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Berkala Arkeologi SANGKHAKALA
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Core Subject : Humanities, Art,
"SANGKHAKALA" refers to the shell horns that blown regularly to convey certain messages. In accordance with the meaning, this journal expected to become an instrument in the dissemination of archaeological information to the public which is published on an ongoing basis. Berkala Arkeologi Sangkhakala is a peer-reviewed journal published biannual by the Balai Arkeologi Sumatera Utara in May and November. The first edition was published in 1997 and began to be published online in an e-journal form using the Open Journal System tool in 2015. Berkala Arkeologi Sangkhakala aims to publish research papers, reviews and studies covering the disciplines of archeology, anthropology, history, ethnography, and culture in general.
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Articles 180 Documents
Kontribusi Arkeologi Dalam Penanganan Sengketa Tanah: Kasus Pada Masyarakat Pollung Wiradnyana, Ketut; Koestoro, Lucas Partanda
Berkala Arkeologi Sangkhakala Vol 18, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Balai Arkeologi Sumatera Utara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24832/sba.v18i1.7

Abstract

Archaeology, as a science, has to be able to provide welfare to the communities, which includes not only material things but also knowledge and explanation regarding problems among the communities in cultural context. In relation to a land dispute between the traditional community of Pollung and Toba Pulp Lestari Ltd. Co., regarding the Pollung’s village and traditional land, archaeology can be used to answer whether or not there were once settlement activities in the disputed piece of an area. The methods used in relation to the purpose are excavation, interviews, and library research (bibliographical research). The entire data was studied using inductive scheme of thought in descriptive qualitative format. The resulted archaeological data can prove that there were activities in the past as well as the period (date) when the activities were carried out, while anthropological data will support the knowledge about the functions and systems of land ownership among the Batak community at Pollung, Humbang Hasundutan, in North Sumatra.
Tinggalan Batu Dulang Di Situs Alang Assaude, Kabupaten Seram Bagian Barat, Maluku Surbakti, Karyamantha
Berkala Arkeologi Sangkhakala Vol 19, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Balai Arkeologi Sumatera Utara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24832/bas.v19i1.20

Abstract

AbstractBatu dulang at Alang Assaude Village, Waisala District, West Seram Regency is still in-situ. in archaeology, such type of stone object is known as batu meja (table stone) or dolmen. This research is an attempt to view batu dulang in a holistic way, to see whether the utilization still shows elements of Megalithic tradition, which concept is ancestor worship. in other words, this research aimed at determining whether the objects are living monuments. Data collecting is done through surveys, observations, and interviews. The result reveals that putting coins on batu dulang are done by the local communities as an act to respect their inheritance from their ancestors. As a conclusion, the Megalithic aspect of batu dulang lies in the formal dimension, but they no longer used as the media for certain religion (death monument).AbstrakBatu dulang di Desa Alang Assaude, Kecamatan Waisala, Kabupaten Seram Bagian Barat masih insitu. Dalam khasanah arkeologi batu ini dikenal dengan istilah batu meja ataupun dolmen. Penelitian ini merupakan upaya dalam melihat tinggalan batudulang secara holistik, apakah penggunaannya masih menunjukkan tradisi megalitik yang berkonsep terhadap pemujaan roh leluhur (living monument). Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui survei, observasi, dan wawancara. Hasil dari penelitian ini yaitu bahwa uang koin di batu dulang merupakan perlakuan masyarakat setempat sebagai upaya untuk menghargai tinggalan leluhur. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah bahwa aspek megalitik batu dulang terletak pada dimensi bentuk, namun bukan digunakan sebagai media untuk keperluan religi tertentu (death monument).
Situs Kota Rebah Di Tanjung Pinang, Kepulauan Riau: Pertapakan Istana Atau Bangunan Lain Koestoro, Lucas Partanda
Berkala Arkeologi Sangkhakala Vol 18, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Balai Arkeologi Sumatera Utara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24832/sba.v18i2.13

Abstract

An excavation at the site of Kota Rebah (also known as Kota Lama) in the city of Tanjung Pinang, Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands) Province in October 2014, which was carried out by the Cultural Office of Kepulauan Riau Province, in cooperation with the Medan Archaeological Centre and the Cultural Heritage Conservation Office of Batusangkar, is an attempt to explore remains of the cultural history of Kepulauan Riau community, including to understand about their types and functions. This is in relation to the site and remains of a building that is believed by some local inhabitants to be a site and remains of the palace of the Melayu kings in the past. The data collected using survey and excavation method indicate that the site and building remains are more likely to be remains of a loji (fort with warehouses) than the site and remains of a palace.
Metamorfose Nisan Aceh, Dari Masa Ke Masa Oetomo, Repelita Wahyu
Berkala Arkeologi Sangkhakala Vol 19, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Balai Arkeologi Sumatera Utara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24832/sba.v19i2.32

