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Tropical Animal Science Journal
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Articles 39 Documents
Rapid and Simultaneous Determination of Feed Nutritive Values by Means of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Samadi, Samadi; Wajizah, S.; Munawar, A. A.
Tropical Animal Science Journal Vol 41, No 2 (2018): Tropical Animal Science Journal
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1796.621 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2018.41.2.121

Abstract

Feed plays a significant role in livestock production worldwide. Digestibility of feed such as in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) as well as the fractions of crude fiber such as neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) can be used as indicators of feed quality. To determine these nutritive parameters, several methods based on solvent extraction and other laboratory analyses are widely employed which are normally time consuming and may cause pollution since this analysis involves chemical materials. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is one of rapid alternative methods that can be considered to be applied due to its advantages. Therefore, the main objective of this present study is to apply NIRS in determining IVDMD, IVOMD, NDF, and ADF of animal feed samples simultaneously. Reflectance spectra were acquired for animal feed samples in wavelength range from 1000 to 2500 nm. Actual quality and nutritive values were measured by standard laboratory method. Spectra data were corrected by baseline shift correction (BSC), standard normal variate (SNV), and de-trending (DT). Prediction models were developed using principal component regression. Superior results for IVDMD, IVOMD, and NDF predictions were achieved using SNV with correlation coefficient (r) and RPD index of 0.93 and 2.78 for IVDMD, 0.90 and 2.35 for IVOMD, and 0.89 and 2.31 for NDF, respectively. ADF nutritive value was predicted accurately using DT spectrum with r and RPD index of 0.94 and 3.00, respectively. It may be concluded that NIRS can be used and applied as a rapid and simultaneous method in determining nutritive values of feed samples.
Evaluation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculum on Production and Nutrient Content of Pennisetum purpureum Karti, P. D. M. H.; Prihantoro, I.; Setiana, M. A.
Tropical Animal Science Journal Vol 41, No 2 (2018): Tropical Animal Science Journal
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (309.486 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2018.41.2.114

Abstract

Land for forage planting is mainly on marginal land such as acid soil. However, the constraint is the low levels of phosphorus (P) that can inhibit forage production. Arbuscula mycorrhizal fungi has been known as a biological fertilizer because the fungi can help the absorption of phosphorus (P) on the root so that can improve the forage production and quality of nutrients. This study was aimed to utilize and evaluate the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculum in forage production and nutritive value of Pennisetum purpureum. The experiment used a completely randomized design with two factors (2 x 4) and 4 replications. The first factor was type of AMF inoculum (A and B) and the second factor was doses of AMF (D1= 0.5 kg/planting hole, D2= 1 kg/planting hole, D3= 1.5 kg/planting hole, and D4= 2 kg/planting hole). Control treatment was carried out separately. The result showed that the highest shoot dry weight production was on AD2 and significantly different (P<0.05) from BD1 and control. There was no interaction between type and dose of inoculum on shoot dry weight production and nutrition value. The inoculum A significantly increased (P<0.05) shoot dry weight production (34.04%), crude protein content (10.21%), phosphorus uptake (40%), N content (10.53%), N uptake (38.10%), and protein production (40.15%) of P. purpureum, compared to inoculum B. It can be concluded that AMF inoculum type A was the best inoculum for forage production.
Supplementation of Nigella sativa Oil and Honey Prolong the Survival Rate of Fresh and Post-Thawed Goat Sperms Shikh Maidin, M.; Padlan, M. H.; Azuan, S. A. N.; Jonit, R.; Mohammed, N. H.; Abdullah, R.
Tropical Animal Science Journal Vol 41, No 2 (2018): Tropical Animal Science Journal
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (310.628 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2018.41.2.94

