Asian Journal for Poverty Studies (AJPS) is the official publication of Regional Network on Poverty Eradication (RENPER) and serves as media for promoting innovative theoretical and empirical research on poverty alleviation. AJPS is a peer reviewed international journal publishing research articles on poverty studies including, but not limited to, urban and rural poverties, gender issues in poverty, public policy on poverty, and community empowermen
The enormous natural resources of Indias forests including Non-Wood forest products (NWFPs), such as medicinal and aromatic plants, leaves, seeds, nuts, fruits and gums offer employment that provide up to half the income of about 25 % of the countrys rural labor force. Despite of the potential benefits that are offered by non-wood forest products, it has been widely documented that forest still offers little in terms of opportunities for expanding livelihood options and assets required to reduce livelihood vulnerability. Based on this, a study was carried out to determine the contribution of NWFPs towards poverty reduction by assessing potentials and constraints experienced by adjacent local communities towards their exploitation. The specific objective of the study is to assess the role of NWFPs contribution to tribal income and also influence on the poverty reduction. The study was conducted in Kodaikanal and Palani range in Dindigul district of Tamil Nadu state. The data were collected personally in cooperation with forest officers and other officials of the district by using pre-tested interview schedule. The findings reveals that the 65 selected households involved for collection of myrobalam (kadukkai), honey, amla, broom grass, stone flower, pepper, and coffee. These products were easily accessible and available to them and these activities are the important source of employment and income. The tribes earned at an average per day, from the collection of NWFPs of Rs700 for broom grass, Rs.650 for kadukkai, Rs.600 for amla, Rs.500 for pepper, and Rs.400 for coffee and stone flower. Regarding honey collection, the tribes earned Rs.400 per liter. Majority of the respondents (92.3 %) were facing the problems related to lack of transport facilities for NWFPs existence of bad weather (76.9 %), deforestation(69.2 %), fluctuated market price (61.5 %), lack of storage facilities for NWFPs (56.9 %), over collection of outsiders (38.4 %), low infrastructure facilities for NWFPs (18.4 %), lack of skill oriented training for NWFPs(16.9 %) and lack of timely information for marketing of NWFPs (15.3 %). It is suggested that there is a need to take necessary steps by the government to eliminate these existing problems faced by the respondent of study area. Respondents expected nearby Ration shop and Primary health centre from the district authority.
The project entitled âLivelihood Improvement of Farming Community in Haor Area through System Approach (LIFCHASA)â of the Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University; Mymensingh worked in Purbo Tethulia village of Mohanganj Upazila under Netrakona district from April 2010 to June 2013 with the financial assistance from The Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council. Different research activities were done as per plan for different five components. The Crop and Agroforestry Component conducted experiments both in the homestead land and crop land. Under Livestock Component, experiments were conducted on rearing of egg producing hen, duck, fattening of animals, artificial insemination and continuous vaccination programme. In the Fisheries Component, experiments on cage culture in open water emerged as a promising technology. From the result of the soil sample analysis of the research site under Rural Hydrology and Mechanization Component, it was found that additional application of sulphur and zinc fertilizers were unnecessary. From the study under Socioeconomic Component, it was distinctly clear that the efficiency of marginal and small farms was improved in agro economic productivity with the increase of number of farming enterprises intervened irrespective of farm sizes. The marginal and small farmers appeared to be the most efficient performers in the integration and arrangement of farming enterprises. This was followed by landless and medium farms. The gross margin for marginal and small, landless and medium increased by 84%, 89% and 50 %, respectively involving the enterprises like crop and agroforestry, livestock and fisheries. The findings of 25 physical models on integrated farming systems revealed that the agro-economic/bio-economic productivity of all those models increased tremendously in terms of total production, biodiversity, human resource enlightened with knowledge, skill and motivational spirit in modern techniques and technologies.
