IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies
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Articles
21
Articles
Jathilan Horse Dance: Spirit Possession Beliefs and Practices in The Present-Day Java

Rapoport, Eva

IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 2, No 1 (2018): July
Publisher : Center for Southeast Asian Social Studies (CESASS)

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Abstract

Jathilan is one of the names for traditional Javanese trance dance which takes its roots in the most archaic levels of local culture but remains very popular nowadays. It is also described as a horse dance for the horse effigies made of woven bamboo are the hallmark props used by the performers. Horse dance is a part of the folk culture, still untouched by institutionalization or commodification; it can be performed for both ritual and entertainment purposes. Trance is its main attraction, though through the lens of local beliefs it is interpreted in terms of spirit possession thus it is understood that spirits can enter performers’ bodies and fulfill their needs while being manifest in material world, but also allow the dancers to perform various feats demonstrating invulnerability to physical harm (like eating glass, walking over hot coals, being whipped or even run over by a motorcycle).The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough description of how trance in jathilan is performed and understood, based on existing literature, practitioners’ first-hand accounts and numerous performances observed and documented; but also to consider it in the wider context of Javanese beliefs and practices involving spirits, possession, and exorcism, which persist alongside with Islam.

‘As if it Was Something Spoken by a Friend’: The Study of Digital Vote-Canvassing Networks on Facebook During the 2013 Bangkok Gubernatorial Election Campaign

Pratheepwatanawong, Mukda

IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 2, No 1 (2018): July
Publisher : Center for Southeast Asian Social Studies (CESASS)

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Abstract

Adapting the idea of the traditional vote-canvassing network for the analysis of electoral politics in the digital arena and using the concept of ‘two-steps flow’, this paper explores the way in which Facebook was used to establish and develop ‘digital vote-canvassing networks’ during the 2013 Bangkok gubernatorial election campaign, which was the latest and a completed election in Thailand. This paper attempts to answer the question ‘How was the relationship among the individuals who were part of the candidates’ networks on social networking sites developed during the 2013 Bangkok gubernatorial election campaign?’ This research used multimodal analysis to determine the two main contenders’ strategy in expanding their Facebook network during the 2013 Bangkok gubernatorial election campaign. This research also conducted a total of 14 semi-structured interviews with Thai politicians, election candidates and their public relations personnel to examine the significant of relationship, interaction and spreadability of content on SNSs during the election campaign. This paper argues that the development of relationships among people connected to the digital vote-canvassing networks was integrated through the coordination and dissemination of campaign content on Facebook to enhance the electoral ties between candidates, their followers and followers’ friends, who might or might not be voters of the election. Vote-canvassing systems become ‘digital’ when a candidate’s public relations personnel acted as core vote-canvassers who manage and transmit campaign messages on the candidate’s Facebook page on behalf of the candidate, while the candidate’s followers interacted and spread the candidate’s campaign message to their own networks, enabling more Facebook users, who are connected to candidates’ Facebook page, in one way or another, to be exposed to the campaign content. However, there is no guarantee of votes in the digital vote-canvassing network.

Asia Pacific Report: A New Zealand Nonprofit Journalism Model for Campus-Based Social Justice Media

Robie, David

IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 2, No 1 (2018): July
Publisher : Center for Southeast Asian Social Studies (CESASS)

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Abstract

For nine years, the Pacific Media Centre research and publication unit at Auckland University of Technology has published journalism with an ‘activist’ edge to its style of reportage raising issues of social justice in New Zealand’s regional backyard. It has achieved this through partnerships with progressive sections of news media and a non-profit model of critical and challenging assignments for postgraduate students in the context of coups, civil war, climate change, human rights, sustainable development and neo-colonialism.  An earlier Pacific Scoop venture (2009-2015) has morphed into an innovative venture for the digital era, Asia Pacific Report (APR) (http://asiapacificreport.nz/), launched in January 2016. Amid the current global climate of controversy over ‘fake news’ and a ‘war on truth’ and declining credibility among some mainstream media, the APR project has demonstrated on many occasions the value of independent niche media questioning and challenging mainstream agendas. In this article, a series of case studies examines how the collective experience of citizen journalism, digital engagement and an innovative public empowerment journalism course can develop a unique online publication. The article traverses some of the region’s thorny political and social issues—including the controversial police shootings of students in Papua New Guinea in June 2016.

