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Paediatrica Indonesiana
Paediatrica Indonesiana is a medical journal devoted to the health, in a broad sense, affecting fetuses, infants, children, and adolescents, belonged to the Indonesian Pediatric Society. Its publications are directed to pediatricians and other medical practitioners or researchers at all levels of health practice throughout the world.
Articles
1054
Articles
Food Hypersensitivity as a Cause of Atopic Dermatitis

Santoso, Hendra

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 34 No 5-6 (1994): May 1994
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Thirty children from infancy to 12 years suffering from atopic dermatitis were evaluated for food hypersensitivity by means of history, skin prick test, total eosinophils count, and elimination of suspected food. Sixteen (53%) patients had history of allergy to suspected food, the other 16 (53%) had ether allergic diseases. Of the 30 patients, 15 (50%) had one of the parents with allergic diseases, and in 3 patients both parents suffered from a1Iergic diseases. Nineteen (6:3-1.) children had atopic dermatitis triggered by food; egg accounted for 400/o, fish for 53-lo and shrimp for 40% for the allergic manifestations. Skin prick test consisted of 20 food allergens was done to all children above 2 years of age, 12 (40%) of the pa1ients showed positive results. This study demonstrated that food hypersensitivity may play a pathogenic role in some children with atopic dermatitis. Appropriate diagnosis and restriction of diet can improve their skin symptoms.

Evaluation of Mortality of Patients with Neonatal Tetanus

Soetomenggolo, Taslim S., Pusponegoro, Hardiono D., Passat, Jimmy, Ismael, Sofyan

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 34 No 5-6 (1994): May 1994
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

During 8 years, 405 patients of neonatal tetanus were hospitalized in the Department of Child Health, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. Diagnosis of neonatal tetanus was based on clinical signs and symptoms. Of the 405 patients, 56.3% were males and 43.7 %. were females. Two hundreds and sixty nine (66.3 %) patients were delivered by traditional birth attendants, and only 33.6% were delivered by midwives or physicians. The overall mortality was 54.4%, with the corrected mortality of 46.7%. Severity of the disease, short incubation period, short period of onset, and the accompanying diseases were responsible for the high mortality of patients with neonatal tetanus.

Diagnosis of Rheumatic Fever: Which Modification?

Madiyono, Bambang, Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo, Oesman, Ismet N., Putra, Sukman Tulus, Advani, Najib

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 34 No 5-6 (1994): May 1994
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

We evaluated the implementation of diagnostic criteria on 547 ambulatory patients with rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) between January 1, 1983 and December 31, 1992. The diagnosis of RF and reactive RHD was established by either revised Jones criteria, modified Jones criteria, or clinical judgment The patients age ranged from 4-18 years, 255 (46.6%) of them were boys. The clinical manifestations found were fever (58.1 %), arthritis (41.9%), chorea (8.6%), subcutaneous nodule (1.3%), erythema marginatum (1.1%), holosystolic murmur (56.9%), mid-diastolic murmur (25.4%), and early diastolic murmur (29.5%). The laboratory changes were hemoglobin <10 g/dl (16.5%), BSR > 20 mm/h (56.30/o), ASTO >200 U (29.6%), PR interval> 0.16 sec (13.3%), and erR> 0.55 (27.6%). Revised Jones criteria were met in 162 cases (29%), modified criteria in 474 cases (86,6%), and clinical judgment in 521 cases (95.2%).

Parents Knowledge on Diarrhea in a Plantation Area

Arizal, Arizal, Antoni, Ali, Harahap, Sari Leyli, Sinuhaji, Atan Baas, Sutanto, A. H.

