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Aquacultura Indonesiana
Aquacultura Indonesiana (AI) is publishes original and peer-reviewed, English language papers concerned with culture of aquatic plants and animals. Subjects approriate for this journal would include, but not necessarily be limited to, nutrition, diseases, genetics and breeding, physiology, environmental quality, culture system enginering. husbandry practices, and economics and marketing. Fragmentary reports will not be considered for publication; coherent research should be published in a single paper. Preliminary studies, simple case reports, baseline data, parasite host or range extentions, and other such curiosities will not be considered for publication in the journal.
Articles
51
Articles
Overview on the Development of Aquaculture and Aquafeed Production in Korea

Kim, Sung-Sam ( Aquafeed R&D Center of CJ CheilJedang ) , Kim, Jeong Dae ( Kangwon National University )

Aquacultura Indonesiana Vol 20, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Indonesian Aquaculture Society (MAI)

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Abstract

Total landings of capture and culture fisheries in Korea increased from 1,073,000 metric tons (MT) in 1971 to 3,743,000 MT in 2017 mainly due to the development in marine aquaculture practices. During last four decades, marine aquaculture production in Korea showed around 5-fold increase from 491,000 MT in 1977 to 2,310,000 MT in 2017 recording the value of 2.9 billion USD. Last year, the main production was derived from seaweed (1,755,630 MT), while the aquatic animal production was made from shellfish (428,160 MT), fish (86,400 MT), crustacean (mainly shrimp of 5,100 MT) and others (34,530 MT). Inland aquaculture is based on fish farming with the production of around 25,000 MT. Either trash fish or moist pellet based on the raw fish is still being fed to marine culture fish, which is the main obstacle for developing the farming. In 2017, around 450,000 MT of trash fish with 87,980 MT of extruded pellets were employed to produce 86,399 MT of marine fish.

Dosage Optimization of Artificial Digestive Enzymes in Feed to Improve The Digestibility and Growth of Osphronemus gourami

Bokau, Rietje J.M ( State Polytechnic of Lampung ) , Febriani, Dian ( State Polytechnic of Lampung ) , Indariyanti, Nur ( State Polytechnic of Lampung ) , Rakhmawati, Rakhmawati ( State Polytechnic of Lampung )

Aquacultura Indonesiana Vol 19, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Indonesian Aquaculture Society (MAI)

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Abstract

One of the obstacles often encountered in the cultivation of gourami is  a relatively slow rate of growth compared with other freshwater fishes. This slow growth is partly due to the incomplete and unbalanced nutritional content and the low ability of the fish to digest a certain  type of feed materials. The ability to digest fish feed types depends on the quality and quantity of feed and enzymes present in the digestive tract. The enzymes released by the glands in the gut have the function to digest food elements. Among the enzymes involved in digestion are amylase, protease, lipase, cellulase, pectinase, and pullulanase.  To improve digestion, the use of artificial enzymes in certain doses is combined with natural food such as papaya to optimize the dose of artificial enzymes. The use of papaya is already widely used as a food supplement, especially in the  gourami grow-out culture. Aside from being natural food, papaya leaves can also serve as a natural source of digestive enzymes. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal dose of artificial enzymes added to feed which can improve the digestibility and growth of gourami. In this study, treatments of artificial feeding of gourami are used with the addition of artificial enzymes amounting to 1% (A), 2% (B), 3% (C), papaya leaves and pellets (D), and pellets alone (E).  Results after two months rearing showed that the digestibility of feed supplemented with natural enzymes in papaya (papain) can be further improve optimized by the addition of artificial digestive enzymes in a dose of 3% of the weight of the feed. Fish of this treatment group  showed  faster growth compared with other treatments.

The Effect of Water Temperature on Incubation Period, Hatching Rate, Normalities of The Larvae and Survival Rate of Snakehead Fish Channa striata

Muslim, Muslim ( Sriwijaya University ) , Fitrani, Mirna ( Sriwijaya University ) , Afrianto, A.M. ( Sriwijaya University )

Aquacultura Indonesiana Vol 19, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Indonesian Aquaculture Society (MAI)

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Abstract

The aims of this research were to determine the hatching performance of snakehead fish egg which incubated at different water temperature. This research had been conducted in the Fish Breeding Unit “Batanghari Sembilan”, Indralaya South Sumatera Indonesia. This research was an experimental research with 5 treatments of water temperature P1 (26 ± 0.5°C), P2 (28 ± 0.5°C), P3 (30 ± 0.5°C), P4 (32 ± 0.5°C), P5 (34 ± 0.5°C) and 3 repetitions. The results showed that incubation period needed at P1: 30.01 hours, P2: 28.02 hours, P3:23.13 hours, P4: 21.03 hours, P5: 20.12 hours. The best treatment for hatching rate, normality and survival rate were P2 treatment, 86.33%, 100% and 97.3%, respectively.  Even though the fastest incubation period was the P5 treatment (20.12 hours). Water quality of the research was intolerance range, pH (4.17-5.32) and Dissolved Oxygen (6.23-6.71 mg.L-1). Based on the results acquired, incubation temperature at 28 ± 0.5°C produced the best hatching rate, normality, and survival rate.