Abstract

AbstractTombstones in Aceh have gone through changes of shapes (metamorphosis) from simple shapes to the shapes like we know today. The metamorphosis began with some simple tombstones like the ones at Samudera Pasai, the starting point of Islam dispersal in the archipelago. Until now Samudera Pasai is believed to be the first Islamic kingdom in the archipelago, which made it a place to adopt the shapes of tombstones from the earlier period, which is the Hindu-Buddhist period. Other places that are thought to be the earliest Islam areas in the archipelago include among others Lamreh/Lamuri in Aceh Besar and Peureulak,but the types of tombstones being adopted are not as many as at Samudera Pasai. The changes that occur are the addition of several parts gradually until like present form. Some types of tombstones developed ranging from decorative patterns up to size progress. But, some types of tombstones in recent times never appeared again. Tombstones, which called the "Aceh Stone" by Daniel Perret, is the result of a metamorphosis tombstones of Samudera Pasai.AbstrakNisan di Aceh mengalami perubahan bentuk (metamorfosis) dari yang sederhana hingga mencapai bentuknya seperti yang diketahui sekarang ini. Perubahan tersebut diawali dari beberapa nisan sederhana yang dapat ditemui di Samudera Pasai, tempat, awal mula penyebaran Islam di nusantara hingga mencapai puncaknya pada masa kesultanan Aceh Darussalam. Samudera Pasai hingga saat ini diyakini merupakan kerajaan Islam pertama di nusantara, yang menjadikannya sebagai tempat mengadopsi bentuk-bentuk nisan dari periode sebelumnya, yaitu masa Hindu Buddha. Tempat lain yang diyakini sebagai daerah terawal Islam di Nusantara adalah Lamreh/Lamuri di Aceh Besar, Peureulak, namun tipologi nisan yang diadopsi tidak sebanyak yang terdapat di Samudera Pasai. Perubahan yang terjadi adalah penambahan beberapa bagian secara bertahap hingga menjadi seperti bentuknya yang sekarang ini. Beberapa tipe nisan dikembangkan mulai dari pola hias hingga pengembangan pada ukurannya. Namun beberapa tipe nisan pada masa belakangan tidak pernah muncul lagi. Nisan yang pada akhirnya disebut “Batu Aceh” oleh Daniel Perret, adalah merupakan merupakan hasil dari metamorfose nisan-nisan dari Samudera Pasai.
Permukiman Kawasan Danau Masa Lalu Di Jawa Timur Kasnowihadjo, Gunadi
Berkala Arkeologi Sangkhakala Vol 18, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Balai Arkeologi Sumatera Utara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24832/sba.v18i1.8

Abstract

Archaeology without its public is nothing, it is a disturbing expression for archaeologists, which encourages them to make a policy that every archaeological research benefited the general public. Academically this study is hoped to find settlement patterns in the past around lakes. Furthermore, the study also tries to find models of the local wisdom of their communities. Values in local wisdom are very important for today’s communities and future generations. Considering the aim of the research, the method used is descriptive explorative with an inductive approach, while data collecting is done by carrying out excavations and surveys. It is hoped that the researchers can reveal how people lived in lake areas in the past. The condition of lake areas in the past both its communities and surrounding environment is the dream of future generations. This is the essence of studying archaeology because archaeology studies life in the past to be actualized and implemented in today’s life for the sake of the future generations.  
Aspek-aspek Kemaritiman di Dataran Rendah dan Dataran Tinggi dari Masa Mesolitik Hingga Tradisi Megalitik Wiradnyana, Ketut
Berkala Arkeologi Sangkhakala Vol 19, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Balai Arkeologi Sumatera Utara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24832/bas.v19i1.21

