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INDONESIA
TAWARIKH
Published by Minda Masagi Press
ISSN : 20850980     EISSN : -     DOI : -
This journal, with ISSN 2085-0980, was firstly published on October 28, 2009, in the context to commemorate the Youth Pledge Day in Indonesia. The TAWARIKH journal has been organized by the Lecturers of Faculty of Adab and Humanities UIN SGD (State Islamic University, Sunan Gunung Djati) in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, since issue of April 2016 to date; and published by Minda Masagi Press, a publishing house owned by ASPENSI (the Association of Indonesian Scholars of History Education) in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. The TAWARIKH journal is published every April and October. The TAWARIKH journal is devoted, but not limited to, history education, historical studies, and any new development and advancement in the field of history education and historical studies. The scope of our journal includes: (1) History Education and National Character Building; (2) Political, Social, Cultural and Educational History; (3) Education, History, and Social Awareness; (4) Economic History and Welfare State; (5) Science, Technology and Society in Historical Perspectives; (6) Religion and Philosophy in Historical Perspectives; and (7) Visual Arts, Dance, Music, and Design in Historical Perspectives.
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Articles 137 Documents
A Survey of Mongols and Their Successors Beliefs in Persian Context Alavijeh, Ali Zamani
TAWARIKH Vol 5, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : ASPENSI in Bandung, Indonesia

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ABSTRACT: What distinguishes the Old Mongols is their devotion to and love of Nature, the far-reaching scope of their spiritual awareness, unending mental curiosity and nearly limitless endurance, and quest for excellence in every endeavor. Since Genghis Khan is the founder of the Mongol nation, we use his name as a starting point, and see where we get if we try to compare the qualities of water with those of the Genghis-Khanite Mongols. Afterwards, we shall look more closely on their thoughts and beliefs. Hence, the Mongolian taboos, rules of restrictions, and unwritten law are traditions inherited not only from our ancestors, but also from the teachings of Genghis Khan, contained in the Code of Law of Great Mongolia called "Ikh Zasag", home to customs and traditions of the Mongolian tribes and nationalities. In the present paper, the author aims to clarify what code of conducts and principals did Mongols adhere themselves to and how they reacted in the face of new religions. We will shed light on Mongols unique respect to other religions and schools. Peerless freedom of religions prevailing in Mongol Empire will surprisingly shock those readers who had always visualized a savage and bloodthirsty picture of Mongols in their minds. The author will also survey their conversion to different religions and how these new systems affected their outlooks. Spiritual path of Mongols is the subject with which the reader will immediately acquaint himself. He/she will also shed light on the significance of symbolism in old Mongolia and their philosophical perspectives.  KEY WORDS: Old Mongols, Genghis Khan, code of law, devotion to and love of nature, spiritual path of Mongols, and philosophical perspectives.   About the Author: Dr. Ali Zamani Alavijeh is a Lecturer at the Department of Literature and Humanities PNU (Payame Noor University), PO Box 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran. For academic interests, the author is able to be contacted via his e-mail at: zamanialavijeh@yahoo.comHow to cite this article? Alavijeh, Ali Zamani. (2013). “A Survey of Mongols and Their Successors Beliefs in Persian Context” in TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies, Vol.5(1) October, pp.1-16. Bandung, Indonesia: ASPENSI [Asosiasi Sarjana Pendidikan Sejarah Indonesia] and UVRI [Universitas Veteran Republik Indonesia], ISSN 2085-0980.Chronicle of the article: Accepted (August 12, 2013); Revised (September 15, 2013); and Published (October 28, 2013).                                                                                
Tracing Back the Humor Style of the Eighth and Twentieth Century Texts of Abunawas Lesmana, Maman
TAWARIKH Vol 2, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : ASPENSI in Bandung, Indonesia