History of Rakhine State and the Origin of the Rohingya Muslims

Mohajan, Haradhan Kumar

IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 2, No 1 (2018): July
Publisher : Center for Southeast Asian Social Studies (CESASS)

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Abstract

The Rohingya, a Muslim ethnic minority group in Rakhine, are considered among the most persecuted, vulnerable, and oppressed minorities in the world. Recently, the persecution on the Rohingya Muslims has increased due to Buddhist nationalism in Myanmar. The Rohingya continue to suffer from several forms of restrictions and human rights violations in Myanmar due to them being denied Myanmar citizenship. They are victims of various forms of oppression, such as arbitrary taxation, land confiscation, destruction of mosques, torture and ill-treatment, extrajudicial executions, restrictions on movements, forced eviction and house destruction, forced laborers on roads and at military camps, and financial restrictions on marriage. Since the 1970s, a number of crackdowns on the Rohingya in Rakhine have forced them to flee to neighboring countries. More than one million Rohingyas have migrated to refugee camps in the Bangladeshi district of Cox’s Bazar. This article deals with the origin of the Rohingya, the form of their citizenship, and recent oppression in the Rakhine State of Myanmar.

Editorial Foreword

Reid, Anthony

IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 2, No 1 (2018): July
Publisher : Center for Southeast Asian Social Studies (CESASS)

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Abstract

It is a pleasure to introduce this second issue of the enterprising new journal, IKAT: The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies.  It is breaking new ground in opening Indonesia to its region, and establishing a high standard of scholarly publication in English. It is good to see Southeast Asians taking up the challenge of understanding their own region. As the Orientalist tradition of Europe weakens, institutions and individuals in the region must take up the challenge of understanding, preserving and analyzing Southeast Asian cultures, many of them endangered. Southeast Asian Studies must return to Southeast Asia, and IKAT is certainly helping this process.

Postcolonial Hermeneutics: Concepts and Contribution to Understanding Socio-Religious Problems in Southeast Asia

Dewi, Novita

IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 2, No 1 (2018): July
Publisher : Center for Southeast Asian Social Studies (CESASS)

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Abstract

Scrutiny of unequal power-relations between the “East” and the “West” in politics, culture, economy, and various aspects of life is the concern of postcolonial studies. Foucaults concept of power is central in postcolonial theory with which Edward Said is celebrated for his dismantling of Orientalist views. Postcolonial literature, likewise, has contributed to the growth and development of postcolonial criticism. The first objective of this article is to give a brief overview of different terms attached to the word “postcolonial”, i.e. postcolonial literary criticism, postcolonial literature and postcolonial theory, since these terms enrich one another theoretically. The second objective is to discuss postcolonial hermeneutics as a reading tool to examine various mundane practices in Southeast Asian postcolonial society. The purpose is to achieve a balanced, reciprocal exchange of perspectives while providing legitimacy for alternative interpretations to the hegemony shown in “Western” discourse. Citing traditional ways of conflict resolution and eco-friendly land management as examples, this article concludes that postcolonial reading may shed light on how socio-religious conflicts, hybrid experiences of faiths, and other social practices operate and get their respective meanings in postcolonial countries across Southeast Asia.

Online Perspectives on ASEAN-Japan Relations: An Analysis of ASEAN-related Japanese Tweets

Pratidina, Indah S

IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 2, No 1 (2018): July
Publisher : Center for Southeast Asian Social Studies (CESASS)

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Abstract

ASEAN targets internal integration and strong external relations with its partner countries. Japan has stressed its long-standing support for ASEAN. The year 2013 saw the 40th anniversary of Japan-ASEAN relations when Japanese state actors put considerable efforts into marking this anniversary. Although Japan remains one of ASEANs largest trading partners and sources of foreign direct investment, recent years has witnessed power relations dynamic in the region with China and South Korea actively engaging as well. State actors’ statements and mainstream media coverage on ASEAN-Japan relations, particularly on economic and political security issues, had been the heavy focus of scholars interested in the field. An analysis of social media, and in particular Twitter, offers alternative insights for a more comprehensive observation.  The total of 3.29 million tweets containing the word “ASEAN” were collected from November 2013 to December 2015. From the dataset, it was identified that tweets using Japanese language are the third highest in volume after Indonesian and English. Content analyses were conducted to answer the questions on how ASEAN as an entity is viewed by the populations of its partner countries; which aspects of the integration project attract Twitter users’ interests also, in the relation to strong external relations that ASEAN want to pursue, which countries are mentioned in the tweets and on which aspects? Using keywords from the Blueprints of ASEAN Community’s integration aspects, the tweets were categorized as related to economics, political-security and socio-cultural topics. Countries mentioned in the dataset were counted and then categorized according to these aspects as well. The study finds economic and political-security themed tweets are the largest in volume with heavy mentioning of Japan, China and South Korea. Results suggest that online conversations about ASEAN are still strongly influenced by government and mainstream media’s agenda.