Abstract

AbstractMaritime aspects in the western part of Indonesia are known from the presence of shell mound sites, which show Mesolithic characteristics and elements of Hoabinhian Culture. The shell mound sites along the east coast of Sumatra Island reveal that coastal areas were very important in providing for life in the past because of the marine biota that can be exploited. The Hoabinhian Culture on highland areas also bears traces of maritime aspects. Likewise are the Neolithic and sites that dispersed on highland areas. Various kinds of mollusks were still exploited on the highlands. Even the religions and social structures that bear maritime characteristics were still preserved. The attempt to recognize the maritime aspects during the periods is done by determining various artifacts, ecofacts, and other finds in relation with the marine environment, as well as through ethnoarchaeology studies by observing patterns of meaningsin the cultures of several traditional communities in the western part of Indonesia. The effort to determine archaeological objects, supported by ethnoarchaeology studies, will portray various maritime aspects that can be recognized through the aspects of the environment, biota, religion, technology, aesthetic, and other social aspects.AbstrakAspek kemaritiman di indonesia bagian barat diketahui dari keberadaan situs-situs bukit kerang yang memiliki periode Mesolitik, dengan budaya pendukungnya Hoabinh. Situs-situs bukit kerang yang tersebar di pesisir timur Pulau Sumatera menunjukkan bahwa kawasan pantai merupakan areal yang sangat penting dalam mendukung kehidupan masa itu, mengingat berbagai biota laut menjadi objek yang dieksploitasi. Keberadaan budaya Hoabinh di dataran tinggi juga masih menunjukkan sisa-sisa aspek kemaritiman. Sebaran situs di dataran tinggi pada masa Neolitik dan Megalitik juga masih menunjukkan aspek kemaritiman. Berbagai jenis moluska yang hidup di dataran tinggi masih menjadi bahan pangan yang dieksploitasi, bahkan aspek religi dan struktur sosial yang berkaitan dengan ciri kemaritiman masih dipertahankan. Upaya mengetahui aspek kemaritiman pada beberapa periode tersebut, tentu akan diketahui melalui determinasi berbagai artefak, ekofak dan lainnya yang terkait dengan lingkungan laut. Pemahaman aspek kemaritiman juga dilakukan melalui etnoarkeologi, dengan melihat berbagai pola makna yang terkandung dalam kebudayaan masyarakat tradisional di indonesia bagian barat. Determinasi objek arkeologis yang disertai dengan kajian etnoarkeologi menggambarkan berbagai aspek kemaritiman yang dapat dikenali dari aspek lingkungan, biota, religi, teknologi, estetika dan aspek sosial lainnya.
Membaca Dan Menafsirkan Temuan Gambar Prasejarah Di Pulau Misool Raja Ampat, Papua Barat Nasrudin, Nasrudin
Berkala Arkeologi Sangkhakala Vol 18, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Balai Arkeologi Sumatera Utara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24832/sba.v18i2.14

Abstract

Traces and evidence of prehistoric civilization in the Indonesian Archipelago have been found, and one of the archaeological types of remains that was the hot topic for researchers nowadays is rock paintings on the walls of karst caves (known as limestone area). We found that karst has the function of conveying historical messages through paintings as a form of communications of Homo sapiens. Based on results of surveys among the karst island of Misool in Raja Ampat islands, we can identify five categories of rock paintings, which are: hands, fauna, anthropomorphic, symbolical (non-figure), circles that resemble wheels/the sun, and square lines. The main and dominant characteristics of Misool rock paintings, particularly in paintings of fish, are their various sizes and rich variations. The prehistoric artworks are very interesting to be investigated more thoroughly to study and understand better the human life in the past. The archaeological survey has yielded new evidence and traces of human life in the past, such as habitation, migration, and modes of living hundreds or maybe even tens of thousand years ago, or during the prehistoric period. This research is the initial step and was carried out using documentation and descriptive methods to be analyzed afterward by various approaches that are being developed nowadays, as well as visual communication through form and non-form analyses.
Transformasi Fragmen Tembikar dan Keramik di Situs Kota Lama, Indragiri Hulu, Riau Purnawibowo, Stanov; Tjahjono, Baskoro Daru
Berkala Arkeologi Sangkhakala Vol 19, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Balai Arkeologi Sumatera Utara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24832/bas.v19i2.29

Abstract

AbstractStudy on the transformation of pottery and ceramic fragments at Kota Lama Site, Indragiri Hulu, Riau is a study that scrutinizes the formation process of archaeological data. The formation process is identified through artifactual and contextual data resulted from an archaeological excavation at the site in 2016. The problem to be uncovered is the transformation process of archaeological data at Kota Lama site to reveal the formation of data and context found at the site. The research was carried out using the inductive chain of thought, which uses data classifications of fragments of pottery, ceramics, and coin-shaped terracotta objects called gacuk, as well as matrix, provenience, and association during the early phase. Analyses on artifactual data include quantitative, typological/morphological (form), spatial, and temporal ones. Contextual data were analyzed using morphological and their positions. Furthermore, those data were elaborated one with another to identify their type of context in order to understand their formation process that occurred at the site. In the last part, there are in general two contexts at the site, which are primary and secondary contexts.AbstrakKajian transformasi fragmen tembikar dan keramik di situs Kota Lama, Indragiri Hulu, Riau merupakan kajian untuk menelaah proses pembentukan data arkeologi yang diidentifikasi melalui data artefaktual dan data kontekstual yang dihasilkan dalam ekskavasi arkeologis di situs tersebut tahun 2016. Penelitian dilakukan dengan alur induktif yang menggunakan pemerian data fragmen tembikar, keramik, gacuk, matriks, provinience, dan asosiasi pada tahap awal. Analisis yang dilakukan pada data  artefak menggunakan analisis kuantitif, bentuk, keruangan, dan waktu. Adapun data konteks dianalisis mengunakan analisis morfologi dan posisinya. Selanjutnya data tersebut digabungkan satu dengan lainnya untuk mengidentifikasi jenis konteks untuk mengetahui proses pembentukan data yang terjadi di situs tersebut. Hasilnya, transformasi data arkeologi di situs Kota Lama membentuk dua buah konteks, yaitu konteks primer dan konteks sekunder
Pola Pemukiman Komunitas Budaya Megalitik Di Desa Muak, Dataran Tinggi Jambi Budisantosa, Tri Marhaeni S.
Berkala Arkeologi Sangkhakala Vol 18, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Balai Arkeologi Sumatera Utara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24832/sba.v18i1.9

