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Acta Medica Indonesiana
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Adult Diphtheria Vaccination

Rengganis, Iris

Acta Medica Indonesiana Vol 50, No 3 (2018): Acta Medica Indonesiana
Publisher : Indonesian Society of Internal Medicine

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Abstract

Low adult vaccination coverage in Indonesia may contribute to a recent outbreak of diphtheria in Indonesia. Although well known as a pediatric vaccine, diphtheria vaccination should be administered as booster to adolescence and adults for longer prevention. Adult vaccine differs from pediatric vaccine but have similar protection. Additionally, there is special recommendation to vaccinate pregnant women and elderly people aged 65 years or more.

Plant-based Diet for HbA1c Reduction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: an Evidence-based Case Report

Utami, Denita Biyanda, Findyartini, Ardi

Acta Medica Indonesiana Vol 50, No 3 (2018): Acta Medica Indonesiana
Publisher : Indonesian Society of Internal Medicine

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Abstract

Background: diabetes has become a major public health concern with an estimated 180 million cases worldwide. Nutritional changes are one of the key aspects in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have suggested an association between vegetarian diets and improvements in glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus, however the relationship is not well established. The aim of this report is to perform a critical appraisal to analyze whether plant-based diet reduces the HbA1c level compared to conventional diet. Methods: a comprehensive computer-based literature search was performed on June 20, 2016 using PubMed, Ovid, EBSCO, and the Cochrane Library. All abstracts and titles from the initial search results were screened, reviewed, and appraised using critical appraisal worksheets by Center of Evidence-Based Medicine, University of Oxford. Results: one systematic review and two RCTs met the inclusion criteria and were considered eligible for this case report. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, HbA1c significantly yielded greater reduction in the plant-based group compared to conventional diet group after 22 weeks of follow up. Similarly, there was a statistically greater reduction in HbA1c level in the plant-based group after 72 weeks. Furthermore, consumption of plant-based diet was associated with a significant reduction in HbA1c. Conclusion: in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, HbA1c reduction was greater in patients with plant-based diet compared to patients with conventional diet. Further research should be conducted with larger sample size and longer follow-up period

Effect of Alfacalcidol on Inflammatory markers and T Cell Subsets in Elderly with Frailty Syndrome: a Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

Rizka, Aulia, Setiati, Siti, Harimurti, Kuntjoro, Sadikin, M, Mansur, Indra G

Acta Medica Indonesiana Vol 50, No 3 (2018): Acta Medica Indonesiana
Publisher : Indonesian Society of Internal Medicine

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Abstract

Background: Alphacalcidol, a vitamin D analog, shows immune regulatory potency as it works on the macrophage and T cell to control inflammation and T cell dysregulation in elderly. None has been known about its effect on elderly with various states of frailty syndrome, which have different level of chronic low grade inflammation. This study aimed to determine the effect of alphacalcidol on inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, g-IFN ) and T cell subsets (CD4/CD8 ratio and CD8+ CD28-) of elderly with various stages of frailty syndrome. Methods: from January to July 2017, a double blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) with allocation concealment, involving 110 elderly subjects from Geriatric Outpatient Clinic Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital Jakarta, was conducted to measure the effect of 0.5 mcg alphacalcidol administration for 90 days to inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, g-IFN) from PBMC culture supernatant, as well as CD4/CD8 and CD8+CD28- percentage using flow cytometry. Statistical analysis using SPSS version 20 was performed with t-test to measure mean difference. Results: of 110 subjects involved in the RCT consisting of 27 fit, 27 pre-frail  and 56 frail elderly, 25(OH)D serum level was found to be as low as 25.59 (12.2) ng/ml in alphacalcidol group and 28.27 (10.4) ng/ml in placebo group. Alphacalcidol did not decrease IL-6 (p=0.4) and g- IFN (p=0.001), but it increased IL-10 (p=0,005) and decreased IL6/IL10 ratio (p=0.008). Alphacalcidol increased CD4/CD8 ratio from 2.68 (SD 2.45) to 3.2 (SD 2.9); p=0.001 and decreased CD8+ CD28- percentage from 5.1 (SD 3.96) to 2.5 (1.5); p<0.001. Sub group analysis showed similar patterns in all frailty states. Conclusion: Alphacalcidol improves immune senescence by acting as anti-inflammatory agent through increased IL-10 and decreased IL6/IL-10 ratio and also improves cellular immunity through increased CD4/CD8 ratio and decreased CD8+ CD28- subset in elderly. This effect is not influenced by frailty state.