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ABSTRACT: This article contains responses toward opinions which say that humor by Abunawas prevailing in Indonesia is fictive and not from Arab. After analyzing texts of the eighth and twentieth century of Abunawas, it is clear that based on the aspects of fictional indications either formal or referential, ill-locution and per-locution, as well as imaginative and non imaginative, texts of Abunawas in the twentieth century is more fictive than the texts of the eighth century. In addition, this article shows that either texts of the eighth or twentieth century both contain humor and non humor. The texts that consist of joking indicate that the type of humor in the eighth century is less than the twentieth century. Based on the categorization mentioned above, this article also tries to say that humors prevailing in the eighth century texts of Abunawas are mostly classified into “superiority theories”; whilst the twentieth century texts are correspond to theories proposed by D.H. Monro (1988).KEY WORDS: Humor and non humor, Abunawas, imaginative and non imaginative, and eighth and twentieth century texts.  About the Author: Dr. Maman Lesmana is a Lecturer at the Arabic Studies Program, Department of Area Studies, Faculty of Humanities UI (University of Indonesia), UI Campus, Depok 16412, West Java, Indonesia. He can be reached at: malessutiasumarga@yahoo.com   How to cite this article? Lesmana, Maman. (2011). “Tracing Back the Humor Style of the Eighth and Twentieth Century Texts of Abunawas” in TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies, Vol.2(2) April, pp.161-174. Bandung, Indonesia: ASPENSI [Asosiasi Sarjana Pendidikan Sejarah Indonesia], ISSN 2085-0980. Chronicle of the article: Accepted (February 24, 2011); Revised (March 27, 2011); and Published (April 28, 2011).
Political Dynamics in Cirebon from the 17th to 19th Century Suparman, Suparman; Sulasman, Sulasman; Firdaus, Dadan
TAWARIKH Vol 9, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : ASPENSI in Bandung, Indonesia

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ABSTRACT: After being left by Girilaya in 1662, the situation of Cirebon was not condusive. His generation, the Prince of Wangsakerta, was in the difficult situation because he was the prisoner of Trunojoyo in Kediri. Then, he asked for help to Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa of Banten to freed and protect him. Afterward, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa inaugurated the Princes of Cirebon, namely: Syamsuddin Martawijaya as “Sultan Sepuh” or Old Sultan; Badrudin Kartawijaya as “Sultan Anom” or Young Sultan; and Pangeran Wangsakerta as “Panembahan” or Prime Minister of Carbon. After being together in Cirebon, there was quarrel though there was no civil war among them. The internal conflict of the Cirebon palace family gave chance to outside, which was VOC (Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or Dutch East India Company) to do intervention. Finally, the VOC bound Sultans of Cirebon by variety of contracts (engagement) under the cloak to make a peace either to get commercial monopoly. Since 1681, the authority of Cirebon Sultans had experienced degeneration as the impact of change had brought Dutch colonialism. Althought, the title of Sultan was still carried, the authority had been disappeared. Every decision considered important things, including the change of Sultan had to get agreement from Governor-General in Batavia or Jakarta now. At 1809, H.W. Daendels organized government reorganization by issuing ”Reglement van Bestuur voor de Cheribonsche Landen” that ended the political authority of Cirebon Sultans. KEY WORDS: Political Dynamics; Internal Conflicts; History of Cirebon Sultanates; Reorganization; Dutch Colonialism.  About the Authors: Suparman, Sulasman, and Dadan Firdaus are the Lecturers at the Faculty of Adab and Humanities UIN SGD (State Islamic University, Sunan Gunung Djati) Bandung, Jalan A.H. Nasution No.105, Cipadung, Bandung 40614, West Java, Indonesia. For academic interests, the authors are able to be contacted via e-mail at: suparmanjassin@yahoo.comRecommended Citation: Suparman, Sulasman & Dadan Firdaus. (2017). “Political Dynamics in Cirebon from the 17th to 19th Century” in TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies, Vol.9(1), October, pp.49-58. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press and UIN SGD Bandung, ISSN 2085-0980.Article Timeline: Accepted (August 20, 2017); Revised (September 30, 2017); and Published (October 28, 2017).
The Impossible is Possible: Hartarto Sastrosoenarto and Industrialization in Indonesia, 1983 – 1993 Tangkilisan, Yuda B
TAWARIKH Vol 4, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : ASPENSI in Bandung, Indonesia

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ABSTRACT: Hartarto Sastrosoenarto was an Indonesian statesman that hold some ministerial offices during the New Order and in the beginning of the Reformation era. He has a big concern for the development of industry in Indonesia. This article deals with his thoughts, experiences, achievements, and vision about how to make Indonesia as a world player in the industrial field in the future. “The impossible is possible” is his phrase that shows his optimism. From his life journey, he had a good opportunity to continue his education from ITB (Bandung Institute of Technology) to Australia. After the completion, he joined the Department of Industry. His academic background and experience brought him to run some industrial projects and then becoming the Minister of Industry in 1984. He began with the reorganization and the development of human resources. Besides, he raised such Main Strategic and Supporting Strategic Policies as a guideline to build the industry. He also paid attention to the small scale industry as the national advantage. Finally, he has a wish that Indonesia will be a world player in the international economics in the future.    KEY WORDS: Hartarto Sastrosoenarto, the impossible is possible, industrialization, world player, Indonesian nation-state.About the Author: Dr. Yuda B. Tangkilisan is a Lecturer at the Department of History, Faculty of Humanities UI (University of Indonesia), UI Campus, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. He can be reached at: yebete@yahoo.comHow to cite this article? Tangkilisan, Yuda B. (2012). “The Impossible is Possible: Hartarto Sastrosoenarto and Industrialization in Indonesia, 1983 – 1993” in TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies, Vol.4(1) October, pp.83-102. Bandung, Indonesia: ASPENSI [Asosiasi Sarjana Pendidikan Sejarah Indonesia] and UVRI [Universitas Veteran Republik Indonesia], ISSN 2085-0980. Chronicle of the article: Accepted (August 19, 2012); Revised (September 21, 2012); and Published (October 28, 2012).
Malay Emigrants and Their Islamic Mission in South Sulawesi in 16th to 17th Century Sulistyo, Bambang
TAWARIKH Vol 6, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : ASPENSI in Bandung, Indonesia