Abstract

Some chemical compositions of polyphenol antioxidants found in Nigella sativa and honey have potential to protect sperm membrane from lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we study the effect of in vitro supplementation of Nigella sativa oil and honey on sperm parameters; motility, progressive score, and abnormalities in fresh and post-thawed goat semen. Pooled semen from five sexually matured males Jermasia goats between aged 2 to 3 years old, with average live weight of 35.9±5.7 kg and average body condition score (BCS) of 1.7±0.45 were used in this study. The semen were added with tris-egg yolk extender and combination of supplements (Nigella sativa oil or/and honey), and divided into groups; Control (no supplementation), Treatment 1 (0.5% v/v Nigella sativa), Treatment 2 (2% v/v honey), and Treatment 3 (0.5% v/v Nigella sativa and 2% v/v honey). All parameters of fresh semen were immediately assessed after semen collection and parameter of post-thawed semen were assessed after 48 hours (2 days) of semen cryopreservation. The fresh sperm parameters were observed at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 hours after semen collection. Results showed that the motility of fresh semen at 1.5 and 2.0 hours after collection treated with Nigella sativa oil (Group 1; 73.8% and 72.0% respectively) and honey (Group 2; 73.3% and 72.0%; respectively) were 20% (1.5 h) and 8% (2.0 h) lower than Controls (93.0% and 79.8% of motility) (P<0.05). The progressive score and sperm abnormality were not significant between groups. While, the motility of post-thawed semen was higher (P<0.05) in treatment 3 (60.33±10.08 of motility; supplemented with Nigella sativa and honey) compare to Controls (24.33±8.17 of motility) at 0 and 0.5 hour after thawing. Thus, we suggested that Nigella sativa oil and honey show a potential as a supplement to goat’s extender with the ability to protect sperm membrane from damage due to oxidative stress and could prevent ice crystal formation during cryopreservation.
Association and Expression of CYP2A6 and KIF12 Genes Related to Lamb Flavour and Odour Listyarini, K.; Jakaria, Jakaria; Uddin, M. J.; Sumantri, C.; Gunawan, A.
Tropical Animal Science Journal Vol 41, No 2 (2018): Tropical Animal Science Journal
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (538.549 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2018.41.2.100

Abstract

Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily A, polypeptide 6 (CYP2A6) and kinesin-like protein KIF12 (KIF12) genes are predicted as candidate genes which play important roles in lamb flavour and odour. The aim of this study was to analyse the genotype polymorphism of CYP2A6 and KIF12 genes, to study association and expression of these genes with lamb flavour and odour. Identification of genes polymorphism and associations of CYP2A6 and KIF12 genes were performed using PCR-RFLP method and GLM analysis. The PCR-RFLP products of CYP2A6 and KIF12 were digested by restriction enzyme BsmAI and BfaI, respectively. The expression of CYP2A6 gene was performed using qRT-PCR. The results showed that the CYP2A6 and KIF12 genes were polymorphics. The CYP2A6 gene found to have two genotypes (TT and GT), whereas the KIF12 gene found to have three genotypes (CC, CT, and TT). The CYP2A6 and KIF12 genes were in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE). Association analysis showed that CYP2A6 (g.49170107 G>T) was significantly (P<0.05) associated with 3-methylindole (MI) or skatole, while KIF12 (g.9617965 C>T) was not significantly associated with lamb flavour and odour. The GT genotype exhibited a greater 3-methylindole (MI) or skatole than the TT genotype (P<0.05). The mRNA expression analysis showed that CYP2A6 mRNA expression was higher (P<0.01) in animals with the TT genotype. These results will improve the understanding of the functions of the CYP2A6 in lamb flavour and odour, especially in term of 3-methylindole (MI) or skatole compound within the liver and will shed light on CYP2A6 as a candidate in the selection of sheep with low lamb flavour and odour.
Phylogenetical Relationships between Kejobong Goat and Other Goats Based on Mt-DNA D-loop Sequence Analysis Lestari, D. A.; Purbowati, E.; Sutopo, S.; Kurnianto, E.
Tropical Animal Science Journal Vol 41, No 2 (2018): Tropical Animal Science Journal
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (616.867 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2018.41.2.85

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate phylogenetical relationships between Kejobong goat and Kacang goat as well as Etawah Grade goat using genetic diversity, haplotype, and genetic distance analysis based on D-loop sequences. A total of 76 blood samples belonged to three local goats, namely Kacang goat (KC), Etawah Grade goat (EG), and Kejobong goat (KJ). The DNA genome was extracted based on the manufacturer’s standard protocol using gSYNC DNA Mini Kit (Geneaid Biotech Ltd.) for sequence analysis control region (D-loop) in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) using specific primer. The results revealed that there were a total of 36 nucleotide substitutions, those were 1 indel (insertion or deletion), 34 haplotypes with Pi = 0.00253±0.00029 and Hd = 0.925±0.018 in three local goats, while intra-breed in this study showed Pi value of EG, KC, and KJ were 0.00452±0.00077, 0.00214±0.00028 and 0.00143±0.00018, respectively and Hd value were 0.985±0.025, 0.926±0.032, and 0.855±0.044, respectively. Genetic distances between KJ and KC, KJ and EG, and between KC and EG were 0.0018; 0.0034, and 0.0036, respectively. The highest NHap was observed in KC (17), followed by EG (15) and KJ (11); and all three local goats were in the same cluster in phylogeny tree. In conclusion, genetically, Kejobong goat is a crossbred of Kacang goat and Etawah Grade goat and has closer genetic relationships to Kacang goat than to Etawah Grade goat.
The Prediction of Prolificacy Using Linear Body Parameters and Craniometric Analysis in Etawah-Grade Does Mulyono, R. H.; Sumantri, C.; Noor, R. R.; Jakaria, Jakaria; Astuti, D. A.
Tropical Animal Science Journal Vol 41, No 2 (2018): Tropical Animal Science Journal
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (704.281 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2018.41.2.77