Evaluation of Iron Overload Between Age Groups Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Its Correlation with Iron Profile in Transfusion-dependent Thalassemia

Wahidiyat, Pustika Amalia, Iskandar, Stephen Diah, Sekarsari, Damayanti

Acta Medica Indonesiana Vol 50, No 3 (2018): Acta Medica Indonesiana
Publisher : Indonesian Society of Internal Medicine

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Abstract

Background: routine blood transfusion in transfusion-dependent-thalassemia (TDT) causes iron accumulation in various organ. Serum markers of iron overload, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation, are sensitive but not specific. MRI T2-star (T2*) is valuable for detecting iron level in organs. This study aimed to explore the degree of iron overload in various organs, iron deposition difference between children and adults, also its correlation with serum marker of iron overload. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study of TDT patients who had been evaluated by MRI T2* examination in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital from 2014 to 2018. Results: a total of 546 subjects was included in this study. The number of subjects between children and adults was almost equal. Most of subjects had normal cardiac iron deposition. The difference of cardiac iron overload between children and adults was significant (p=0.009). Liver evaluation showed that most of subjects had moderate to severe iron overload. This difference between children and adults was significant (p=0.017). Pancreas evaluation showed that either children or adults mostly had mild pancreatic iron overload. Analysis of T2* showed that pancreatic iron deposition progressed with increasing age. Serum ferritin had weak correlation with heart T2* MRI, moderate correlation with pancreas and liver T2* MRI. Relationship between transferrin saturation and T2* MRI was extremely weak. Conclusion: cardiac and hepatic iron deposition between children and adults differ significantly. Liver has the greatest iron overload, followed by pancreas and heart. Iron deposition in liver and pancreas has been started from earlier age. Pancreatic iron deposition rises with increasing age. Serum ferritin and transferrin saturation should not be used solely to predict iron overload in various organs. We suggest that MRI evaluation must be conducted at least once to assess iron deposition in organs.

Diagnostic Accuracy of Platelet/Lymphocyte Ratio for Screening Complex Coronary Lesion in Different Age Group of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

Anwar, Irma Wahyuni, Wijaya, Ika Prasetya, Sukrisman, Lugyanti, Nasution, Sally A, Rumende, Cleopas M

Acta Medica Indonesiana Vol 50, No 3 (2018): Acta Medica Indonesiana
Publisher : Indonesian Society of Internal Medicine

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Abstract

Background: with the increasing number of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with complex coronary lesion and the increasing needs of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures, there is an increasing need for a tool to perform early stratification in high-risk patients, which can be used in daily clinical practice, even at first-line health care facilities setting in Indonesia. It is expected that early stratification of high-risk patients can reduce morbidity and mortality rate in patients with ACS. This study aimed to identify diagnostic accuracy of platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the optimum cut-off point of PLR as a screening tool for identifying a complex coronary lesion in patients ≤45 and >45 years old. Methods: this was a retrospective cross-sectional study, conducted at the ICCU of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Data was obtained from medical records of adult patients with ACS who underwent coronary angiography between January 2012 - July 2015. The inclusion criteria were adult ACS patients (aged ≥18 years old), diagnosed with ACS and underwent coronary angiography during hospitalization. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-). The cut-off point was determined using ROC curve. Results: the proportion of ACS patients with complex coronary lesion in our study was 47.2%. The optimum cut-off point in patients aged ≤45 years was 111.06 with sensitivity, specificity, LR+ and LR of 91.3%, 91.9%, 11.27 and 0.09, respectively. The optimum cut-off points in patients aged >45 years was 104.78 with sensitivity, specificity, LR+ and LR of 91.7%, 58.6%, 2.21 and 0.14, respectively. Conclusion: the optimum cut-off point for PLR in patients aged ≤ 45 years is 111.06 and for patients with age >45 years is 104.78 with diagnostic accuracy, represented by AUC of 93.9% (p<0.001) and 77.3% (p<0.001), respectively for both age groups.