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ABSTRACT: The presence of Malay people in South Sulawesi indicated the beginning of its civilization development. They played an important role in economy, politics, and religion. The trade navigation grew, connecting South Sulawesi with other parts of the archipelago. Gowa kingdom, then Makassar, was for the first time agrarian community and eventually developed to be maritime area when Malay people were appointed as harbor masters. In sixteenth century, South Sulawesi had changed drastically and led to its culmination in seventeenth century. At this time, South Sulawesi was very dominant in political role in the archipelago and even it took over the roles which were previously played by the Western part of Indonesia. In this process, the role of Malay emigrants was very important, especially in developing civilization. Their strategies started in cultural development. In search of the early Islamization in South Sulawesi, it is not adequate to study the local condition only since Islam had developed in all over big civilized countries, such as Europe, Middle East, and Asia, included China. The navigation activities network had become global. The Islamic leaders’ authority at this time had been beyond the boundaries of the nations and even the continents. In addition to primary sources, this study also used mostly historiographical sources relating with Islamization in South Sulawesi.KEY WORDS: Malay people, emigrants, process of Islamization, Gowa kingdom, political role, developing civilization, and South Sulawesi.About the Author: Dr. Bambang Sulistyo is a Senior Lecturer at the History Department, Faculty of Humanities UNHAS (Hasanuddin University) in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. For academic purposes, he can be reached at: bambang5ulistyo@yahoo.comHow to cite this article? Sulistyo, Bambang. (2014). “Malay Emigrants and Their Islamic Mission in South Sulawesi in 16th to 17th Century” in TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies, Vol.6(1) October, pp.53-66. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press and UNHAS Makassar, ISSN 2085-0980. Chronicle of the article: Accepted (September 4, 2014); Revised (October 10, 2014); and Published (October 28, 2014).
Moral Teachings in the Manuscript of Qissatu Syam’un ibnu Khalid ibnu Walid Supriadi, Dedi
TAWARIKH Vol 7, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : ASPENSI in Bandung, Indonesia

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ABSTRACT: This article focuses on the moral teachings conveyed in the manuscript of QSKW (Qissatu Syam’un ibnu Khalid ibnu Walid or Story of Syam’un son of Khalid ibnu Walid). The manuscript of  QSKW is written in Arabic language and is a manuscript which its stories are well-known in several version in Indonesia. As a fiction work, this manuscript cannot be separated from the narrative structure building the manuscript internally. The background of the birth of Islam and the struggle of Prophet Muhammad SAW (Salallahu Alaihi Wassalam or peace be upon him) affect significantly to the narrative structure of the QSKW manuscript, including the moral teachings delivered. The moral teachings can be analyzed with the method of Roland Barthes (2009)’s semiotics, namely with looking into the manuscript narration as signs showing meanings in two levels, that is “denotative” and “connotative” meanings. The result shows that the manuscript of QSKW contains Islamic values manifested into the moral teachings based on the holy book of Al-Qur’an and Hadiths (words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad). This shows also that the QSKW manuscript is an ancient manuscripts functioning as the teaching of the Islamic values in the aspects of “tawhid” (acknowledge the oneness of God) and “akhlak” (noble character). The background of the fictional story represents spirit and persistence of the “sahabas” (companions of Prophet Muhammad) in depending Islam.  KEY WORDS: Moral teaching, Islamic old manuscript, fictional story, Islamic values, and figure of Syam’un.About the Author: Dr. Dedi Supriadi is a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Faculty of Adab and Humanities UIN (Universitas Islam Negeri or State Islamic University) Sunan Gunung Djati in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. For academic interests, the author is able to be contacted via e-mail at: dedi70@yahoo.comHow to cite this article? Supriadi, Dedi. (2016). “Moral Teachings in the Manuscript of Qissatu Syam’un ibnu Khalid ibnu Walid” in TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies, Vol.7(2) April, pp.157-172. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press and UIN SGD Bandung, ISSN 2085-0980. Chronicle of the article: Accepted (January 15, 2016); Revised (March 11, 2016); and Published (April 28, 2016).
The Impact of Early Modern Textbooks on Sundanese Writing in the Nineteenth Century Moriyama, Mikihiro
TAWARIKH Vol 2, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : ASPENSI in Bandung, Indonesia

