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Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan
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Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan, with registered number ISSN 2088-3706 (Print), ISSN 2502-9320 (Online) is a Peer-reviewed journal published twice a year in April and October by Department of Governmental Science, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Muhammadiyah University of Makassar in collaboration with Muhammadiyah’s College Association of Governmental Science (AIPPTM) and Asia Pacific Society for Public Affairs. It aims to publish research articles in the field of Politics and Governmental Science and its related issues.
Articles
116
Articles
The determinants of Party System Change in Sub-Saharan Africa

Pelizzo, Riccardo

Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan Vol 8, No 2 (2018): (October 2018)
Publisher : Department of Government Studies Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar

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Abstract

This article examines what socio-economic factors are conducive to changes in the patterns of inter-party competition in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The literature has in recent years paid considerable attention to measuring party system change, to identifying the consequences of party system instability for the proper functioning of democratic regimes, and to understanding what factors are responsible for the instability of party systems. In contrast to previous studies that view political change in general and party system change more specifically as the result of social transformation, development, modernization and change in the cleavage structure, this paper shows instead that poverty is the primary driver of party system change in the SSA region. In countries with high levels of poverty, political elites do enjoy little to no performance-based legitimacy. The lack of performance-based legitimacy is the reason why voters in such countries are willing to alter their voting habits and parties are unable to preserve their electoral fortunes over time—which is precisely why party systems do change. The literature showed that stable party systems are good for democracy. This paper shows that to enhance the stability of party system in SSA, poverty has to be reduced and possibly eradicated.

Institutional Strategies of Identity Constructions and Exclusions: Exploring the State of Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar

CK, Ashwati, CS, Rajeesh

Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan Vol 8, No 2 (2018): (October 2018)
Publisher : Department of Government Studies Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar

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Abstract

This article elucidates how the widening cultural and ethnic differences are likely to exclude some identities featured by dissensions in terms of their cultural and ethnic origins in the context of Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar. The core intention is to explore the process of exclusion of Rohingyas from a specific national identity. The findings show that Rohingyas access to the national identity can be undermined by the perspectives of the majority, who claims for straightforward sense of national identity. In addition, this work notes down the historical evolution of Rohingya Muslim identity from pre-colonial time to post Independent era with number of skirmishes and scuffles. It is found that through various processes of exclusion, Rohingyas in Myanmar are being compartmentalized and restricted to live in an enclave like situations. Even the squeezed socio-political, cultural and economic lives inside these enclaves are supervised. It makes them socially deserted, culturally discriminated, economically marginalized and politically under-represented. The study employs historical and analytical method to dig out the connection between historical evolution of Rohingyas and their present day status.

Prevention and Eradication of Terrorism Funding Criminal Act in Indonesia

Surwandono, Surwandono, Retnoningsih, Tri Astuti Susanthi, Alkatiri, Masyithoh Annisa

Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan Vol 8, No 2 (2018): (October 2018)
Publisher : Department of Government Studies Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar

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Abstract

Prevention and eradication of terrorism funding criminal acts have been published by Indonesian Government as a ratified act of International Convention for the suppression of the financing of terrorism under the Act No. 9 The Year 2013. This act was enacted for strategies and serious attempts to fight against transnational crime of terrorism. Through content analysis method on The Act, this research was meant to understand the direction of security regulation of Indonesia by using three paradigms i.e. realism, liberalism, and constructivism. It was figured out that realism was used by Indonesian Government of which the government acts as the key and dominant actor in this Act. This realistic paradigm implies on many government policies which are perceived overwhelming and tend to repress on civil right of freedom.

