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The Evaluation of Substrates and Trichoderma sp. Isolates for Cellulase Production

Triwahyuni, Eka, Aristiawan, Yosi, Ariani, Novita, Abimanyu, Haznan, Anindyawati, Trisanti

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

AbstractAs higher interest was on the lignocellulose-based or second generation bioethanol production, the research was then more focused on the production of cellulase, especially on the domestic enzyme. Trichoderma sp. is considered as one of the most efficient producer of cellulase. This study was conducted to investigate the performance of Trichoderma sp. on a variety of substrates to produce cellulase. Three types of substrate variations and three types of Trichoderma sp. were used in this experiment. The substrate used were wheat bran, rice bran and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs), whereas Trichoderma sp. isolates were encoded as T004, T051 and T063. Production of cellulase was made by solid fermentation for 7 days. The analysis of cellulase activity was done by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) method for filter paper assay. The results showed that the type of substrate affected the performance of Trichoderma sp. All types of fungus produced cellulase on wheat bran substrate with activity of 0.52 FPU /ml for T004, 0.23 FPU/ml for T051 and 0.27 FPU /ml for T063. With the rice bran substrate and EFBs, only T004 could produce cellulase and the enzyme activity analyzed were 0.08 FPU /ml and 0.008 FPU/ml respectively. Optimation of the buffer addition on enzyme extraction process produces the highest activity 0.85 FPU/mL for T004 with wheat bran substrate. Keywords: cellulase, EFBs, rice bran , Trichoderma sp. , wheat bran

Antimicrobial Activity of Selenium Nanoparticles Synthesized by Actinomycetes Isolated from Lombok Island Soil Samples

Ratnakomala, Shanti, Sari, Nurul Fitri, Fahrurrozi, Fahrurrozi, Lisdiyanti, Puspita

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

AbstractA total of 98 actinomycetes were isolated from the soil and litter samples collected from the cacao and coffee plantation in Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. These isolates were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Among 98 isolated strains, only 24 isolates showed antimicrobial activity against test microorganisms of which 20.4% were active against Bacillus subtilis BTCC B-612, 14.3% against Staphylococcus aureus BTCC B-611, and 5.1% against Escherichia coli BTCC B-609. Out of these 24 isolates, 3 were found to be able to grow in medium containing 3 mM Selenium oxide of which the culture were changed color to red. Two of the best strains, L-155 and L-156, were selected for assessing production of Selenium nanoparticles. Bioreduction of selenium nanoparticles was confirmed by UV–visible spectrophotometer which showed peak between 300 and 320 nm. Biosynthesized selenium nanoparticle from isolate actinomycetes L-155 and L-156 were found to have a broad spectrum of activity against the tested microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Candida albicans. This study showed rapid and eco-friendly synthesis of selenium nanoparticles from soil actinomycetes. Most of these active isolates revealed to possess antibacterial property.

Exploring the Acetone Evaporation and Airborne Neurotoxicity Bioassay against Adult Mosquito in the Enclosed Environment of Peet Grady Chamber

Kamaldin, Jahangir, Jaal, Zairi

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

Mosquito has comprehensive and sensitive olfactory neuro-sensory located at antenna utilized for detecting airborne organic compounds in search of blood host. Mosquito is also known to have similar neurotransmitters function with human at neural synapses e.g. acetylcholinesterase, esterases and oxidases enzymes. Thus, there is potential use mosquito in predicting neurotoxicity of exogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) e.g. manufactured acetone. Hence, the study evaluates the suitability to conduct bioassay of VOC neurotoxicity against mosquito in Peet Grady chamber that is commonly used for insecticidal bioassay. Acetone as the representative of VOC is easily evaporized at laboratory temperature of 26 to 29 °C without heating. The acetone evaporation profile on liquid surface and porous solid surface under the Peet Grady chamber is studied to ascertain the consistency of vaporization rate with homogenized distribution. The study showed the acetone has shown consistent vaporization rate of 23 mg/min from liquid surface and 116.3 mg/min from porous surface (filter paper) without heating, in a linear regression of very high positive correlation (r = 1.000) between time and mass of acetone vaporized. However, the non-homogenized distribution of acetone vapours in the Peet Grady chamber directly affected the accuracy to elucidate the neurotoxicity bioassay against mosquito in term of mosquito knockdown. The study suggests the positioning of mosquitoes in the Peet Grady chamber should be lower than the point of acetone vaporization, whereby the mosquitoes are knockdown by acetone vapours within the 20th minute upon reaching concentration of 170.3 to 196.1 ppm.

Isolation of Endophytic Fungi QPS 05 from Quercus phillyraeoides A. Gray and Its Potential for α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity

Indrianingsih, Anastasia Wheni, Prihantini, Amalia Indah, Tachibana, Sanro

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

AbstractEndophytic fungi are the microorganisms that spend all or part of their life cycles within plant tissue without causing harmful effects on the plant. In this study, 14 endophytic fungus from Quercus phillyraeoides A. Gray were isolated. Alternaria sp. QPS 05, an endophytic fungi which was isolated from the stem of Q. phillyraeoides A. Gray showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Further separation of ethyl acetate extract from the fungus led to the isolation of active substance from hexane-soluble fraction which give fatty acids mixture consist of palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid (1) strong inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. Isolated fatty acids (1) had inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against Saccharomyces cerevisiae was 12.10 μg/mL. The results of the present study showed that endophytic fungus from Alternaria sp. QPS 05 potentially contained a rich source of natural antidiabetic medicine.