Comparison of Quality of Life between Patients Undergoing Chronic Hemodialysis with Reusable Dialyzer and Single-Use Dialyzer: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Bawazier, Lucky Aziza, Suhardjono, Suhardjono

Acta Medica Indonesiana Vol 50, No 3 (2018): Acta Medica Indonesiana
Publisher : Indonesian Society of Internal Medicine

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Abstract

Background: in Indonesia, majority of hemodialysis centers use reusable dialyzer for cost efficiency reason. Currently, there is no available data regarding the quality of life of the end stage-renal disease patient’who use reusable dialyzer measured by a standardized questionnaire, as it was stated that at molecular level, reusable dialyzer could worsen leukocyte activity and could affect patients’ complaints and symptoms. Methods: this was a retrospective cohort study which involved 39 subjects. All subjects underwent hemodialysis at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. The study was conducted in March – September 2017. All subjects had experienced two kinds of dialyzers, the reusable dialyzers (before 2015) and the single-use dialyzers (after 2015). Of all patients, 19 patients did not know the change of dialyzers. Subjects were interviewed with Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form 36 questionnaire. Results: in kidney disease component dimension, there was a significant mean difference between reusable group (68.74; SD 13.22) and single-use group (74.87; SD 13.54) (Wilcoxon test, p=0.01). The Physical Component Summary dimension, in reusable group was 63.65; SD 27.07 and in single-use group was 69.38; SD 23.07 (Wilcoxon test, p=0.217). The Mental Component Summary dimension, in reusable group was 71.78; SD 21.54 and in single-use group was75.27; SD 22.30 (Wilcoxon test, p=0.127). Bivariate analysis and further analysis showed significant association between income less than 5 million rupiah and low quality of life (p=0.048). Conclusion: the reusable dialyzer membrane lowers the ESRD patients’ quality of life influenced by another factor such as low income.

An Interesting Case of Hepatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma

Permana, Hikmat, Darmawan, Guntur, Ritonga, Ervita, Kusumawati, Maya, Miftahurachman, Miftahurachman, Soetedjo, Nanny Natalia

Acta Medica Indonesiana Vol 50, No 3 (2018): Acta Medica Indonesiana
Publisher : Indonesian Society of Internal Medicine

