsi dalam Tata Kelola Obat Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN)

Winda, Syahdu Winda

INTEGRITAS Vol 4 No 2 (2018): INTEGRITAS Volume 04 Nomor 2 Tahun 2018
Publisher : KOMISI PEMBERANTASAN KORUPSI

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Abstract

In the National Health Insurance (JKN), drug governance have to implement quality control and cost control. The Government has published the National Formulary (FORNAS) as quality control and e-catalogue as price control. FORNAS and e-catalogue are expected to minimize corruption practices in drug prescription and drug procurement. Quality and cost effective drugs have been selected in FORNAS. Use of drug and restrictions are also regulated for each level of health facilities to avoid irrational using. FORNAS is expected to reduce corruption by eliminating bribery/gratification practices to doctors/hospitals by pharmaceutical companies. On the other hand, the corruption holes in the procurement are tried to be reduced through the e-catalogue system. A number of drugs needed have been tendered and negotiated by LKPP at the best price in e-catalogue. Health facilities can carry out drug procurement quickly and transparently without auction process. But in the process of applying FORNAS and e-catalogue as quality control, cost control and to minimize corruption, there are still problems that have not yet been able to reach their goals optimally. Mismatch number of drugs and item of drugs in FORNAS and e-catalogue, differences of drug lists in FORNAS with the Clinical Practice Guidelines (PPK), the absence of rules governing the minimum percentage of FORNAS in Hospital formularies, delays in drug display processes in e-catalogs and weaknesses in e-catalogue application is a series of problems that still hamper FORNAS and e-catalogue as solutions to prevent corruption in JKN drug governance. Relevant agencies (Ministry of Health and LKPP) need to make improvements in the form of regulations that encourage FORNAS compliance at each of the health facility level, fulfillment of FORNAS drug items in e-catalogue, availability of FORNAS in e-catalogue in early year and improvement of e-catalogue application features.

Vulnerabilities of Indonesia’s Extractive Industry to Illicit Financial Flows

Oley, Jimmy Daniel Berlianto, Adi, Yerikho Setyo

INTEGRITAS Vol 4 No 2 (2018): INTEGRITAS Volume 04 Nomor 2 Tahun 2018
Publisher : KOMISI PEMBERANTASAN KORUPSI

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Abstract

Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan kerentanan tata kelola industri ekstraktif di Indonesia terhadap illicit financial flows. Penelitian sebelumnya mengemukakan bahwa industri ekstraktif adalah salah satu aktor utama dalam illicit financial flows. Dalam kasus Indonesia, pada tahun 2004-2013 Global Financial Integrity (GFI) memasukkan Indonesia dalam 10 negara berkembang dengan nilai illicit financial flows tertinggi. Artikel ini mencoba menjelaskan hakikat illicit financial flows pada industri ekstraktif, penyebab industri ekstraktif di Indonesia rentan terhadap illicit financial flows, dan rekomendasi dalam menyelesaikan permasalahan ini. Setidaknya terdapat dua hakikat illicit financial flows pada industri ekstraktif, dipicu oleh perilaku rent-seeking dan dinamika harga komoditas. Artikel ini juga menemukan bahwa ada tiga sumber peraturan yang rentan untuk mengakomodir perilaku rent-seeking yang secara langsung maupun tidak langsung mempengaruhi illicit financial flows, yaitu pengumpulan data pendapatan yang berbeda, arm’s length measurement pada penegakan yang rentan, dan skema cost recovery. Selain itu konteks multi-level governance yang ditunjukkan oleh kebijakan desentralisasi sumber daya alam di Indonesia juga memperlebar celah bagi illicit financial flows.

Korupsi Berjamaah: Konsensus Sosial atas Gratifikasi dan Suap

Mapuasari, Supeni Anggraeni, Mahmudah, Hadi

INTEGRITAS Vol 4 No 2 (2018): INTEGRITAS Volume 04 Nomor 2 Tahun 2018
Publisher : KOMISI PEMBERANTASAN KORUPSI

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Abstract

This research examines the theoretical foundation on the proposition that corruption is getting massive because of supporting social consensus on it. The researchers are using several theories to build a solid argument on the possible prevention done by social consensus. By using issue contingent model, the theory of delinquency, and advanced enlargement of fraud triangle, it brings literature contributions on how environment either can support gratification or able to prevent it. Issue contingent model stated that the environment influences the ethical decision making of people. Meaning to say, when the environment perceives that gratification is tolerated and ethical, civil servants and citizens practice it without any guilty feeling. This prejudice is supported by fraud triangle which mentioned the influence of rationalization on ethical decision making. Rationalisation can be sourced from either internal rationalization or external environment. Long years before fraud triangle was introduced, theory from psychology research has thoroughly explained the logical reasoning of fraud and how people neutralized it. The way people neutralized the wrongdoings generally become right is essential to be understood. Thus, it will be dangerous if gratification is supported by social consensus that it is normal and fine. If that happens, civil servants will have no guilt to accept it, while citizens will keep giving it. This phenomenon is counterproductive towards the effort to eradicate corruption. The Indonesian government should eradicate corruption from the root causes. Preventive actions are needed absolutely. This article is aimed to convince the Government and Public on the scientific reasoning of gratification and bribery in a social context. Keywords: bribery, gratification, social consensus.