Counterfeiting is increasing and becoming a complicated issue across different countries in the world and Vietnam isÂ not exceptional, so the policy makers and managers always try to find ways to face with the counterfeiting and reduceÂ counterfeit products in the market. This paper attempts to investigate determinants that impact on consumersâ attitudeÂ toward non-deceptive counterfeit products and behavioral intention to purchase them. Using a data set collected fromÂ a sample of 176 consumers we found that social cost has an impact on consumersâ attitude and purchase intentiontoward counterfeit products. Moreover, the result indicates that intention to buy counterfeit products is influenced byÂ consumersâ attitude toward these products. These findings suggest that companies should rely on the social cost as theÂ main component of marketing communication messages to discourage consumption of fake products by implying theÂ seriously harmful consequences of these goods to society and economy.
Microfinance is generally considered as a power tool for poverty alleviation. However, the development ofÂ microfinance leads to a concern about self-sufficiency of microfinance institutions (MFIs). MFIs are expectedÂ not only to serve the poor but also to become profitable; and therefore adapting more commercial practices.Â From the point of view, the commercialization trend of microfinance has raised a debate that whether theÂ focuses on financial objectives go against the original goal of reducing poverty. Using cross-sectional dataÂ of Indian MFIs in 2010 collected from the MIX, this dissertation aims to explain determinants of MFIsâÂ performance in terms of financial objectives and outreach to the poor. The paper also tries to address theÂ trade-off between financial success outcomes and poverty reduction purposes. The study reveals that noÂ evidences of this trade-off are found, indicating that it is possible to maintain greater outreach to the poorÂ in a financially viable way.
Urban poverty is still a thorny issue in almost all cities in Indonesia. Urban poverty is grouped into two different characteristics: chronic and transient. Chronic poverty experienced by those who are under the poverty line, while transient poverty experienced by those who are around the poverty line. Unlike the chronic group that is often the target of poverty reduction policies, transient group is often overlooked. They do not exist in the scheme of poverty reduction programs. In fact, the number of transient poor population is about 46 percent, compare to the chronic population that is only 11%. With almost having similar condition with the chronic group, transient group is characterized by unstable income, large spending on food, limited access to drinking water, live in the surrounding slums, and having a low quality sanitation. The question is, how the survival strategy of the neglected transient is able to cope with their difficult life. And the most important thing, what program should be done by the government to deal with transient poverty? This paper will discuss the economic living conditions of transient poor families in urban Bengkulu City, Indonesia, reviews their survival strategy, initiatives and experiences. It also talks about ongoing Green Kampong project promoted by the University of Bengkulu that integrates incomes generation efforts for the transient poor and the commitment of environmental protection through the vegetables planting in every idle land in the kampong area.
Recently the concept of micro credit has been given huge prominence at the global level in order to eliminate poverty and to raise the living conditions of underprivileged and growth excluded groups across the world countries. Community development and poverty eradication through micro credit which combines use of training, organization and career development, efforts to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness develops the essential abilities that enable individuals to perform present and future income generation through planned learning activities. This is not only related to those who are employed but also it is necessary even for those who are socially and economically backward sections and groups to improve their living standards and empowerment. The essential credit supplied at an affordable rate and in time for those who have the capacity to invest it in a suitable productive manner could help to improve their social and economic standards. Many of studies throughout the world evidently concluded that the reliable and affordable credit helps the poor to come out from the vicious circles of poverty. This paper has made an attempt to describe the role of micro credit in eradication of poverty by estimating income generating opportunities and income levels raised by micro credit supplied through self-help groups which results in lifting the rural poor from the poverty crunch in Chittoor rural mandal of Andhra Pradesh.