Factors Affecting Employees’ Religiosity at the Public Workplace in Kepulauan Riau, Indonesia

Yudiatmaja, Wayu Eko, Edison, Edison, Samnuzulsari, Tri

Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan Vol 8, No 2 (2018): (October 2018)
Publisher : Department of Government Studies Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar

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Abstract

Currently, religiosity has become an emerging topic in the literature of public administration. Most research examines the dimensions of religiosity and their relationships with various organizational dimensions. Much less attention, however, has been paid to analyze the factors affecting employees’ religiosity, particularly in the context of public organization. Therefore, this study investigates the critical factors affecting employees’ religiosity. This study is conducted on 262 public servants in the Government of Kepulauan Riau Province. An extensive literature and questionnaire were used to identify the factors affecting employees’ religiosity. This study applied statistical methods with ranking and factor analyses to verify and analyze the factors. Ranking analysis results the most important factors, namely family religious activity. Factor analysis constructs 5 components, including personal belief system, implementing  religious belief, family religiousness, religious practices, and belief on the death. Theoretical, methodological, and practical implications are provided in the light of these findings.

The Rise of Political Warfare: Russian New Way of War against the West and the Western Counteractions

Suzen, Hasan

Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan Vol 8, No 2 (2018): (October 2018)
Publisher : Department of Government Studies Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar

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Abstract

Since the outbreak of the Ukraine crisis, the world has observed a comprehensive Russian political warfare, which has had destabilising consequences and as well as wide-ranging implications for international security, in particular for Europe. On the other hand, in the aftermath of the Cold War, the West mostly focus on public diplomacy and strategic communication rather than political warfare. This change creates a gap in all features of political warfare and makes the West weak to political warfare waged by particularly one-man ruled states. In this respect, firstly, I will define political warfare in the continuum of peace and war. Then, I will develop a new conceptual framework which provides an interdisciplinary approach to understand the specifics of political warfare against the West and its counteractions. To explore how and why the West has failed in countering and undermining political warfare employed by especially one-man ruled states, I will explain the origin and evolution of Russian political warfare and particularly highlight the Ukraine Crisis as a turning point of Russian political warfare which has been evolving since the 1900s. Finally, I will propose ways and means to explain how to counter political warfare using hybrid tactics in the future.

Resolving the Illicit Trade of Small Arms and Light Weapon through ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crime (AMMTC)

Hiswi, Putti Ananda

Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan Vol 8, No 2 (2018): (October 2018)
Publisher : Department of Government Studies Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar

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Abstract

This paper analyses the cooperation of states in Southeast Asia within the framework established by ASEAN, that is ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crime (AMMTC) to resolving the illicit trade of Small Arms and Light Weapon in the region. Most of existing works on the topic being studied put emphasize on the importance of the existence of norms, the role of institutions and security cooperation in resolving the illicit weapons trade. However, the existing studies have not explained why the existing form of cooperation has not been effective. By the approaching of international regime theory, this article explains the interest based of regime that explain the background of regime formation which could influence state behavior to cooperate and successfully implement the rules of the international regime itself. The research applying qualitative research methods with data sourced from primary and secondary data from ASEAN official documents, books, journals, online news. This article shows that the effectivity of AMMTC to deal with the illicit Small Arms Trade is strongly influenced by the implementation commitment of the state members.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Indonesian Housing Policy

Rassanjani, Saddam

Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan Vol 8, No 1 (2018): (April 2018)
Publisher : Department of Government Studies Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar

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Abstract

The main objective of the implementation of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Indonesia is to bring accelerated development in all aspects so that the poverty rate is expected to decrease even disappear. One of the programs that aimed to reduce poverty rates in Indonesia is the provision of housing for the community, especially the underprivileged. Moreover, it is a the million houses program that proclaimed by the Ministry of Public Works and People's Housing, and this program is correlated with the SDGS, especially goal 11 (sustainable cities and communities). The research is relying on secondary data basis primarily from books, journals, published reports and online news. It is expected that this study is able to provide a new insight for the government in building a community residential area, which is to integrate development plans into three dimensions (social, economic, and environment) which are the pillars of sustainable development. Unfortunately, nowadays the government is relying too hard on achieving quantity and a little focus on quality. Furthermore, an experience on the MDGs edition can be an important lesson for the government in realizing SDGs, especially now that SDGs are in line with the points that contained in the RPJMN. Therefore, if the government is able to maximise this global development agenda, it is not impossible that the million houses program can be one of the leading programs in overcoming the problem of poverty, especially housing shortage in Indonesia.