Pembuktian Kesalahan Korporasi dalam Tindak Pidana Korupsi

Satria, Hariman Satria

INTEGRITAS Vol 4 No 2 (2018): INTEGRITAS Volume 04 Nomor 2 Tahun 2018
Publisher : KOMISI PEMBERANTASAN KORUPSI

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Abstract

In Indonesia there are 2 court decisions related to the punishment of corporation crimes in corruption, namely the Decision of PT GJW and the Decision of PT CND. In both decisions, the corporation mens rea is proven to be subject to criminal accountability. This study focuses on ways to prove corporation mens rea in corruption. To unravel the problem, this study uses a normative research method with two approaches namely the case approach and the conceptual approach. The results of the study: first, determining corporation mens rea, focus on mistakes made by corporation administrators, such as directors, so that the director's mistake is also a corporation mistake. Second, if it related to the corporate criminal liability theory, in the two corruption cases has adopted the theory of identification. Third, acts against the law that are detrimental to state finances and carried out by directors as administrators are considered the same as those carried out by corporations. Fourth, regarding the principal penalties, in two sentences is the same, namely fine. Fifth, in the decision of PT GJW the corporation is still subject to additional penalties in the form of closing all or part of the company. Whereas in the decision of PT CND, there is no additional penalties imposed on the defendant. Sixth, both of those decisions, do not contain additional penalties in the form of substitute money payments, even though as is known that one way to recover losses in state finances is through the payment of compensation.

Manajemen Kinerja di Otoritas Anti Korupsi : Studi Kasus Indonesia dan Swedia

Sativa, Oryza, Daskalakis, Christos

INTEGRITAS Vol 4 No 2 (2018): INTEGRITAS Volume 04 Nomor 2 Tahun 2018
Publisher : KOMISI PEMBERANTASAN KORUPSI

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Abstract

Makalah ini menginvestigasi bagaimana Anti-Corruption Authorities (ACA) menggunakan pengukuran kinerja untuk meningkatkan manajemen kinerja. Kerangka penelitian telah dikembangkan dari Ferreira dan Otley (2009). Para penulis menggunakan metodekualitatif dengan beberapa studi kasus sebagai perbandingan. Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi dan Swedish National Anti-Corruption Unit dipilih sebagai sampel penelitian. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa kedua otoritas memiliki sistem manajemen kinerja dan pengukuran kinerja yang sangat berbeda. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari penggunaan indikator kinerja dan fungsinya di pengendalian manajemen serta pengaturan target, evaluasi kinerja, dan penghargaan.

Politik, Patronase dan Pengadaan

Widoyoko, Johanes Danang

INTEGRITAS Vol 4 No 2 (2018): INTEGRITAS Volume 04 Nomor 2 Tahun 2018
Publisher : KOMISI PEMBERANTASAN KORUPSI

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Abstract

The government and international institutions encourage to use electronic procurement as a strategy to curb corruption. However, based on the contemporary corruption case in Indonesia, reform in public procurement is unable to stop corruption. Instead of curbed, corruption transforms into a new form that adherence to the reformed regulation in public procurement. Examining the corruption case in the construction of athlete housing and investigating the historical aspect of public procurement in Indonesia, I argue that the fundamental problem lies in the political patronage as the main strategy of political leaders to build and to maintain their social base. Reform in public procurement, as well as anti-corruption measures, are insufficient to address the problem.

Hak Angket DPR, KPK dan Pemberantasan Korupsi

Susanto, Mei

INTEGRITAS Vol 4 No 2 (2018): INTEGRITAS Volume 04 Nomor 2 Tahun 2018
Publisher : KOMISI PEMBERANTASAN KORUPSI