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Abstract

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare solid tumor with an incidence of 0.5 to 2 cases per million per year. It affects women more commonly than men with a ratio of 1.5:1. Ectopic ACC are considered to be extremely rare with no exact incidence data yet. We report an interesting case of hepatic ACC in a young woman with clinical signs of virilization.A-21-year old Sundanese woman visited our endocrine clinic with progressive hirsutism over the face, body, and extremities starting 14 years previously. She had irregular, heavy periods when she was 7 years old. She also experienced pubertal development of her breasts. However, both menstrual cycle and breast development ceased when she was 8 years old. She noticed voice deepening and alopecia. Physical examination showed male-type alopecia and intense hirsutism. Tanner stage was 3 for breast tissue and 5 for pubic hair. There was no galactorrhea. Body mass index was 21.4 kg/m2. Hormonal evaluation revealed increased level of free testosterone (>1500 ng/dl; NV: 8.4-48.1 ng/dl), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (>1000 ug/ml; NV: 65.1-369 ug/ml), and estradiol (533.60 pg/ml; NV: 14-124 pg/ml), low level of LH (<0.07 mIU/ml; NV: 1.7-11 mIU/ml) and FSH (<0.30 mIU/ml; NV: 1.34-9.40 mIU/ml), slight increased in morning serum cortisol (26.61 ug/ml; NV: 4.3-22.4 ug/ml), normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone (3.2 mIU/l; NV: 0.34-4.25 mIU/l) and prolactin (14.70 ng/ml; NV: 3.30-15.80 ng/ml). Gynecological ultrasound and brain MRI examination showed no structural abnormality. Abdominal CT scan demonstrated contrast enhanced solid inhomogenous mass sized 11.6 x 14.2 x 15.6 cm in right liver lobe. Neither suprarenal mass nor paraaortic lymphadenopathy was seen in the abdominal CT scan. Chromosomal examination revealed normal female karyotype (46, XX). Further liver biopsy showed morphology and immunohistochemistry (positive for CD 56, HEP 1, and NSE) consistent with adrenocortical carcinoma. Surgical therapy with referral to other institution was offered to the patient as first line treatment. Meanwhile, the patient got spironolactone 100 mg OD.Virilizing tumors are rare and few of them are androgen-producing adrenal tumors. Ectopic adrenal tumors are even rarer. Ectopic adrenal tissue can be found close to the adrenal glands, or along the path of descent or in association with gonad. Moreover, they have ever been reported in nervous system, stomach, gall bladder, and liver. There have been several case reports of adrenal rest tumor of liver; however, our literature review found no report of ectopic ACC of liver. Cortical tissue, embrologically derived from mesoderm, seems to be the sole component of the tumor which can undergo malignant transformation or become hormonally functional. Functioning tumors are more frequent in women. Our case demonstrated virilization as chief complaint. The ectopically located functioning tumors display the same clinical picture as tumors located in adrenal gland, with Cushing’s syndrome and virilization are the most frequent symptoms in order of frequency. The virilization, as shown in our case, is due to excessive androgen production of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and testosterone. The distinction of ACC from benign adrenocortical tumor is important. Since there is no previous report of hepatic ACC and surgery is the keystone of curative treatment modality for ACC at adrenal gland, we planned the patient for surgical resection. Adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy (mitotane and combination of cytotoxic drugs), irradiation might be considered in ACC treatment. To control androgen effects, spironolactone was administered in our patient. However, there was no significant improvement in symptoms.In conclusion, we present the first reported case of hepatic ACC. A thorough history, physical examination, and appropriate laboratory, imaging examination are critical in evaluating virilized female patients. Elevated serum concentration of  dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and testosterone might direct clinician to functioning adrenal cortical tissue as etiology, with further investigation of exact tumor site.

Efficacy of Additional Solifenacin Succinate Therapy for Storage Symptoms in Females with Uncomplicated Lower Urinary Tract Infection: The SOLUTION Randomized Controlled Trial

Rahardjo, Harrina Erlianti, Syahputra, Firtantyo Adi, Islianti, Putri Iradita, Matondang, Faisal Abdi

Acta Medica Indonesiana Vol 50, No 3 (2018): Acta Medica Indonesiana
Publisher : Indonesian Society of Internal Medicine

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Abstract

Background: urinary tract infection (UTI) is often treated in daily practice as overactive bladder (OAB) by giving anticholinergic, the recommended treatment options of OAB. However, anticholinergic application for UTI symptoms relief has never been investigated. To our knowledge, this study was the first randomized trial which investigate anticholinergic use for UTI treatment. This study aimed to evaluate whether additional anticholinergic is beneficial alongside an empiric antibiotic therapy in reducing symptoms and tolerable for females with uncomplicated UTI. Methods: this was a randomized double-blind controlled trial that included female aged >18 y.o with uncomplicated lower UTI. Patients were randomly assigned to either solifenacin succinate 5 mg (group 1) or placebo (group 2) in addition to empiric levofloxacin 500 mg treatment for 3 days. Those with structural and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and allergic reaction history were excluded. We observed changes in overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS), patient perception of bladder condition (PPBC) score, patient-reported symptoms and adverse events. Results: a total of 126 patients, 63 for each group, initiated the trial with median age of 44 (19-67) y.o. There were no differences of age, OABSS, and PPBC score between the 2 groups at baseline. We found significant (p<0.05) reduction of OABSS and PPBC score in both groups at the end of therapy; however the amount of reduction were not different between groups. In group 1 we found 22.2% of patients complained of dry mouth and 25.4%, 4.7%, 3.2% of patients complained of nausea, somnolence and constipation respectively. In group 2 we found 20.0%, 21.7% and 3.3% patients who complained of dry mouth, nausea, and somnolence respectively. One patient in group 2 experienced allergic reaction and was dropped out. Conclusion: we found no significant difference in OABSS and PPBC score reduction by adding anticholinergic to antibiotic therapy for females with uncomplicated UTI. There was no serious adverse event recorded.