Building a Ukrainian Identity in Odessa: Negotiation of Markers and Informal Nationalism

Polese, Abel

Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan Vol 8, No 1 (2018): (April 2018)
Publisher : Department of Government Studies Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar

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Abstract

A large and established body of literature on nation building in post-socialist spaces has initially put emphasis on state-centred construction of identity references and markers such as language, education or institutions and governance. In contrast, a recent stream of scholarship has attempted to bring agency into identity debates to propose new tools and approaches that can be used in the study of identity construction. This article is a further exploration of the latter position. It looks at the way identities are constructed, and renegotiated, at the everyday level, by ordinary people, by illustrating the competition between Russian and Ukrainian languages in Odessa, a Ukrainian city on the Black sea, to look at the synergy generated by the competition between local and national narratives.

Discretion and Decentralization: Public Administrators Dilemmas in Bureaucracy Innovation Initiatives

Andhika, Lesmana Rian

Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan Vol 8, No 1 (2018): (April 2018)
Publisher : Department of Government Studies Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar

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Abstract

Policy discretion shall not be construed as a free authority by the public administrator. The positive side discretion is answered to an urgent need, the ambiguity caused the existing policy. The focus this researched would like to explore further the public administrator dilemmas perform some correlation between policy discretion and decentralization, discretion and initiation of bureaucracy innovation. The research method applied is qualitative, descriptive analysis is adopted based on secondary data and information sources. Triangulation is used to draw conclusions carefully from a variety of data sources. The research concludes the initiation of bureaucracy innovation is the urgent needs at this time, and discretion one of the tools that can be used as a policy outside the formal policy not set explicitly on the different the element related with innovation. The unique thing is not all public administrators like and can do discretion, there is a logical consideration that must be met to assess and translate discretion, capability and sufficient knowledge is some logical considerations it is. Bias interpretation will cause negative effects like opening a chance doing the corruption, collusion, nepotism and the occurrence of criminalization policy procedures.

The Implementation of Minimum Service Standards (MMS) on Public Service for Health Services Sector in Bondowoso, Indonesia

Kuzairi, Untung, Yuswadi, Hary, Budihardjo, Agus, Patriadi, Himawan Bayu

Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan Vol 8, No 1 (2018): (April 2018)
Publisher : Department of Government Studies Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar

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Abstract

One of heatlh policies implemented by the hospital is the minimum service standards (MSS). MSS is a benchmark of hospital service quality in providing services to the public. Talking about health service quality problem, it was found out as the field fact that the achievement of MSS indicator in General Hospital of Dr. H. Koesnadi Bondowoso, Indonesia in 2016 still did not fulfill target of standard hospital service (type B) and  minimum service standard (MSS) of hospital. This fact shows that the quality of health services in general hospital of  dr. H. Koesnadi Bondowoso is still low. So, this research aims to describe the policy implementation of minimum service standard and to analyze the obstacles in the implementation of MSS policy at general hospital of  dr. H. Koesnadi Bondowoso. So, this research would discuss the policy implementation of minimum service standards by using Edward III concept as a tool to analyze it. This research employed qualitative research with phenomenological approach. The results showed that the implementation of MSS policy of dr. H. Koesnadi Bondowoso general hospital still did not run well. This was due to several factors  such as communication, bureaucratic structure, sources, dispositions (attitude) and leadership in sectoral ego control. Sectoral ego can be shaped from educational background of specialist doctors who still adhered seniority and lack of individual role of implementor in building interpersonal communication and conflict management.