Abstract

The dispersion of archaeological sites at Muak Village in Jambi Highland forms a spatial grouping of sites of a community in the past. However, the settlement pattern and local geographical condition, which influenced it, has yet to be recognized. To solve the problem, three phases of analyses were performed. First, specific or descriptive was carried out to identify artifacts. Second, the contextual analysis was conducted to know the functions of the artifacts and sites. Third, the semi-micro spatial analysis was done to reveal the site to site relationships as well as a relation between a site and the surrounding geographical environment. Based on those analyses can be identified that the megalithic settlement at Muak Village consisted of ritual, habitation, and urn burial sites. The layout of those sites is a ritual site encircled by the habitation site, while the urn burial site is located outside the habitation area. Moreover, the relation between the sites and the surrounding environment is that the ritual and habitation sites are located on hill ridges, while the urn burial site is on hill slope or valley.
Gampong Pande, Situs Penting di Ujung Utara Pulau Sumatera Koestoro, Lucas Partanda
Berkala Arkeologi Sangkhakala Vol 19, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Balai Arkeologi Sumatera Utara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24832/sba.v19i2.27

Abstract

AbstractAceh is rich a variation of objects - intact or fragmentary - containing material history and worth studying. Gampong Pande in Banda Aceh, The historical-archaeological data of Gampong Pande hasnt been read and used as a historical source. The site is vital for an introduction the Aceh role related entry and development of Islam in Indonesia, also related with harbor at the estuary of Aceh River. Lately, archaeological-historical research has done there. Results of activity are information about a variety objects of archaeology and history such as tomb/tombstones, fragments ceramic/pottery, currency dirham, and the remaining structures and shaft. Related results of the survey and excavation, it can be suspected since the 14th century Gampong Pande was a part of the trading port, a place of exchange. Grave and tombstones partially show the style of tomb and Aceh tombstone until the 16th century to the 17th century. The dirham findings validate the historical record that the kingdom of Aceh using it as a means of payment. Activities were noisy at least until the 17th century. Then Gampong Pande left, do not be a place before. Later in the 19th century, Gampong Pande back reuse for activities. Old shaft excavation result shows a high level of life. Making shaft with ring pottery/clay show quality people who are not arbitrary.AbstrakAceh kaya dengan beragam objek artificial - utuh maupun fragmentaris - yang mengandung bahan sejarah dan layak diteliti. Di Gampong Pande di Kota Banda Aceh, data arkeologis-historis di sana banyak belum terbaca dan dimanfaatkan sebagai data/sumber sejarah. Situs dimaksud penting bagi upaya pengenalan peran Aceh terkait masuk dan berkembangnya Islam di Indonesia, juga berkenaan dengan bandar di muara Sungai Aceh. Belakangan ini penelitian arkeologis-historis telah dilakukan di sana. Hasil kegiatannya berupa keterangan tentang beragam objek arkeologis-historis seperti makam/nisan, fragmen keramik/tembikar, mata uang dirham, dan sisa struktur bangunan serta sumur. Terkait temuan survei dan hasil ekskavasi, dapat di duga bahwa sejak abad ke-14 Gampong Pande telah merupakan bagian sebuah bandar, tempat pertukaran barang dari berbagai tempat di dunia. Makam dan nisan yang di sana sebagian menunjukkan gaya jirat dan nisan Aceh abad ke-16 hingga abad ke-17. Adapun temuan dirham membuktikan kebenaran catatan sejarah bahwa kerajaan Aceh dahulu memakainya sebagai alat pembayaran. Aktivitas cukup ramai berlangsung setidaknya hingga abad ke-17. Kemudian ada saat Gampong Pande ditinggalkan, tidak menjadi tempat seperti sebelumnya. Kelak di abad ke-19 Gampong Pande kembali menjadi tempat yang diwarnai aktivitas kehidupan yang cukup baik. Sumur tua hasil ekskavasi menunjukkan tingkat kehidupan yang cukup tinggi. Pembuatan sumur dengan cincin gerabah/tanah liat bakar memperlihatkan kualitas masyarakat yang tidak sembarangan.

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