Gallbladder Wall Thickening for Early Detection of Plasma Leakage in Dengue Infected Adult Patients

Nainggolan, Leonard, Wiguna, Candra, Hasan, Irsan, Dewiasty, Esthika

Acta Medica Indonesiana Vol 50, No 3 (2018): Acta Medica Indonesiana
Publisher : Indonesian Society of Internal Medicine

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Abstract

Background: plasma leakage is defined as ≥20% elevation of hematocrit from baseline or decrease in convalescence or evidence of plasma leakage such as pleural effusion, ascites or hypoproteinaemia/hypoalbuminaemia. These signs of plasma leakage, in the early phase, are usually difficult to ascertain by physical examination and laboratory tests where the patient is only reflecting a mild degree of plasma leakage. This study aimed to investigate whether gallbladder wall thickening (GBWT) in the early phase of the disease can be used to detect the occurrence of plasma leakage in dengue patients. Methods: a diagnostic study was conducted among dengue patients. Patients with fever less than 3 days, positive results of non-structural protein 1 antigen dengue and RT-PCR examination were included consecutively. Laboratory tests and chest and abdominal ultrasonography examination were also performed daily from day-3 to day-7 of fever to confirm the occurrence of plasma leakage using WHO 1997 criteria during treatment. Results: there were 69 patients included in this study. Male patients were found more frequently (52.2%), average age was 24.2 years, and 46 patients (66.7%) presented with secondary dengue infection. On the third day of fever, 37 patients presented with GBWT, 30 of which showed plasma leakage during treatment. Out of 46 patients found to have plasma leakage during treatment, 12 patients had presented with plasma leakage on the third day of fever. Sensitivity and specificity of GBWT on the third day of fever were 65% (95% CI: 0,51-0,79) and 70% (95% CI: 0.51-0.88); PPV and NPV were 81% (95% CI: 0.68-0.94) and 50% (95% CI: 0.33-0.67); LR (+) and LR (-) were 2.14 (95% CI: 1.12-4.12) and 0.5 (95% CI: 0.31-0.81), respectively. Conclusion: gallbladder wall thickening in the early phase of the disease can be used to detect the occurrence of plasma leakage in adult dengue infected patients.

Catheter-related Blood Stream Infection in a Patient with Hemodialysis

Dharmayanti, Anti, Astrawinata, Dalima

Acta Medica Indonesiana Vol 50, No 3 (2018): Acta Medica Indonesiana
Publisher : Indonesian Society of Internal Medicine

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Abstract

A 31-year-old patient came to visit the outpatient clinic at the hospital for his routine twice-weekly hemodialyis (HD) session. During HD, the patient suddenly developed a fever with shivering. At that time, a diagnosis of catheter-related blood stream infection (CR-BSI) was developed, HD catheter or the catheter double lumen (CDL) was uninstalled and the patient was hospitalized. Results of culture withdrawn through the tip of catheter lumen and peripheral blood revealed identical microorganism, i.e. the Enterobacter cloacae. Diagnosis of CR-BSI in the present case was made based on the 2009 Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) criteria. In general, prevention measures for CR-BSI should be taken into account including education for patient, awareness of the health care providers who install the CDL, implementation of procedure for appropriate skin aseptic technique and best practice for HD catheter care, particularly on the exit site of the CDL to prevent the development of CR-BSI.