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Paediatrica Indonesiana
Paediatrica Indonesiana is a medical journal devoted to the health, in a broad sense, affecting fetuses, infants, children, and adolescents, belonged to the Indonesian Pediatric Society. Its publications are directed to pediatricians and other medical practitioners or researchers at all levels of health practice throughout the world.
Articles
804
Articles
Obesity and functional constipation in children

Yuwanita, Natasha, Sinuhaji, Atan Baas, Sembiring, Tiangsa, Supriatmo, Supriatmo, Yudiyanto, Ade Rachmat

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 58 No 1 (2018): January 2018
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Background Functional constipation is a common pediatric problem in both developed and developing countries.  In the past two decades, the prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide. Obesity itself leads to many health problems, including functional constipation. Studies correlating obesity to functional constipation have thus far mostly originated from developed countries.Objective To assess for a possible correlation between obesity and functional constipation in children in a developing country.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Mukhlisin Islamic Boarding School, Batu Bara District, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia, between July and August 2015. The subjects were 150 students aged 12 to 17 years. Questionnaires were used to determine functional constipation and filled by direct interview. Obesity was determined by body mass index. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test.Results Of 150 children, 49 had functional constipation; and 18 of the 49 were obese. The mean age of children with constipation was 14.7 (SD 1.07) years (95%CI 14.1 to 14.7) and their mean body weight was 53.8 (SD 15.10) kg (95%CI 49.4 to 58.1). The prevalence for functional constipation in obese children was  58% There was a statistically significant correlation between obesity and functional constipation (prevalence ratio=4; 95%CI 1.72 to 8.94; P=0.001), indicating that obese children had 4 times higher risk of having functional constipation.Conclusion There is a significant correlation between obesity and functional constipation in children.

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D level and atopic dermatitis severity in children

Munawwarah, Laily, Evalina, Rita, Sofyani, Sri

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 57 No 5 (2017): September 2017
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Background Vitamin D plays an important role in the immune system. It inhibits B-lymphocyte proliferation and modulates the humoral response to suppress IgE production. Studies on the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D level and the severity of atopic dermatitis in several countries have had varying results.Objective To assess for a possible correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D level and atopic dermatitis severity in children.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 26 children with atopic dermatitis from September to December 2015. We evaluated the severity of disease using the Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index and measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels. Spearman’s test was used to analyze for a correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D level and the atopic dermatitis  score in children with atopic dermatitis.Results Mean SCORAD index was 32.0 (SD 14.99) , with a range of 10.9 to 71.4. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D level was 41.1 (SD 24.81) ng/mL, with a range of 10-137 ng/mL. There was a moderate correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D level and the SCORAD index (r=-0.591), with higher SCORAD index associated with lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D level (P=0.01).Conclusion There is a moderate correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D level and the SCORAD index in children with atopic dermatitis.

Mantoux tests of children in household contact with adult acid fast bacilli-positive or -negative pulmonary tuberculosis

Wardah, Wardah, Daulay, Ridwan Muktar, Azlin, Emil, Dalimunthe, Wisman, Daulay, Rini Savitri

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 57 No 6 (2017): November 2017
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Background Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. In children, the major source of TB transmission is adults with pulmonary TB who have acid fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum. However, tuberculosis infection can also occur in children in household contact with adults who have AFB-negative pulmonary TB.Objective To compare Mantoux test results and induration diameters in children with adult pulmonary TB household contact who were either positive or negative for AFB, and to assess for possible associations between Mantoux test results with age, family income, and house ventilation in both groups.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2014. Mantoux test was performed in children aged 3 months to 18 years who had household contact with either AFB-positive or -negative adult pulmonary TB patients.Results A total of 106 children were enrolled in the study. All subjects had household contact with adult pulmonary TB patients who were either AFB-positive (54 children) or AFB-negative (52 children). Mean Mantoux test induration diameters were significantly different between groups (10.9 (SD 6.55) mm vs. 6.2 (SD 5.91) mm, respectively; P=0.001). In addition, there was significantly higher risk of positive Mantoux test in children in contact with adult AFB-positive TB patients than in the AFB-negative group (OR 5.66; 95%CI 2.36-13.59; P=0.0001). However, there were no significant differences in positive Mantoux test results in each of the AFB-positive and -negative groups, with regards to age, family income, or house ventilation.Conclusion Mean Mantoux test induration diameter in children who had household contact with AFB-positive adults is significantly larger than that of the AFB-negative group. Positive Mantoux test results in children are associated with AFB-positive adult TB in the household. There is no association between positive Mantoux test results and age, family income, or house ventilation in both groups. 