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Abstract

A decision of the Constitutional Court Number 36/PUU-XV/2017 to examine the constitutionality of the object of House of Representatives inquiry to the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) raises various kinds of problems and legal debates, especially whether it can the use of the House's inquiry to the KPK as an independent state institution. The problem in this research is whether the consideration of Constitutional Justice in the Decision has proper to the KPK as the object of the House's inquiry? How does the implication of the Decision relate to the use of the House's inquiry to the KPK against corruption eradication? This study is a doctrinal research, using primary and secondary legal materials, in the form of legislation, literature and research results to the object of research. The research concludes, firstly, the consideration of Constitutional Court Justices in particular the consideration of 5 Constitutional Court Justices on the Decision is not proper to place the KPK as the object of House's inquiry because its consideration has no consistency, especially on the independent meaning of KPK by saying KPK's position is in the executive sphere, so that does not mean making the KPK is not independent and free from any influence. Such considerations are not consistent but also accompanied by not disseminating the meaning of "important, strategic, and broad-based" as a criterion for the use of the House's inquiry. Second, the implication of the Decision on the use of the House's inquiry against the KPK is that it can disrupt the KPK's independence status in the context of eradicating corruption. The use of the DPR's inquiry right to the KPK excessively without certain limits can obstruct and politicization of corruption eradication cases handled by the KPK. Therefore, it is necessary to affirm the limitation of the use of the House's inquiry especially to the duty of KPK in the judicial field, as well as the self-restraint of the House's inquiry committees not to enter the limits set by law.

Korporasi Indonesia Melawan Korupsi: Strategi Pencegahan

susanti, dwi siska, Sarah, Nadia, Hilimi, Nurindah

INTEGRITAS Vol 4 No 2 (2018): INTEGRITAS Volume 04 Nomor 2 Tahun 2018
Publisher : KOMISI PEMBERANTASAN KORUPSI

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Abstract

According to the corruption cases reports, survey and research has shown that private sector or corporation is not only a victim of corrupted system in Indonesia, but also itself as an actor who commited to corruption. Therefore, a corporation shall actively contribute in preventing corruption. The anti-corruption preventing practices has commonly impelemented in several countries which potentially to be implemented as well in Indonesia with adjustment in Indonesia’s context. This paper is aims to enrich research and study on corruption prevention strategy by private sector/corporation that could contribute to the national corruption prevention strategy. This paper discussion is fall into three parts. First, to examine the anticorruption policy and regulation in relevant for corporation. Second, to identify how a corporation implement an anti-corruption program. Third, to identify how a corporation could maintain the effectiveness of its anti-corruption program.

Pertanggungjawaban Pidana Partai Politik sebagai Badan Hukum dalam Tindak Pidana Korupsi

Wangga, Maria Silvya

INTEGRITAS Vol 4 No 2 (2018): INTEGRITAS Volume 04 Nomor 2 Tahun 2018
Publisher : KOMISI PEMBERANTASAN KORUPSI

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Abstract

Political parties are means for citizens to take part or participate in the process of state management. However, if delivered by individual, such participation is sometimes neglected or unheard of and therefore it is channeled, accommodated and processed through political parties. Many irregularities take place at the level of budget policy which allegedly harm the state and bring about economic loss, thus meet the formulation of norms of corruption. Problems in this research are (1). Why political parties, as legal entities, can be accounted for in the criminal act of corruption? (2). What form of accountability of political parties in criminal act of corruption? As legal entities,political parties can be held accountable for criminal corruption based on the formulation of norms established in the national context, and on sociological tendencies which reflect the act of corruption or its impact. The basic criminal liability is in the form of fines and additional criminal penalty which is difficult and weak in practice. This research uses socio-legal approach.Law enforcers are able to carry out the formulation of norms of accountability for criminal acts of corruption of political parties as legal entities, as well as take into consideration on the action/effects of corruption. Encourage the parliament to immediately ratify the R-Criminal Code which has established the doctrine of vicarious liability to support law enforcement in the future. Recommend the renewal of basic criminal formulation against political parties outside of criminal penalties.

Eksistensi Pemberantasan Korupsi dalam Perjanjian investasi Internasional di Indonesia

Widyaningrum, Hesti

INTEGRITAS Vol 4 No 2 (2018): INTEGRITAS Volume 04 Nomor 2 Tahun 2018
Publisher : KOMISI PEMBERANTASAN KORUPSI

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Abstract

The International Investment Agreements can actually weaken the existence of law enforcement in Indonesia over the eradication of corruption. Surely, an International Investment Agreementa in Indonesia should include a prohibition of corruption in pre, post and International Investment Agreements as India did in their model Bilateral Investment Treaties (BIT). In addition, Investors can sue the State for corruption law enforcement against him, through legal gap in fair n Equitable Treatment (FET) content on the grounds of "denial of justice." Futhermore, Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) mechanism content further strengthens Investor positions in International Arbitration, because only Investors can sue countries with compensation of up to billions of dollars. As a result, the State losses become 2 (two) times, the losses incurred by the act of corruption committed by the defendant and the cost of the case in International Arbitration. Similarly, Indonesia should also immediately adopt the FET concept in the Indonesia-New Model BIT where this content limits Investors to sue the State even in criminal law enforcement.