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 34 No 5-6 (1994): May 1994
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

The parents knowledge on diarrhea was evaluated by a cross sectional study in Balirnbingan plantation PTP Vlll Kabupaten Simalungunon December 18-19, 1992. The study was conducted by providing questionnaires to 216 parents of infants and children with diarrhea. Most parents (97.2%) knew that diarrhea was a disease, wbile six of them (2.SOA>) thought that diarrhea was not a disease but was associated with the increase level of intelligence or teeth eruption. Seventy-five percent of parents thought that fluid and electrolyte ought to be given to children with diarrhea, and 16.5 % thought to give anti-diarrheal drugs or traditional medicaments. Fluid and electrolytes were given as an initial treatment for diarrhea by most of the parents (69%). Eight per cent of parents gave diarrheal drugs and 12% used traditional medicaments. They got oral electrolyte solution (OES) from the health workers (63.3%) or from the dispensaries or drug stores (36.7%). Most of the parents (53.7%) thought that OES was useful to stop diarrhea. Only 30.3% knew that OES was used as the substitute of fluid loss, 16% thought it was to cure for stomach ache. As many as 57.4% parents knew diarrhea as an infectious disease and 57.4 % knew how to prevent it. Most of them knew that environmental sanitation could prevent the disease (23.3%). Food and beverages were known as vehicle of infections by 37.5% parents.

Blood Pressure Values in School Age Children in Medan

Thaib, T. M., Alam, Hisworo Multi, Lubis, Agusnadi Munar, Ramayati, Rafita, Rusdidjas, Rusdidjas

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 34 No 5-6 (1994): May 1994
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

A cross sectional study on blood pressure in school children aged 6 to 16 years was carried out in the city of Medan from November 1 through January 31, 1993. By using stratified random sampling, 660 school children (336 boys and 324 girls) were enrolled. Blood pressure was measured using standard sphygmomanometer as recommended by The Second International Symposium on Hypertension in Children (1985). Relationships between the mean values of systolic and diastolic pressures with age and sex were sought for. There was a tendency that both systolic and diastolic blood pressures increased with increasing age. Based on percentiles graphic for age and sex, blood pressure higher than 95th percentile was found in 15 boys (4.5%) and 15 girls (4.6%) and 70% of them were in 11-16 years age group. Statistically significant correlations were found (p<0.001) between blood pressures and height as well as weight; however the correlation coefficients were only weak to moderate.

Acute Renal Failure Due to Jengkol Intoxication in Children

Alatas, Husein

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 34 No 5-6 (1994): May 1994
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

JengkoL intoxication is well-known in Indonesia. We report a series of 39 parents with jengkol intoxication admitted to the Department of Child Health Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, during the period of 1984 through 1993. Patients ranged in age from 3 to 14 years. The male to female ratio of all cases was 1.8 to 1 but the ratio of patients suffering from acute renal failure was 5.7 to 1. Oliguria or anuria presented in all cases with acute renal failure. Three patients underwent peritoneal dialysis which gave rapid improvement; 2 patients had died due to acute renal failure before dialysis could be performed. When compared with previous reports, it seems that the admission for jengkol intoxication has been declining. Change in the way of consuming the bean and increasing number of hospitals in Jakarta may be responsible for the decline of cases admitted.

Congenital Hypothyroidism

Multialam, Hisworo, Simandjuntak, Robert M., Hamid, Endang D.

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 34 No 5-6 (1994): May 1994
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

We report a case of congenital hypothyroidism seen at the Division of Endocrinology, Medical School, University of North Sumatera/Dr. Pirngadi Hospital. A 13-month ols Batak girl presented witih signs and symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism. On physical examination, umbilical and inguinal hernias were present. Treatment with L -Thyroxme using initial dose 45/µg/day for one month was initiated and after two months the signs and symptoms disappeared. Laboratory finding showed normal T4, but T3 was slightly low. Radiological examination was done to evaluate the bone age. The treatment was continued using the follow-up dose of L-Thyroxine 45µg. Although the treatment has resulted in good outcome,  evaluations for the childs growth and development should be continued.