Abstract

Etawah-grade goat is a graded  up line between Kacang and Etawah goats, which  well adapted to Indonesia’s humid tropical climate. In order to fulfill national meat requirement, it is necessary to increase the  population by increasing prolificacy. This study was aimed to determine whether the body and head measurements of the Etawah-grade does can be used as selection criteria for  indirect selection of the litter size. The use of does at 3-4 years old (I3 dental condition) from BPTU-HPT Pelaihari and Cordero farms (51 and 55 does, respectively) were based on their specific geographical location  characteristics. The body variables were withers height, hip height, body length, chest width, chest depth, thurl width, rump length, chest girth, and cannon circumference, whereas for head variables were acrocranion–prosthion, basion–prosthion, lower jaw length, head height, tuber facial left-right, nasion–rhinion, entorbitale left-right, euryon left-right, supraorbitale left-right. Bergmann methods  were applied for measuring the differences of body and head parameters followed by the principal component, Fisher’s discriminant, and principal component regression analyzes. All regression coefficients of linear body measurementss were highly correlated to the litter size (P<0.01), with the equation was  Y= 0.015X1b + 0.011X2b + 0.025X3b - 0.002X4b + 0.022X5b + 0.010X6b + 0.022X7b + 0.030X8b + 0.026X9b.  The chest girth was the most elastic body size measurement to the litter size. The increasing of 1 cm of doe’s chest girth would result in the increase of litter size, each of 0.0545 and 0.0417 heads born-1 at  BPTU-HPT Pelaihari and Cordero farms.  Differences in head size and head shape due to the morphometric adaptations cannot be used to predict litter size.
Increasing the Quality of Agricultural and Plantation Residues using Combination of Fiber Cracking Technology and Urea for Ruminant Feeds Dewi, S. P.; Ridla, M.; Laconi, E. B.; Jayanegara, A.
Tropical Animal Science Journal Vol 41, No 2 (2018): Tropical Animal Science Journal
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1295.764 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2018.41.2.137

Abstract

This experiment aimed to evaluate the decrease of the fiber fraction of some agricultural and plantation residues after being treated with Fiber Cracking Technology (FCT) and urea. The residues included rice straw, oil palm frond (OPF), oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), cocoa pod and coffee husk. They were added with 5% urea and incubated in FCT at temperature 135oC and pressure 2.3 atm for 2.5 h. The experimental treatments were arranged as a factorial design 5 × 2, in which the first factor was various agricultural and plantation residues (rice straw, OPF, OPEFB, cocoa pod and coffee husk) and the second factor was FCT application (untreated and treated with FCT + 5% urea), performed in 4 replicates. All treatments were subjected to Van Soest analysis and in vitro digestibility test. The decrease of fiber fraction was confirmed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) methods. Results showed that FCT + 5% urea treatment decreased NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin contents of all samples (P<0.05), and increased IVDMD and IVOMD in comparison to untreated samples (P<0.05). However, the treatment did not alter in vitro methane gas production and VFA profiles of the samples. Analyses using SEM, XRD and FTIR revealed that FCT + 5% urea treatment demolished cell wall component, decreased crystallinity index and cleaved fiber bonds. It was concluded that combination between FCT and urea 5% effectively enhances the quality of some fibrous feed materials.
Dietary Supplementation of Purified Amino Acid Derived from Animal Blood on Immune Response and Growth Performance of Broiler Chicken Wandita, T. G.; Joshi, N.; Nam, I. S.; Yang, S. H.; Park, H. S.; Hwang, S. G.
Tropical Animal Science Journal Vol 41, No 2 (2018): Tropical Animal Science Journal
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (305.704 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2018.41.2.108