Gross motor dysfunction as a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia in children with cerebral palsy

Hafifah, Cut Nurul, Setyanto, Darmawan Budi, Putra, Sukman Tulus, Mangunatmadja, Irawan, Sari, Teny Tjitra, Wulandari, Haryanti Fauziah

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 57 No 5 (2017): September 2017
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Background Respiratory problems, such as aspiration pneumonia, are major causes of morbidity and mortality in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and greatly affect the quality of life of these children. Nevertheless, there is limited data on the incidence and risk factors of aspiration pneumonia in children with CP in Indonesia. Objective To determine the incidence and risk factors of aspiration pneumonia in children with cerebral palsy.Methods In children with CP aged 1-18 years, incidence of pneumonia was studied prospectively for 6 months and the prevalence of the risk factors was studied cross-sectionally. At baseline, we evaluated subjects’ by history-taking, physical examination, risk factors, and chest X-ray to assess the incidence of silent aspiration. Subjects were followed-up for six months to determine the incidence of overt or silent aspiration pneumonia.Results Eight out of 36 subjects had one or more episodes of aspiration, consisting of silent aspiration (2/36) and clinically diagnosed aspiration pneumonia (7/36). Subjects with more severe gross motor dysfunction experienced more episodes aspiration pneumonia, although it was not statistically significant (p = 0.06), while dysphagia (P=0.2) and nutritional status (P=0.11) were not associated with pneumonia or silent aspiration.Conclusion Twenty-five percent of children with CP experienced aspiration pneumonia during the 6-month study period, with gross motor dysfunction as a possible risk factor.

Waist circumference and insulin levels in obese children

Cempaka, Vina Paramitha, Sidiartha, I Gusti Lanang

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 57 No 4 (2017): July 2017
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Background Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. Its prevalence has increased at an alarming rate. Overweight and obese children are prone to obesity in adulthood and to developing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. Increased waist circumference has been shown to contribute to the risk of metabolic syndrome in obese adults.Objective To assess for a correlation between waist circumference and insulin level in obese children.Methods In this cross-sectional study, obese children aged 6-10 years were included by consecutive sampling. We excluded children with infectious disease, malignancy, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or those who had not fasted before the blood draw. Subjects underwent waist circumference and fasting blood glucose measurements. Serum insulin levels were examined by enzyme-labeled chemiluminescent immunometric assay,after subjects had fasted for 10-14 hours. Data were analyzed by correlation analysis.Results Subjects had a mean waist circumference of 80.2 cm (SD 7.2) and mean insulin level of 10.70 (SD 7.5). µIU/mL Pearson’s correlation test revealed a significant, moderately positive correlation between waist circumference and elevated insulin level (r=0.45; P=0.006).Conclusion Waist circumference and insulin level have a significant, moderate, positive correlation in obese children. As such, waist circumference may be a simple method for early detection of hyperinsulinemia, as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome.

The Sick Child Initiative

Tulloch, James

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 37, No 9-10 (1997): September-October 1997
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Every year some L2 million children die before they reach their fifth birthday, many of them during the first year of life. Seven in every 10 of these child deaths are due to diarrhea, pneumonia, measles, malaria, or malnutrition - and often to a combination of these conditions (see Table 1). In addition to this substantial mortality, these con-ditions typically account for three out of four sick children seeking care at a health facility. Every day, millions of parents seek health care for their children, taking them to hospitals, health centers, pharmacists, community health care providers and traditional healers.