Multidrug Resistant Transfusion Vivax Malaria

Tjitra, Emiliana, Lukito, Bondan, Gunawan, Suriadi

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 34 No 5-6 (1994): May 1994
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

A 17-day-old premature baby girl had received a blood exchange transfusion because of hyperbilirubinemia and got another blood transfusion because of severe anemia on day 45. The diagnosis of transfusion vivax malaria was made when she had severe anemia again on day 78. The most predominant clinical signs were fever, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and thrombocytopenia. Treatment with chloroquine 25 mg base/kg BW showed resistance at RIII level on a 7 -day follow up. She was retreated. with quinine 10 mg salt/age in month divided in 3 doses/day for 7 days. lt also showed resistance at late RI level on day-30. Then she was retreated with quinine 15 mg  salt/age in month divided in 3 doses/day for 7 days and still showed resistance at late Rl level on day 32. Finally she was treated with quinine 10 mg salt/kg BW /dose, tid for 7 days which was effective. During the course of treatment, no adverse reactions were found clinically. This malaria case was transfusion vivax malaria resistant to choloroquine at R III level and to quinine at late RI level. Quinine 10 mg salt/BW I dose tid for 7 days was effective and safe for infants.

Anthropometry of Newborn Infants Born in 14 Teaching Centers in Indonesia

Alisjahbana, Anna, Chaerulfatah, Alex, Usman, Ali, Sutresnawati, Sri

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 34 No 3-4 (1994): March 1994
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Percentile curves representing intrauterine growth of Indonesian infants ranging from 34 to 43 weeks of gestation in 14 teaching centers were constructed from birth weight, birth length, and head, mid-upper arm, and chest circumferences. The gestational age was determined based on the last menstrual period. Mothers with probable chronic diseases or pregnancy complications were excluded. Included for analysis were 5844 singleton newborns. The mean birth weight of Indonesian babies was higher for gestational age of 34-38 weeks, but lower at 40-42 weeks of gestation compared with that of the Denver study. The results showed that the mean birth weight of Denvers newborns was significantly different than that of the Indonesian infants, therefore the Denver intrauterine growth curve cannot be used as reference curve for Indonesian  newborns. Baby boys in general bad a higher mean birth weight, birth length, head circumference, and chest circumference. No difference was found for arm circumference. For every gestational age and percentiles, later born infants were heavier than first born infants. Birth weight at 42 weeks was lower for first born infants, this was not shown in later-born infants which showed higher weight for each percentiles. Parity affected birth weight more than birth length. Birth length became more stable at 39 weeks. Chest circumference of < 29 em had the highest sensitivit,y and positive predictive value for low birth weight, followed by arm circumference of < 9 cm. The use of intrauterine growth chart in studying the nutritional status of babies at birth was described.

Cyclosporin-A Treatment in Steroid Nonresponsive Nephrotic Syndrome

Wirya, IGN Wila, Tambunan, Taralan, Alatan, Husein

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 34 No 1-2 (1994): January 1994
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Fifteen patients with steroid nonresponsive nephrotic syndrome (NS) aged 4-16 years received oral cyclosporin-A (CyA) for 12 weeks. Nine of the patients were boys. Out of the 15 patients, 7 were frequent relapsers, 3 were steroid dependents, 4 were steroid resistants and one with toxic steroid. After 12 weeks of CyA treatment;, 6 patients showed complete remission, 7 showed partial remission, and 2 patients did not respond at all. Side effects observed were slight renal function impairment, gingival hyperplasia, and a hump on the breast; all disappeared gradually after stopping CyA. Patients with total remission experienced relapse 2 to 12 months after discontinuation of CyA, while patients with partial remission experienced relapse 2 weeks to 3 months after CyA was discontinued A tentative conclusion can be drawn that CyA is a good alternative in the treatment of idiopathic NS, especially in steroid dependent patients who are at risk of developing steroid toxicity. CyA represent a major advance in the treatment selected SN patients who have failed with the conventional modes of therapy.

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