Abstract

The existences of protein are important to supply nutritional requirements and to support optimal growth performance in modern broiler chicken. The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of purified amino acid (PAA) isolated from animal blood on growth performance and immune response. A total of one hundred of 1-day old broiler chicken were used in the experiment, following a completely randomized design of 4 groups of treatment differed in concentrations of PAA supplementation (T1: control, no PAA addition; T2: 0.05%; T3: 0.1%; and T4: 0.5%) with 4 replicates for each group. Levels of various cytokines, such as IgA, IgG, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon γ, were analyzed using an ELISA kit. Insulin-like growth factor 1, an important growth hormone, was also examined using an ELISA kit. The present result showed feed efficiency and average daily feed intake of broiler chicken increased significantly along with increasing concentrations of PAA (P<0.05). Plasma biochemical parameters and carcass traits were affected by supplementation of PAA. Insulin growth factor-1 levels were significantly increased along with increasing concentrations (until 0.5%) of PAA (P<0.05). Inflammatory marker levels significantly differed between the control and treatment groups. These results indicate that purified amino acid isolated from animal blood affected the immune response and growth performance of broiler chicken. Furthermore, PAA can be used in feed supplementation for broiler chickens without causing health issues. It suggests that the beneficial impacts of PAA on immune responses, as well as blood characteristics, may improve broiler performance.
Nutritive and Anti-Nutritive Evaluation of Kleinhovia hospita, Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium with Respect to Their Effects on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Gas Production Ahmed, M. A.; Jusoh, S.; Alimon, A. R.; Ebrahimi, M.; Samsudin, A. A.
Tropical Animal Science Journal Vol 41, No 2 (2018): Tropical Animal Science Journal
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (479.101 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2018.41.2.128

Abstract

The nutritive and tannin content of tree forages (Kleinhovia hospita, Leucaena leucocephala, and Gliricidia sepium and their effects on in vitro rumen fermentation, digestibility and gas production were examined. Rumen fluid was obtained from three fistulated Boer goats with an average weight range of 31-32 kg fed forages. The fluid was incubated with 0.2 g of each forage at 39 °C for 48 h to determine the in vitro gas production, DM digestibility, metabolizable energy and volatile fatty acid. The proximate composition and the polyphenol composition of the forage were also evaluated. The experimental design was a completely randomized design and the treatments were K. hospita, L. leucocephala and G. sepium. The chemical composition, percentage of total polyphenol, non-tannin polyphenol, condensed tannin and hydrolysable tannin differed (P<0.05) among the forages. The K. hospita had higher (P<0.05) net gas production and in vitro dry matter digestibility compared with other forages. Similarly, K. hospita had higher (P<0.05) concentration of total volatile fatty acid and propionic acid followed by L. leucocephala and G. sepium. The molar proportion of acetic and butyric acid did not differ among the forages. The outcome of this study present K. hospita as a good potential forage to be used in ruminant diet as a result of better nutrient composition, moderate anti-nutritive value and best ivDMD in comparison with L. leucocephala and G. sepium.
Developing Sustainable Livestock Production by Feed Adequacy Map: A Case Study in Pasuruan, Indonesia Parmawati, R.; Mashudi, Mashudi; Budiarto, A.; Suyadi, Suyadi; Kurnianto, A. S.
Tropical Animal Science Journal Vol 41, No 1 (2018): Tropical Animal Science Journal
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1705.346 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/tasj.2018.41.1.67

Abstract

Feed is a main factor of sustainable livestock population, where the availability of suitable land for grass growth is urgent. Modern agriculture has dramatically reduced the diversity of forages due to the massive monoculture. This study was aimed to obtain data on the size of the existing land, distribution, potential feed production, and to obtain the carrying capacity based on feed adequacy map. The research was conducted on 6 dairy and beef cattle farms in Pasuruan Regency (7°38′S,112°54′E), East Java Province, Indonesia: Tutur, Puspo, Lumbang, Lekok, Grati, and Purwodadi. Population and distribution are represented spatially through thematic maps. The mapping using the Indonesia land-base map (Rupa Bumi Indonesia-RBI) scale 1: 25,000, GPS handsets, and surveyors. Nguling had the highest beef cattle population (15,519 AU), while Tutur had the highest dairy cattle population (22,033 AU). Farmers were able to provide feed in the form of food-crop waste. Bangil had the highest carrying capacity of feed and safe criteria followed by Pohjentrek, while Lekok, Tutur, Puspo, Lumbang, Purwosari, Nguling, and Prigen subdistricts had very critical criteria. Based on the overall feed index, Pasuruan had a vulnerable criteria. The land carrying capacity status between land availability (SL) and land requirement (DL) was deficit. Less than 15% of land had low water carrying capacity. By carrying capacity index of crops waste (CCICW), the carrying capacity of food crops was high. The land carrying capacity status was deficit.

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