Effect of Predigested Artificial Diet Using Papain Enzyme on the Degree of Protein Hydrolysis and Protease Enzyme Activity of Mud Crab (Scylla olivacea) Larvae at Zoea 2 and 3 Stages

Haryati, Haryati ( Hasanuddin University ) , Fujaya, Yushinta ( Hasanuddin University ) , Saade, Edison ( Hasanuddin University )

Aquacultura Indonesiana Vol 19, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Indonesian Aquaculture Society (MAI)

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Abstract

The ability of mud crab (Scylla olivacea) larvae to digest artificial diet depends on the availability of digestive enzyme. To enhance the larvaes capability to utilize artificial diet can be conducted by adding exogenous enzyme to the diet.The aim of this research was to determine the dose of papain enzyme and stadia of predigest artificial diet that produced the best degree of protein hydrolysis and protease enzyme activity. Completely randomized designwas used to evaluate the effect of papain enzyme dose on the degree of protein, with four treatment and three replications, namely the doses of 0.0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5%. Factorial pattern with the completely randomized design was used to evaluate the effect of papain enzyme dose and the proper predigest artificial feeding stage on the activity of protease enzyme. The first factor was the papain enzyme dose (0.0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5%), while second factor was the stadia of larvae when it is fed with predigested artificial diet (zoea 2 and zoea 3 stadia). The research showed that the difference of papain enzyme dose provides real effect on degree of protein hydrolysis either on JP 0 or JP 1 diet brands (P<0.05). Degree of protein hydrolysis of the diet predigested with 0.0% papain enzyme was the lowest and has real difference (P<0.05) with the 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5% doses. Degree of protein hydrolysis on 3% dose of papain enzyme does not provide real difference with the 4.5%, namely  19.753% and 22.890% respectively in JP 0, 18.707 % and 20.430 % in JP 1, but has real difference (P<0.05) with 1.5% doses.  The difference papain enzyme dose and  stadia of predigest artificial diet as well as the interaction between both of them had significant effect  (p<0.05) on the activity of protease enzyme. On the larvae of zoea 2 stadia, the activity of protease enzyme on the larvae fed with predigest artificial diet starting from zoea 2 stadia with 3.0% and 4.5% papain enzyme dose or those still fed with natural diet does not provide real difference, but is higher and provides real difference than 0% and 1.5% doses. On the larvae of zoea 3 stadia, the activity of protease enzyme to the larvae fed with artificial diet starting from zoea 2 with 0% and 1.5% papain enzyme doses, and those fed with artificial diet starting from zoea 3 stadia with 0% papain enzyme dose does not provide real difference (p>0.05) but is lower and provides real difference than other treatments. Protease enzyme activity on the larvae  fed with predigest artificial diet using  4.5%  papain enzyme  starting at zoea 2 stadia ,  was not significantly different (P <0.05) compared to larvae fed artificial diet which was  predigest  with 0.0%,  1.5%, 3.0 and 4.5  papain enzyme started at Zoea 3.  Based on the degree of protein hydrolysis, papain enzymes can be used to hydrolyze artificial diet  in doses ranging from 3.0% to 4.5%. Based on the activity of protease enzymes, mud crab larvae (Scylla olivacea) predigested artificial diet using 4.5% papain enzyme can be provided to the larvae starting from zoea 2 stadia.

A Tale of Two Urchins - Implications for In-Situ Breeding of the Endangered Banggai Cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni)

Ndobe, Samliok ( Tadulako University ) , Jompa, Jamaluddin ( Hasanuddin University ) , Moore, Abigail ( Hasanuddin University )

Aquacultura Indonesiana Vol 19, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Indonesian Aquaculture Society (MAI)