Nutritional Status of Underfives at Balimbingan PTP VIII Simalungun Residence of North Sumatra

Erdanini, Erdanini, Nasution, Riza Iriani, Hamid, Endang D., Rusdidjas, Rusdidjas

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 37, No 5-6 (1997): May-June 1997
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

A cross sectional study was done on nutritional status of underfives at Balimbingan PTP VIII Simalungun residence of North Sumatra in 1992. The sample consisted of randomly selected 237 children, most of them were between 1-3 years age. Data were collected by using a questionnaire, physical examination, and anthro­pometric measurement. Using weight for age parameter, the percentages of children with good to moderately nourished, mildly malnourished, and severely malnourished were 69.6%, 23.7%, and 6.7%, respectively. Using height for age parameter, the per­centages were 68.8%, 21.1%, and 10.1%, respectively. About half of the babies were breast-fed after 24 hours and 32,5% was breastfed at the age of 1-12 hours. There were 132 (78.1%) babies who got milk formula at the age of less than 4 months; of which 63.9% were given very diluted formula. Most babies (68%) were already given solid food at the age of less than 4 months. The relationship between number of chil­dren with nutritional status of underfives was statistically significant (p<0.05), however there was no relationship between nutritional status with parents education, formula feeding, and time at which solid food was given.

Food hypersensitivity as a cause of atopic dermatitis

Santoso, Hendra

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 37, No 9-10 (1997): September-October 1997
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Food hypersensitivity as a cause of atopic dermatitis.

Growth of Exclusively and Non-Exclusively Breast Fed Infants (0-4 Months) in Posyandu Kenangan Area, District of Deli Serdang

Nasution, Riza I., Fauzah, Fauzah, Hamid, Endang S., Manoeroeng, S.M.

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 37, No 1-2 (1997): January-February 1997
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

A prospective study of all infants visited Posyandu in Kenangan Area was done to study their growth until the age of 4 months according to their feeding pattern (exclusively breast fed or not) This study lasted for 3 months (December 1992 until February 1993). Ninety two infants met the study criteria (spontaneous delivery and cry immediately, no congenital anomaly, body weight over 2500 gram, and appropriate for gestational age). In most of these infants, the first visit was at 1-2 months age (34 infants or 36%). The number of infants with exclusively breast fed was 25 or 26% and non-exclusively breast fed was 67 or 74%. There were 38 infants or 41% who got breast feeding exclusively since bulb and 48 or 51% after 25-72 hours following birth. There were 50 infants or 52% who got supplementary food before 2 month age. The average monthly body weight increase, in exclusively breast fed group was higher than in non-exclusively breast fed group infants.

Clinical Edema and Chest X-Ray Findings in Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

Albar, Husein, Rauf, Syarifuddin, Daud, Dasril, Tanra, Azis, Kaspan, M. Faried

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 37, No 3-4 (1997): March-April 1997
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

We report the results of a retrospective study evaluating clinical edema and chest X-ray findings in 17b patients with acute poststreptococcal glomeru¬lonephritis (APSGN), hospitalized in the Pediatric Nephrology Unit of Ujung Pandang General Hospital, from January 1, 1980 through December 31, 1990. Of the total 194 patients, only 176 fulfilled the criteria and could be evaluated. There were 98 boys (55,7%) and 78 girls (44.3%) aged between 1 year 9 months and 14 years, mostly be¬tween 6-12 years (72.8%). We found that edema of the palpebra was more frequently noted (98.9%) than that of the pretibia (71.6%), face (64.2%) and ascites (21.0%). This study showed evidence of cardiomegaly (84.1%), pulmonary vascular congestion (68.2%), pleural effusion (65.9%) and pulmonary edema (48.9%). Our study results documented that roentgenographic abnormality of the chest of patients with APSGN, included each of the following findings, e.g., cardiomegaly, pleural effusion, pulmonary vascular congestion, and pulmonary edema, was significantly more frequent in patients with clinical evidence of severe edema than those with moderate and mild edema (p < 0.01).

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