Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
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Articles
107
Articles
Learning from Resilience: Cities towards a Self-Organizing System

EKEN, CEMALIYE

International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs Vol 3 No 1 (2019): International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (IJCUA)
Publisher : Anglo-American Publications LLC

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Abstract

The study exploits development of a new field of research with the aim of reading uncertainty and transformation at cities by revealing resilience systems thinking theory for urban studies. The paper first generates understanding the resilience framework and its critical identities. Secondly the city is introduced as a complex living organicism. Here the complexity of cities is conducted in the context of a self-organizing organism while conserve their spatial structure, function and identity. At this juncture; cities and their built environment are proposed in the framework of ‘being able to absorb uncertain perturbation and adapt itself through an adaptive cycle;  of which key attributes of resilience is figured out a novel method for urban studies to be used to detain the taxonomies of uncertainty at identity of built environment. The study is concluded by impelling resilience as novel frontier thinking for postulating the ways of assessing a self-organizing city thinking towards uncertainty of change.

Economic Diversification and the Urban Image; Changing the Narrative on Street Vending

BALARABE, MUHAMMAD K, IBRAHIM, ABDULSALAM SHEMA, AHMAD, MARYAM

International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs Vol 3 No 1 (2019): International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (IJCUA)
Publisher : Anglo-American Publications LLC

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Abstract

Street vending is a dynamic phenomenon of network of events, socio-economic and cultural factors while remaining a narration of place. At the metropolitan level, the narrative is negatively skewed towards street vending and its aesthetic reality, contemporaneously exploring hostile environmental interventions within the informal sector. This paper attempted to explore a counter-narrative asking; based on aesthetic experience, can the “desired” urban image be achieved by allowing street vendors proliferate in public spaces? This question was asked within the scope of the political-economy of diversification in Nigeria. Mapping over google satellite images over critical periods leading to demolitions and/or developments, this paper documented the spatial distribution of vendors to determine the urban centres that are hostile to vending activities and those that were not. The paper argued that, around public spaces such as parks and sidewalks, the precarious nature of vending activities lead to their diffidence in upgrades to stalls, tables and kiosks. With pictures from spaces that appear to approve of street vending tacitly, a pattern of upgrades in vending apparatus and kiosks were established. This paper proposes an integrative model of passive, active and tacit support that is required to influence the discourse of vending activities within the context of urban images produced in Nigerian. In conclusion and using sing Gouverneur (2014) concepts of receptors and transformers, this paper revealed that potential existing parks within a dense urban area could serve as transformers, creating an urban image that defies that “out of place” narrative associated with vendors.

Evaluating Staff Perceptions of Supportive Healing Environment in Healthcare Facilities

UWAJEH, PATRICK CHUKWUEMEKE, EZENNIA, IKENNA STEPHEN

International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs Vol 3 No 1 (2019): International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (IJCUA)
Publisher : Anglo-American Publications LLC

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Abstract

Evidence-based design strategies can improve stress-free environments in healthcare, by emphasizing strategic opportunities to influence the design of health facilities. Evidence-based design (EBD) as a tool for healthcare planning is a method that began in healthcare having a general purpose of providing evidence based medicine. It involved Gathering information and evidence and using this evidence to mold the environment which supports the programming stage in design problem-solving. The connection between the theories and use of findings in (EBD), have not been adequately revealed enough to be used as a tool in design. As such, several factors, or characteristics, evident in numerous studies about healing environment and (EBD), require categorization into tangible and non-tangible dimensions in order to apply them during the design process successfully. Among others, four distinct variable or factors summarized from the work of two researchers – Dilani (2001) and Ulrich (1991) have been selected to be tested in this research; (1) enhancement of social support, (2) stimulating design features, (3) flexibility and coherence (4) connection to nature, focusing on the hierarchy of the above mentioned attributes according to their relevance in application and outcomes. Two research questions served as a foundation for the investigation of attributes in healing environments: What critical attributes can be identified by healthcare staff related to Dilani and Ulrich’s research findings? Is a hierarchy of attributes perceived by healthcare staff? The aim of this research is to closely examine the factors of Psychosocial Supportive Design theory by Alan Dilani (2001) and Supportive design theory (SDT) by Roger Ulrich (1991) on the staff in Eastern Mediterranean university health centre. Questioners and site visit were used for data collection. SPSS was used to obtain percentages from data collected. The result of the study reveals a hierarchy of factors perceived by the staff that can promote supportive healing.