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Abstract

The endangered Banggai cardinalfish Pterapogon kauderni, endemic to the Banggai Archipelago in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, is a national and global priority conservation species. To support stock recovery based on in-situ breeding, using the symbiosis between the Banggai cardinalfish and its microhabitat (especially urchins of Genus Diadema), specific research objectives were: (i) identify the Diadema species associated with Banggai cardinalfish in the wild; (ii) investigate Banggai cardinalfish preference between these Diadema species. Belt transect data (5 sites) found wild Banggai cardinalfish of all size classes associated with Diadema setosum and Diadema savignyi. Preference trials were conducted in a controlled environment (concrete tanks) with three replicates. Nine sub-adult Banggai cardinalfish (35-42 mm SL), 12 D. setosum and 12 D. savignyi were placed in each tank. Banggai cardinalfish association (D. savignyi, D. setosum, none) was recorded hourly (06:00-18:00) for three days and results analysed in RStudio-1.0.143. Banggai cardinalfish did not show significant preference for either D. savignyi or D. setosum. These results indicate that D. savignyi and D. setosum can be used impartially in further research on in-situ breeding to facilitate recovery of Banggai cardinalfish stocks. However stock recovery measures should consider genetic connectivity and the natural balance between the two urchin species.

Optimum Feeding Rate for the Sub-adult Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, Fed Practical Extruded Pellets at Optimum Water Temperature

Shin, Seung-Jun ( College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, South Korea ) , Shin, Seung-Jun ( College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, South Korea ) , Bai, Sungchul C. ( Department of Marine Bio-Materials and Aquaculture, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, South Korea ) , Bai, Sungchul C. ( Department of Marine Bio-Materials and Aquaculture, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, South Korea ) , Lee, Kyeong-Jun ( Department of Marine Life Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, South Korea ) , Lee, Kyeong-Jun ( Department of Marine Life Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, South Korea ) , Kim, Jeong-Dae ( College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, South Korea ) , Kim, Jeong-Dae ( College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, South Korea ) , Kim, Sung-Sam ( Aquafeed R&D Center of CJ Cheil Jedang Feed Semarang, Batang 51281, Indonesia )

Aquacultura Indonesiana Vol 19, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Indonesian Aquaculture Society (MAI)

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Abstract

We investigated the effects of feeding rate on the growth, blood components, and histology of the growing olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). We determined the optimum feeding rate (initial fish mean weight = 525.3 ± 7.12 g) at the optimum water temperature. Two replicate groups of fish were fed a commercial diet at rates of 0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, and 0.8% (i.e., to satiation) of body weight (BW) per day. The feeding trial was conducted using a flow-through system, with ten of 1.2-metric-ton aquaria receiving filtered seawater between 20.5 and 24.5°C, for 3 weeks. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were significantly greater in fish fed with satiation at 0.8% BW/day compared to fish fed at 0.2% BW/day, and with unfed fish. These parameters were negative, and significantly lower, in the starved fish compared to the fish fed the experimental diet, for all feeding rates. There were no significant differences in WG and SGR among fish fed at 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% BW/day, and among those fed at 0.4%, 0.6% and 0.8% of BW/day. The histological changes in tissues were not significant in the hepatopancreas, kidney, or anterior intestine of fish fed at 0%, 0.4%, and 0.8% of BW/day. Broken-line regression analysis based on weight gain demonstrated that the optimum feeding rate for an olive flounder weighing 525 g was 0.70% BW/day at optimum water temperature.

Feed Enrichment with Amylolytic Lactic Acid Bacteria to Stimulate the Growth of Freshwater Crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus)

Dahlia, Dahlia ( Pangkep State Polytechnic of Agriculture ) , Hasniar, Hasniar ( Pangkep State Polytechnic of Agriculture ) , Seniati, Seniati ( Pangkep State Polytechnic of Agriculture ) , Ardiansyah, Ardiansyah ( Pangkep State Polytechnic of Agriculture ) , Idris, Andi Puspa Sari ( Pangkep State Polytechnic of Agriculture ) , Hartinah, Hartinah ( Pangkep State Polytechnic of Agriculture )

Aquacultura Indonesiana Vol 19, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Indonesian Aquaculture Society (MAI)

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Abstract

The goal of feed enrichment with amylolytic Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) was to get an optimal feed formula in stimulating the growth of freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus). The research design used a completely randomized block design, which consists of 2 groups (Group I = probiotic HS7 with inoculum density 108 and Group II = probiotic HS7 with density 1010). Each group were given 4 different treatment (Feed A = protein 50%-carbohydrate 20%; Feed B= protein 40%-carbohydrate 30%; Feed C= protein 30%-carbohydrate 40%; and Feed D= protein 20%-carbohydrate 50%), with 2 repetition. The parameter observed in this study was daily growth rate and absolute growth. The result showed that Feed C, composed by protein 30%-carbohydrate 40% with LAB enrichment and inoculum density of 108  gives the best growth, with daily growth rate of ± 0.22-0.23 % each day and absolute growth of ± 13.10-13.20 gram in 75 days.