Preparation and Characterization of Polyhedral Octaphenylsilsesquioxane Modified Castor oil based Polyurethane

Wen, Yue, Jiang, Pingping, Huang, Jie, Haryono, Agus, Deng, Jianneng, Cao, Zhiliang

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

Vegetable oil-based polyurethanes were synthesized using castor oil (CO) as feedstock, which were characterized by their environmental friendly and renewable properties. Aiming to compensate for shortcomings of these materials, a series of polyurethane/polyhedral octaphenylsilsesquioxane (OPS) hybrids with different OPS contents were prepared by physical mixing in the solutions. Thereafter?chemical structure?morphology and thermal properties of hybrids were characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), tensile test techniques and static contact angle. The results show that the hybrid polyurethanes display both enhanced glass transition temperatures (Tg), initial decomposition temperature (Td5) and tensile strength with low OPS contents. While with high contents?these values decline with the severe aggregation of nano-particles as shown in the SEM images. Meanwhile, the hybrid polyurethanes displayed enhanced surface hydrophobicity as the contact angle with water revealed

PREFACE, EDITORIAL BOARD, TABLE OF CONTENT AND LIST OF ABSTRACT

inajac, Inajac

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

Analysis of Learning Problems in Chemistry at Eria Medan Private High School

Utami, Rafika

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the learning process and to analyze the problem of learning chemistry in senior high school. The approach used in this study was a qualitative approach. This mini research was conducted at Eria Medan Private Senior High School in 2017. Research subjects were selected by purposive sampling of 35 Mathematic and Natural Science 1, students grade XI. Data were collected and recorded using observation sheet to measure teacher activities. Students responses were obtained using a questionnaire. The result identified some problems that may inhibit the learning process. Only 37,14 % students were happy to complete or practice with questions and 42.85% of students are actively involved in the learning process. In addition, 80% of students stated that the chemistry books used were less interesting and only 20% of students stated their chemistry book was interesting to read.This study also found that there are misconceptions in teaching concept in the subject of chemical equilibrium.

PREFACE, EDITORIAL BOARD, TABLE OF CONTENT AND LIST OF ABSTRACT

-, -

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 19, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

Briquettes from Tobacco Stems as the New Alternative Energy

Indahsari, Okta Prima

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 19, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

Tobacco briquettes is the new alternative energy developed in PTPerkebunan Nusantara X (PTPN X). The tobacco briquettes research isimportant for PTPN X because of three reasons: high availability of theraw material, it can be used as substitution for coal briquettes, andexpected for industrial scale. Currently, many researches have beenconducted for biomass-briquettes but only few who used tobacco. PTPN Xhave been cultivated tobacco only for its leaves which latter used for cigarand the rests were thrown as waste. By conducting the tobacco briquettesresearch, many forms of utilization are expected. For short term, the aimof this research is generating a diversification of added value - producfrom tobacco. For middle term, PTPN X is expected to be the role modelfor the tobacco growers. For long term, PTPN Xl’s goal is to decreasecoal briquettes usage and break the negative stigma of tobacco.Briquetting process was conducted in Physical Laboratory of TobaccoResearch of Jember and the observation located in Tobacco ProcessingBarn of Ajong Gayasan PTPN X. Analysis of proximate test showed thatthe moisture content of tobacco briquettes with cassava starch as adhesivewas 8.00 to 8.97%, the volatile matter was 49.60 to 41.13%, the ashcontent was 9.93 to 7.89%, the fixed carbon was 32.47% to 42.01%, thesulphur content was 1.02 to 0.49%, the bulk density was from 0.35% to0.41%, the calorific value was from 4,285 to 4,586 cal/gr, and flammableduration was from 592 to 697 minutes. The briquetting process did notaffect the taste of leaves as cigar material.

Degradation of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) in Super-Critical Organic Solvents Affecting the Chemicals Distribution of Bio-Oil

Sarwono, Rakhman, Saepulloh, Saepulloh, Brayen, Brayen, Andreas, Andreas, Maryani, Yeyen

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia Vol 19, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

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Abstract

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) in different organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, toluene and hexane) to produce bio-oil were comparatively investigated. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave at different temperature of 300, 350 and 400 oC with a fixed solid/liquid ratio of 4 gram in 50 mL solvent, without catalysts and reaction time of 5 hours. The liquid products were analyzed using GCMS to determine the chemical composition. Result showed that the chemical compositions were greatly affected by the solvent types. Each solvent has a major component in bio-oil products. The major compounds resulted from methanol and ethanol solvent were ketones/others. The major compounds resulted from toluene and hexane solvents were organic acid, which favoured high temperature. Meanwhile, esters and organic acid were the major products from acetone solvents. Temperature operation resulted more variations in the chemical composition and the percentages of the bio-oil.