Urban Planning as an Extension of War Planning

WANG, HUAQING, NEWMAN, GALEN, WANG, ZHIFANG

International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs Vol 3 No 1 (2019): International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (IJCUA)
Publisher : Anglo-American Publications LLC

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Abstract

War-city relationships had long been studied by scholars regarding wars’ sudden impact on cities. Studies typically focused on one specific event’s impact on urban military, politics, economy, or society. This approach, however, treated war’s impact on cities as only temporary, hindered opportunities to reveal multiple political regimes’ spatial competition through war-oriented city planning and construction, which is crucial for city development, and their resultant urban form changes through time. In response, this study has examined city planning and construction activities during the short time gaps between multiple military conflicts, with various military objectives, and conducted by different political regimes in Shenyang, China. In accordance with archival research, a space syntax axis analysis has been used to quantify spatial dynamics throughout war-peace-war cycles to explore the impact of military-oriented planning on city-scaled development. We have found these planning strategies, initiated by specific military goals, acted as extensions of war planning, segregating the city and causing urban fragmentation. They also acted as a driving factor which promoted modernization of the city in the early 20th century. We conclude that wars oriented planning can alter a city’s development track and impact its structure and form through the creation of internally connected but isolated urban districts.

Evaluation of the Sustainable Aspects In Housing Sector To Overcome Housing Stress In Northern Iraq

AMIN, RAHEL MOHAMMED, MUHY AL-DIN, SALAR SALAH

International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs Vol 3 No 1 (2019): International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (IJCUA)
Publisher : Anglo-American Publications LLC

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Abstract

Northern Iraq as part of Iraq, has been witnessed a great population increment last few decades. However, housing stress in Northern Iraq has risen due to that. Environmental, economic and social sustainability became crucial in the movement towards a more effective built environment and community nowadays. This research seeks to evaluate the presence of sustainability aspects (environmental, economic, and social) in housing sector, which makes them acquired and affordable for low income earners in Northern Iraq. Housing projects as case studies were investigated in Erbil, the capital of Northern Iraq. The research examined, the presence of sustainability aspects. Field observations checklist have been prepared based on the theoretical analysis through literature review and applied to collect data on the case studies. The results demonstrated that applying the aspects of sustainability for the buildings is weak and not clearly familiar in Northern Iraq. The study concluded that, the housing projects focusing on the case studies not sustainable. The findings show that the application of sustainable principles in the housing projects at Northern Iraq is very weak. It is highly recommended to achieve sustainability, because it is the significant way to produce acquired and affordable housing and overcome the housing problems, socially, environmentally and economically. The recommendations have been suggested to formulate new ways for implementing sustainable principles in the housing sector to overcome housing stress in Northern Iraq.

Evaluating Gender Based Behavior in Historical Urban Public Place Case study: Grand Bazaar, Kerman, Iran

JALALKAMALI, AIDA, ANJOMSHOA, ELHAM

International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs Vol 3 No 1 (2019): International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (IJCUA)
Publisher : Anglo-American Publications LLC

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Abstract

The study evaluates the spatial behaviors of women in urban public place through ‘fear of crime’ and ‘public place functionality’ factors; by using direct observations and questionnaire within the Grand Bazaar as a historical urban public place in the center of Kerman, which is located in the Southwest part of Iran. The study provides a particular perspective to the analysis and understanding of how women make decisions and behave in a spatial setting based on environmental psychology studies. This study applies combinational research methods including qualitative and quantitative approach, including analytical, descriptive, correlation, and logical reasoning methods. This study also conducts direct observation in order to search the strengths and weaknesses of Grand Bazaar as a public place. The results of the study reveal that there is a significant correlation between fear of crime and women’s environmental perception of Grand Bazaar. Furthermore, the research findings indicate that the anxiety of being in less crowded parts of Bazaar is more tangible among women than men. On the other hand, the results show there is a significant correlation between time periods and women’s activities in Grand Bazaar.