Frenemy in Media: Maritime Sovereignty and Propaganda on South China Sea

Wijaya, Lupita

IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 1, No 2 (2018): January
Publisher : Center for Southeast Asian Social Studies (CESASS)

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Abstract

When Indonesia struggles to fight illegal fishing in 2016, Indonesian Navy has caught several Chinese fishing boats in its 200-mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the Natuna Island. Although, many have trespassed Indonesia’s EEZ, conducted illegal fishing and been scuttled, China is the only country that backs up their fishermen with military forces. After Indonesia officially sent diplomatic protest note over the incident, China replied that the seizing had no official grounded as the area was actually claimed as traditional fishing ground by China. This position may leave Indonesia in frenemy position with China. Regional conflict such as South China Sea has been diligently highlighted in international coverage. If it’s about involvement of home country conflict, the concept of objectivity journalism has been under questioned. This embodied-concept has raised because of broad range of contextualization in international coverage. Interdependency between media systems and political systems interprets how propaganda influences on the media within the national interest frames of ideology, particularly when the global issue involving their home countries. There are nine propaganda techniques including name calling, glittering generalities, transfer, testimonial, plain folks, card stacking, bandwagon, frustration of scapegoat and fear. Applying comparative content analysis of Indonesian and Chinese state-run wire services of ANTARA and Xinhua, and three most popular news websites: China Daily, People’s Daily and Kompas this study identifies types of national interest frames including common, conflict, and threat interest frames. It is found out that media perform propaganda techniques which later depict the frenemy position according to their national interest frames.

Bilingual Khmer/English Literature: Contestation Practices and Strategies in the Cambodian Literary Field

Setiawan, Fransiskus Tri Wahyu

IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 1, No 2 (2018): January
Publisher : Center for Southeast Asian Social Studies (CESASS)

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Abstract

The study aims to examine how different agents namely individuals, groups, and organizations form the Cambodian literary field compete through selected practices. Certain strategies are applied in accordance to the rules of game in the literary field production. Having different habitus and capitals, agents struggle and compete for positions in the literary field. Applying literary study and classical ethnographic methods this study shows that political distance from the government in the field of cultural production allows external forces to interfere and reshape the Cambodian literary field. Agents make the structure and are structured in dynamic competition within the field. Strategies are mainly intended to create new network and to gain legitimacy, thereby accumulating capitals. Bilingual Khmer/English literature is important literary phenomenon in Cambodia as it indicates practices of contestation in response to the global field of cultural production. 

Production Shifts and Upgrading in ASEAN Automotive Production Network: Case on Toyota-led Regional Value Chains

Arfani, Riza Noer, Dewanta, Awan Setya

IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol 1, No 2 (2018): January
Publisher : Center for Southeast Asian Social Studies (CESASS)

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Abstract

The study aims at exploring the phenomenon of regional production network in ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) automotive sector/industry by employing a firm as well as macro-level analysis of data gathered through combining techniques between desk-study and a series of fieldwork. It examines patterns of production and manufacturing activities of leading Japanese automotive firms and their upgrading strategies as showcased by Toyota in an endeavor to cast the much-aspired ASEAN regional value chains (RVCs). Production shifts have been apparent as indicated in the trade patterns and trends in value added of key automotive products traded between Japan and its ASEAN partners during the past 25 years. The shifts have resulted in deepened localization of production and manufacturing activities of Japanese automotive lead firms in ASEAN countries. Such dynamic shifts, as shown especially in passenger cars and automotive parts and accessories, have further prompted upgrading efforts by the lead firms (along with their suppliers, subsidiaries, and local partners) which suggest the functioning RVCs. The upgrading embraces areas of upstream (on research, development, and design or RD&D), midstream (on production, manufacturing, and assembly) as well as downstream (on sales, marketing, and after-market) activities. Future policy outlook lays on the ability of firms and other related stakeholders in the region’s automotive sector/industry to team up in the upgrading activities and hence capture the value-added. ASEAN-Japan long and strong historical relations facilitate the enhanced collaborative automotive industrial development, particularly in the areas of technical capacity formation and supporting industries.