Growth and Carrageenan Yield of Cultivated Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) in Deep Seawater Area of Saparua Bay, Central Maluku

Wenno, Petrus A ( Pattimura University ) , Latumahina, Matheus Ch.A ( Pattimura University ) , Loupatty, Sven R. ( Pattimura University ) , Soumokil, Agustina W. ( Pattimura University ) , Jamal, Endang ( Pattimura University )

Aquacultura Indonesiana Vol 19, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Indonesian Aquaculture Society (MAI)

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Abstract

Cultivation of Kappaphycus alvarezii has been carried out by inverted pyramid method in the deep water of  Saparua Bay. This study aims to analyze the daily growth rates, biomass productions and carrageenan yields of the green and brown strain of K. alvarezii with different depth of water by inverted pyramid method in deep seawaters. K. alvarezii with an initial weight of 100 g were planted successively at the depths of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 m during four growing seasons that last for 49 days in every season. The results showed that the highest growth rate and biomass production were on green strain at 1 m depth and brown strain at 3 m depth which were 4.18% and 749.29 g/m2 then 4.19% and 754.51 g/m2, respectively. While the highest carrageenan yield was on the green and brown strain at 9 m depth which were 16.53% and 14.85%, respectively. The carrageenan yields gradually increase with the increasing of water depths which contradict to growth rate and biomass production that showed the better results at lower depths (1 and 3 m). In conclusion, seaweed cultivation in deep waters has a positive impact on carrageenan yields in line with the increasing depths while the growth rate and the biomass production can be achieved higher at the lower depth.

Free Radicals Scavenging Activities of Low Molecular Weight Sodium Alginate (LMWSA) from Sargassum polycystum, Produced by Thermal Treatment

Yudiati, Ervia ( Diponegoro University ) , Pringgenies, Delianis ( Diponegoro University ,Semarang, Indonesia ) , Djunaedi, Ali ( Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia ) , Arifin, Zaenal ( Brackishwater Aquaculture Development Centre, Jepara, Central Java, Indonesia ) , Sudaryono, Agung ( Diponegoro University ,Semarang, Indonesia, Indonesia )

Aquacultura Indonesiana Vol 19, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Indonesian Aquaculture Society (MAI)

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Abstract

In this study, the effects of alginate from Sargassum polycystum molecular reduction by thermal heating on DPPH anti radical scavenging activity were investigated. Raw alginate as the control treatment was heated at 140oC in a laboratory oven for different time courses 1.5, 4.5, and 7.5 hours. The assessment of molecular weight, UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopic studies were applied. By heat treatment, molecular weight of polymer was decreased in a time-dependent manner, though there is no significant difference between 4.5 h and 7.5 h samples. The UV-visible spectroscopic studies pointed that there was a new absorption band between 250 and 290 nm in alginate heated treatments. The higher antiradical scavenging activity were reached from 1.5 h and 4.5 h treatments (19.83% and 20.07%). Interestingly, the antiradical scavenging activity of the longest heating treatment (7.5 h) was reduced (16.85%), similar to the raw alginate (17.89%). Prolonged heat treatments influenced the antioxidant activity and reduced the ability of donate electrons or hydrogen atoms to inactivate this radical action.

Growth, Total Production and Feed Efficiency of Catfish (Clarias sp.) Orally Administered with Shrimp Waste Hydrolyzate

Hariyadi, Dimas Rizky ( Gadjah Mada University ) , Isnansetyo, Alim ( Gadjah Mada University ) , Istiqomah, Indah ( Gadjah Mada University ) , Hardaningsih, Ign. ( Gadjah Mada University ) , Wahyudi, Wahyudi ( CJ Cheil Jedang Feed Semarang, Indonesia ) , Kim, Sung Sam ( CJ Cheil Jedang Feed Semarang, Indonesia )

Aquacultura Indonesiana Vol 19, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Indonesian Aquaculture Society (MAI)

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Abstract

Shrimp Waste Hydrolyzate (SWH) /Shrimp Soluble Extract (SSE) is a product produced from the enzymatic process of shrimp waste. SWH contains essential and non-essential amino acids which useful for fish. This study aimed to determine effect of SWH on the growth and total production of catfish. The parameters observed were average growth rate, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), total production and length weight relationship from beginning until the end of rearing period. Growth performance was observed by calculating average growth rate and SGR of catfish. The results of this study showed that oral administration of SWH significantly increased SGR of catfish length at 4th sampling period with value 1.54% body length/day. Administration of SWH did not affect on the AGR, FCR, PER and total production. The growth pattern of catfish is negative allometric.