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ABSTRACT: Modern textbooks are only one line towards modernisation in Sundanese writing. There were other lines, namely the Islamic institutions, the development of Malay, colonial efforts to standardise the Sundanese language, and the establishment of schools. Modern Sundanese writing was the knot that tied them together. This article tries to elaborate the impact of early modern textbooks on Sundanese writing. One of the most interesting examples of how a traditional writing changed is the “dangding”, a type of poetry. A long narrative composed in “dangding” is called “wawacan”, a genre loved by the people in the 19th century. “Dangding” was admired in Sundanese aristocratic circles and pervaded the elite community. The Dutch saw “dangding” as the most original and valuable kind of Sundanese writing and thought it the best way to convey modern information and enlighten the people. Sundanese themselfves were to think that prose was more transparent and clear and even more pleasant to read than “dangding”, as textbooks were made in the new form of writing.KEY WORDS: Modern textbooks, Sundanese writing, “dangding”, “wawacan”, and social changes.About the Author: Prof. Dr. Mikihiro Moriyama is a Professor of Indonesian Studies at the Department of Asian Studies, Faculty of Foreign Languages NU (Nanzan University), 18, Yamazato-cho, Syowa-ku, Nagoya 466-8673, Japan. For academic purposes, he can be reached at: moriyama@nanzan-u.ac.jpHow to cite this article? Moriyama, Mikihiro. (2010). “The Impact of Early Modern Textbooks on Sundanese Writing in the Nineteenth Century” in TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies, Vol.2(1) October, pp.1-22. Bandung, Indonesia: ASPENSI [Asosiasi Sarjana Pendidikan Sejarah Indonesia], ISSN 2085-0980. Chronicle of the article: Accepted (August 17, 2010); Revised (September 20, 2010); and Published (October 28, 2010).
History of Indonesian Military Role in the Era of Independence Revolution, 1945-1950 Fatgehipon, Abdul Haris
TAWARIKH Vol 8, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : ASPENSI in Bandung, Indonesia

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ABSTRACT: The history of Indonesian military formation is interesting to be examined. The Indonesian military was formed after the independence as a part of government structure under the President. The Indonesian military was established out of the various elements of military organization formed by Dutch colonial administration and Japanese occupation in Indonesia. As it was born in the era of independence revolution, it received support from various people paramilitary troops. Although it was autonomously established by itself, the government could oversee it under the supremacy of the civilian government. The research method used in this paper is heuristic, in which to get the primary and secondary data, the author conducted literature, documents, and archives review from several Universities and Research Institutions. The Indonesian military showed its role in maintaining the countrys sovereignty during the Dutch military aggression, first (July 1947) and second (December 1948), carried out by the Dutch colonial government. When President Sukarno and Vice President Mohamad Hatta  surrendered to the Dutch government and handed over the power to Mr. Syafruddin Prawiranegara, who then he formed PDRI (Pemerintahan Darurat Republik Indonesia or Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia), the military leadership gave full support to the PDRI. In the process of political dynamics, finally, the Indonesian military also to be loyal and supported the civil government led by President Sukarno and Vice President Mohamad Hatta.KEY WORDS: Indonesian Military; Time of Revolution; Independence; Diplomacy and Struggle; Social and Political Integration.About the Author: Dr. Abdul Haris Fatgehipon is a Lecturer at the Department of Social Studies Education, Faculty of Social Science UNJ (State University of Jakarta), Gedung K, Kampus UNJ, Jalan Rawamangun, Jakarta, Indonesia. For academic interests, the author is able to be contacted via his e-mail at: pertahanan@yahoo.com  How to cite this article? Fatgehipon, Abdul Haris. (2017). “History of Indonesian Military Role in the Era of Independence Revolution, 1945-1950” in TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies, Vol.8(2) April, pp.217-228. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press and UIN SGD Bandung, ISSN 2085-0980. Chronicle of the article: Accepted (August 17, 2016); Revised (December 27, 2016); and Published (April 28, 2017).
The Role and Function of Islamic Boarding School: An Indonesian Context Thahir, Mustain
TAWARIKH Vol 5, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : ASPENSI in Bandung, Indonesia

