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The Evaluation of Substrates and Trichoderma Isolates for Cellulase Production

Anindyawati, Trisanti

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

AbstractAs higher interest was on the lignocellulose-based or second generation bioethanol production, the research was then more focused on the production of cellulase, especially on the domestic enzyme. Trichoderma sp. is considered as one of the most efficient producer of cellulase. This study was conducted to investigate the performance of Trichoderma sp. on a variety of substrates to produce cellulase. Three types of substrate variations and three types of Trichoderma sp. were used in this experiment. The substrate used were wheat bran, rice bran and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs), whereas Trichoderma sp. isolates were encoded as T004, T051 and T063. Production of cellulase was made by solid fermentation for 7 days. The analysis of cellulase activity was done by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) method for filter paper assay. The results showed that the type of substrate affected the performance of Trichoderma sp. All types of fungus produced cellulase on wheat bran substrate with activity of 0.52 FPU /ml for T004, 0.23 FPU/ml for T051 and 0.27 FPU /ml for T063. With the rice bran substrate and EFBs, only T004 could produce cellulase and the enzyme activity analyzed were 0.08 FPU /ml and 0.008 FPU/ml respectively. Optimation of the buffer addition on enzyme extraction process produces the highest activity 0.85 FPU/mL for T004 with wheat bran substrate. Keywords: cellulase, EFBs, rice bran , Trichoderma sp. , wheat bran

Antimicrobial activity of Selenium Nanoparticles synthesized by Actinomycetes isolated from Lombok Island soil samples

Ratnakomala, Shanti

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

A total of 98 actinomycetes were isolated from the soil and litter samples collected from the cacao and coffee plantation in Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara of Indonesia. These isolates were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Among 98 isolated strains, only 24 isolates showed antimicrobial activity against test microorganisms, 20.4% were active against Bacillus subtilis BTCC B-612, 14.3% against Staphylococcus aureus BTCC B-611, and 5.1% against Escherichia coli BTCC B-609. Of these 24 isolates, 3 were found to be able to grow in medium containing 3 mM Selenium oxide and the culture were changed color to red. Two of the best strains, L-155 and L-156, were selected for assessing production of Selenium nanoparticles. Bioreduction of selenium nanoparticles was confirmed by UVvisible spectrophotometer that showed the peak between 300 and 320 nm. Biosynthesized selenium nanoparticle from isolate actinomycetes L-155 and L-156 were found to have a broad spectrum of activity against the tested microorganisms Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Candida albicans. The study shows the rapid and eco-friendly synthesis of selenium nanoparticles from soil actinomycetes. Most of these active isolates showed to possessed antibacterial property.Keywords: Lombok Island, actinomycetes, selenium nanoparticles, antimicrobial activity

Exploring the Acetone Evaporation and Airborne Neurotoxicity Bioassay against Adult Mosquito in the Enclosed Environment of Peet Grady Chamber

KAMALDIN, JAHANGIR

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

Mosquito has comprehensive and sensitive olfactory neuro-sensory located at antenna utilized for detecting airborne organic compounds in search of blood host. Mosquito is also known to have similar neurotransmitters function with human at neural synapses e.g. acetylcholinesterase, esterases and oxidases enzymes. Thus, there is potential use mosquito in predicting neurotoxicity of exogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) e.g. manufactured acetone. Hence, the study evaluates the suitability to conduct bioassay of VOC neurotoxicity against mosquito in Peet Grady chamber that is commonly used for insecticidal bioassay. Acetone as the representative of VOC is easily evaporized at laboratory temperature of 26 to 29 °C without heating. The acetone evaporation profile on liquid surface and porous solid surface under the Peet Grady chamber is studied to ascertain the consistency of vaporization rate with homogenized distribution. The study showed the acetone has shown consistent vaporization rate of 23 mg/min from liquid surface and 116.3 mg/min from porous surface (filter paper) without heating, in a linear regression of very high positive correlation (r = 1.000) between time and mass of acetone vaporized. However, the non-homogenized distribution of acetone vapours in the Peet Grady chamber directly affected the accuracy to elucidate the neurotoxicity bioassay against mosquito in term of mosquito knockdown. The study suggests the positioning of mosquitoes in the Peet Grady chamber should be lower than the point of acetone vaporization, whereby the mosquitoes are knockdown by acetone vapours within the 20th minute upon reaching concentration of 170.3 to 196.1 ppm.

Isolation of Endophytic Fungus QPS 05 from Quercus phillyraeoides A. Gray Having Potent ?-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity

Indrianingsih, Anastasia Wheni

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

Endophytic fungi are the microorganisms that spend all or part of their life cycles within plant tissue without causing harmful effecs on the plant. In this study, several endophytic fungi for Q. phillyraeoides A. Gray were isolated. Alternaria sp QPS 05, an endophytic fungus isolated from the stem of Quercus phillyraeoides A. Gray showed the highest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Further separation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus led to the isolation of active constituent, fatty acids (1), with strong inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase. Isolated fatty acids (1) had inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against from Saccharomyces cerevisiae of 12.10 g/mL. The results of the present study showed that endophytic fungus Alternaria sp QPS 05 are potentially a rich source of natural antidiabetic medicine.

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inajac, Inajac

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

Preparation and Characterization of Polyhedral Octaphenylsilsesquioxane Modified Castor oil based Polyurethane

Wen, Yue, Jiang, Pingping, Huang, Jie, Haryono, Agus, Deng, Jianneng, Cao, Zhiliang

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

Vegetable oil-based polyurethanes were synthesized using castor oil (CO) as feedstock, which were characterized by their environmental friendly and renewable properties. Aiming to compensate for shortcomings of these materials, a series of polyurethane/polyhedral octaphenylsilsesquioxane (OPS) hybrids with different OPS contents were prepared by physical mixing in the solutions. Thereafter?chemical structure?morphology and thermal properties of hybrids were characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), tensile test techniques and static contact angle. The results show that the hybrid polyurethanes display both enhanced glass transition temperatures (Tg), initial decomposition temperature (Td5) and tensile strength with low OPS contents. While with high contents?these values decline with the severe aggregation of nano-particles as shown in the SEM images. Meanwhile, the hybrid polyurethanes displayed enhanced surface hydrophobicity as the contact angle with water revealed

PREFACE, EDITORIAL BOARD, TABLE OF CONTENT AND LIST OF ABSTRACT

inajac, Inajac

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

Analysis of Learning Problems in Chemistry at Eria Medan Private High School

Utami, Rafika

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the learning process and to analyze the problem of learning chemistry in senior high school. The approach used was a qualitative approach. This mini research has been done at Eria Medan Private Senior High School in 2017 year. The selection of research subjects was done by purposive sampling of students Mathematic and Natural Science 1 grade XI as many as 35 students. Data were collected using observation sheet to measure teacher activities. Then, students responses were measured using a questionnaire. The result show that there are some problems that become inhibiting in learning process. only 37,14 % students who are happy to complete or practice with questions and 42.85% of students are actively involved in the learning process. In addition, 80% of students stated that the chemistry books used were less interesting and only 20% of students stated their chemistry book was interesting to read.This study also found that there are misconception in teaching concept in matter of chemical equilibrium.

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inajac, Inajac

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (48.994 KB)

Abstract

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Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 19, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (381.031 KB)

Abstract