From Zoning Based Area To A Hybrid Space; The Transformation Strategies

ABDULLAH ALI, FARHAN

International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs Vol 3 No 1 (2019): International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (IJCUA)
Publisher : Anglo-American Publications LLC

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Abstract

One of the contemporary city`s ambition nowadays is to be more comfortable, flexible and coeval. Although numerous urban design attempts have appeared to enhance the user’s gratification, there are urgent demands to upgrade the classical public space to be more agreeable with the necessities of everyday life. Most of the urban areas after industry era are zoning based, meanwhile, have been less adaptable to daily life conditions economically, environmentally and psychologically alike. The zoning based space has a single- activity such as public or private, workspace or leisure space, etc., while the urgent demand is to look for kind of space, has mixed -activities that give it more richness, diversity, and interaction. This type of Heterotopic space has potentials, characteristics, and efforts that reconcile the everyday life requirements. On another hand, it could be defined, as a smart space, which is more correspondent with technological development through applying the digital technologies involved it. Regarding the principles of the deconstruction approach in urban studies, predominantly the hybrid space is compatible with these principles. Some of the key strategies that are sharing in both deconstruction approach and hybrid space concept are the layering and the binary oppositions. This paper is an attempt to reframe the principles of creating the public space and portrays the features of transforming the zoning based area into a hybrid one. In addition, it aims to implement deconstructive approach tools as strategies for enhancing user satisfaction in public space. The paper adopts a comparative approach that criticizes the zoning theory from different perspectives according to numerous situations and it accepts the hybrid space theory as a substitutional possibility to deconstruct the typical public space.

The Role Of Urban Density And Morphology In The Air Pollution Of Tehran Metropolitan

OSHRIEH, ROUHOLLAH, VALIPOUR, EHSAN

International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs Vol 3 No 1 (2019): International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (IJCUA)
Publisher : Anglo-American Publications LLC

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Abstract

Today, regard for the wellbeing of the group and the earth is on the plan of most nations on the planet, and one of its imperative viewpoints is the contamination of the air and figuring out how to diminish it. Without a doubt, a standout amongst the most vital ranges that assume an unequivocal part in decreasing or expanding this parameter is the city and urban morphology. Tehran, which is viewed as the capital and vital city of Iran, has experienced this issue for a long time, and there are no legitimate arrangement found to decrease its air contamination. Then again, the city has movement from different parts of the nation consistently that makes this issue harsher. The most vital issue in such manner is the city's range, and in addition the city's extension, which decides the thickness of the city. The greater part of this must be joined by the wear and tear of a low standard, which includes a high level of contamination. The failure of the vast majority to purchase houses inside the city has made satellite towns nearby Tehran. Then again, the presence of tremendous local locations around Tehran and the area of workplaces in the downtown area are among alternate issues tended to in this investigation. This examination endeavored to utilize the explanatory expressive technique to think about the part of pressure and morphology of Tehran and its effect on air contamination and give answers for diminishing air contamination and movement.

Urban Sprawl Negative Impact: Enkomi Return Phase

FULADLU, KAMYAR

International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs Vol 3 No 1 (2019): International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (IJCUA)
Publisher : Anglo-American Publications LLC

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Abstract

Most of the cities around the world are dealing with different kinds of the problems such as social, environmental, economic and others. However, for many years, urban planners have attempted to find solutions that fit within the context and have put them into practice in order to shape the form of a city accordingly. One of the controversial problems which most of the developing and developed countries deal with it is urban sprawl, which affects everything and everyone in different scales. For last three decades, even in case of T.R.N. Cyprus, urban sprawl has become inevitable; urban sprawl is recognizable, sprawl construction becomes a profitable business for construction, real-estate, and others involved in this business. Unfortunately, some communities to realize their vision welcomed to urban sprawl construction and enthusiastically embrace it with open arm, such communities sacrifice sociability opportunity and vibrant neighborhood to those single-use towns which is one of the main characteristics is social exclusion and psychological problems, fundamentally one of the key factors can be found in lack of public awareness especially for who prefer to live in sprawl town. In T.R.N. Cyprus urban sprawl didn’t promote auto-dependency. Despite urban sprawl in T.R.N. Cyprus have many repercussions, one of the important impacts which are considered in this articles are psychological impact of urban sprawl, also this article attempt to divide urban sprawl leaving condition into three phases, and promote the contemplate phase which makes sprawl inhabitants think and return to inner-city neighborhood again.

Environmental Regulations and Rules: United Nations Perspective and the Nigeria Experience

OLUGBENGA, FASHUYI

International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs Vol 3 No 1 (2019): International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs (IJCUA)
Publisher : Anglo-American Publications LLC

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Abstract

This research reviewed the Nigeria’s environmental laws within the context of Agenda 21 at the three levels of water, forest degradation and solid waste management with the intent of evaluating the importance of Agenda 21 on environmental sustainability in the country. Furthermore, the study examined the Nigeria’s environmental laws to determine its effectiveness. In this way, the study provided information on the effectiveness and extent of United Nations interventions on environmental issues in Nigeria thereby revealing the gap between such interventions and actual environmental challenges of the country.