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ABSTRACT: Islamic boarding school or “pesantren”, as one of the educational institutions, has recognized a big influence in developing the educational world, especially in Indonesian society. Islamic boarding school is also believed to be an alternative for solving various problems of education that occurs at this time. Islamic boarding school is the oldest institution of Islamic education in Indonesia. According to experts, the Islamic boarding school is able called a “religious school” when meet five requirements, namely: (1) “kyai” or Muslim religious teacher or leader in Java; (2) “pondok” or lodge; (3) “mesjid” or mosque; (4) “santri” or Islamic students; and (5) “kitab kuning” or yellow book reading or Islamic classic book. This article tries to elaborate the role and function of Islamic boarding school in Indonesia, with related to the religious school of “Darud Dakwah wal-Irsyad” (DDI) Mangkoso Barru in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The Islamic boarding school, as a community and an institution that is large in number and widely spread in various parts of the Indonesian country, has had much to share in the formation of the Indonesian people fully religious. Therefore, the institution has delivered many leaders in the past, present, and also in the future. The graduates of Islamic boarding school, no doubt, many of them have taken an active participation in nation building. But, on the other hand, there is also the notion that graduates of Islamic boarding school are hard invited forward. This is because the education system in the Islamic boarding school is mostly still traditional.KEY WORDS: Islamic boarding school, role and function, religious school, nation building, traditional education, and Indonesian society.About the Author: Dr. Mustain Thahir is a Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Education and Teacher Training UVRI (Veteran University of the Republic of Indonesia), Jalan Baruga Raya, Antang, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Corresponding author is aspensi@yahoo.comHow to cite this article? Thahir, Mustain. (2014). “The Role and Function of Islamic Boarding School: An Indonesian Context” in TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies, Vol.5(2) April, pp.197-208. Bandung, Indonesia: ASPENSI [Asosiasi Sarjana Pendidikan Sejarah Indonesia] and UVRI [Universitas Veteran Republik Indonesia], ISSN 2085-0980.Chronicle of the article: Accepted (February 19, 2014); Revised (March 22, 2014); and Published (April 28, 2014).
Mughal Gujarat: An Acme of Learning Fatma, Sadaf
TAWARIKH Vol 7, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : ASPENSI in Bandung, Indonesia

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ABSTRACT: Here, in this paper, an attempt has been made to examine the extent to which the society and culture in Gujarat, India, was enriched, and how the province became a seat of learning after the incorporation in to the Mughal empire as the place became a conglomeration of a large number of heterogeneous communities, due to its prosperous trade and commerce. The province of Gujarat was annexed to the Mughal empire in 1572 AD (Anno Domini), under the reign of Akbar and became not only most urbanized regions of India, but the most flourishing province of Mughals owing to its overseas trade and commerce. Historians have systematically studied the prosperous economy of Mughal Gujarat and the impact of Mughal annexation on its overseas trade; but, in contrast, the culture of Gujarat under the Mughal rule has not received the attention, it deserves. The main focus of the paper is: to reveal how Gujarat had flourished not only economically, but culturally also became one of the highest seats of learning in Mughal India; to analyse the educational system prevalent in Mughal Gujarat; to explore the role of the intellectuals, literati, and physicians in the society in Gujarat; and what was their patronage network and how they contributed in the rich syncretic culture of Gujarat. The paper further discusses the institutions controlled by the men, in particular “maktabs”, “madrasas”, and hospitals; and their course of content and forms of instructions etc. In the presence of such a large number of heterogeneous communities, obviously due to its prosperous trade and commerce, Gujarat was culturally “syncretic” and “composite”; this is also the central aim of the paper to trace.KEY WORDS: Mughal Gujarat, seat of learning, educational system, patronage network, course of content, forms of instructions, and cultural syncretism.About the Author: Sadaf Fatma is a Research Scholar at the Centre of Advanced Study, Department of History AMU (Aligarh Muslim University), Aligarh 202002, Uttar Pradesh, India. For academic interests, the author is able to be contacted via e-mail at: amusadaf@gmail.comHow to cite this article? Fatma, Sadaf. (2015). “Mughal Gujarat: An Acme of Learning” in TAWARIKH: International Journal for Historical Studies, Vol.7(1) October, pp.75-86. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press, ISSN 2085-0980.Chronicle of the article: Accepted (January 22, 2015); Revised (May 22, 2015); and Published (October 28, 2015).

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