In developing countries, many household are exposed to high risk, uncertainties and crises, which not only causes of poverty,Â but also a path to micro-economic downturn. Studies have shown that households who have the fewest instruments toÂ deal with these risks are considered poor. In some cases, they are seen as the most vulnerable. In Malaysia, both povertyand a wide variety of risks are widespread among household member, especially in the rural areas. The present researchÂ aims to examine rural householdsâ vulnerability to poverty using longitudinal data set of three waves. The present studyÂ developed and designed (an alternative to panel data) modules in cross-sectional surveys with recall questions that can beused to tract a householdsâ history and its evolution along various welfare dimensions. The study aims, in general, toÂ analyse the link between exposure to risks and vulnerability to poverty of rural households in Kelantan and Terengganu.Â Data was collected from a three-round panel survey undertaken at 6 month interval to allow measurement of seasonalÂ variation in behaviour and outcome and to balance both cross-sectional and time series requirements of panel data. 460Â respondents were interviewed in the first round, but only 301 questionnaires in the last round were valid for dataanalysis. The findings illustrated that fighting future poverty is not only to incorporate monetary measure but also nonÂ -monetary measure need to be merged. The lack of access to assets and resources and the exposure to threats haveÂ made the process of recovering from poverty unsuccessful. Assets are regarded as the core element of vulnerabilityÂ reduction. Both covariate and idiosyncratic risks are central causes behind a household future vulnerability. TheÂ effect of these threats is determined by its nature and level of severity, as well as by the type of strategies to respond tothe threats.
Rice produced by smallholder farmers plays an important role in providing Indonesian food security where majorityÂ of the population are dependent on rice as the staple diet. This fact, however, does not necessarily make the smallholderÂ farmers gain all the benefit from the rice they have been produced, including the financial profit. Improving the profitabilityÂ of rice production in smallholding agriculture is often hampered by lack of human capital and access to infrastructure,Â market, and technologies. A series of programs were tailored for the smallholder farmers in Kemumu, North BengkuluÂ to improve their human capital, bargaining power, land productivity, market access, and eventually the financialÂ profitability of the rice production processes as a whole. The programs were developed through value chain mechanism involvingÂ revitalization of the farmer group organization, development of farm gate seed merchandize, reduction the dependencyÂ on synthetic fertilizer, mentoring the on farm activities, development of the community rice processing, and developmentof rice marketing channels.
Cryopreservation is an important ex-situ conservation measure practiced successfully in fishes over the years. The effects of different extenders and cryoprotectants on the viability and fertilizing ability of cryopreserved sperm of Mystus vittatus were investigated in this study in order to develop a cryopreservation protocol. Milt was collected through sacrifice of males and was suspended in extender solutions. The concentration and pH of milt were found to be 7.9Ã109 - 8.1Ã109cells/ml and 8Â±0, respectively. Different concentrations of NaCl solutions (0.1% to 1.1%) were used to evaluate activation of sperm motility and it was decreased as the concentration of the NaCl solution increased. Sperm motility was completely inhibited at 1.1% and 0.8% NaCl solution with Alseverâs solution and Kurokura-2 solution respectively. Two extenders, Alseverâs and Kurokura-2 solutions and two cryoprotectants, Dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) and methanol were employed to preserve the sperm. Ten percent cryoprotectants with both extenders, Alseverâs and Kurokura-2 solutions produced better motility after 5 and 10 min incubation. 15% cryoprotectant was found to be toxic to sperm. Alseverâs solution with 10% Me2SO showed better performance producing 77.5Â±1.4% and 58.8Â±1.25% equilibration and post-thaw motility than that of 73.8Â±3.15% and 52.5Â±2.5% with Kurokura-2 solution plus Me2SO respectively. Between two diluents, sperm preserved with Alseverâs solution plus Me2SO produced highest fertilization (70.0Â±7.07%) and hatching (37.5Â±13.7%), while those preserved with Kurokura-2 plus Me2SO produced 72.5Â±2.5% and 29.9Â±12.5% fertilization and hatching respectively. Fresh sperm yielded 85.0Â±0% fertilization and 48.0Â±15.5% hatching. Â The protocol developed through this study can be applied for long-term preservation of genetic materials of the threatened catfish M. vittatus and the cryopreserved sperm can be used in artificial breeding for broodstock development. Thus the protocol will help to propagate the new generation in hatcheries using cryopreserved sperm and make the fish available in captive culture systems as well as in wild which eventually helps to eradicate poverty.
This paper investigates the determinants of poverty in Mekong River Delta Key Economic Zone in Vietnam for a sample of 604 households in Can Tho province, An Giang province, KienGiang province and Ca Mau province in 2012. Explanatory variables include demographic, nature, region, finance and physical. Using Binary Logistics regression, results show the complexity of the issues, wherein the financial variable has been the most important influence of poverty in this area.