Asian Journal for Poverty Studies (AJPS) is the official publication of Regional Network on Poverty Eradication (RENPER) and serves as media for promoting innovative theoretical and empirical research on poverty alleviation. AJPS is a peer reviewed international journal publishing research articles on poverty studies including, but not limited to, urban and rural poverties, gender issues in poverty, public policy on poverty, and community empowermen
This study aimed to examine household in goat keeping farms having more than two goats with respect to its viability, socioeconomic characteristics of the women goat keepers, contribution of small scale goat farming to food security and livelihood, identify major problems associated with small scale goat famers. The study had been conducted in 6 villages namely Kandhapara, Hossainpur, Merigai, Horinadi Shimulia and Nagua of Phulpur upazila in Mymensingh district. In total 60 farmers comprising 07 medium, 43 poor and 10 most vulnerable or extreme poor farmers were randomly for the study. Primary data were collected from the selected farmers by interview method. Both tabular and financial analyses were done to achieve the objectives. The study revealed that most of the women were poor with small family size. However they were young and literate. The study clearly indicated that investment in goat farming were viable. The annual total cost of production per Black Bengal goat was BDT. 3,374, while gross return and net return per household were BDT.21,276 and BDT.17,902 respectively. It was observed that livelihood increased dramatically through goat rearing in the study area. Annual food purchasing capacity increased from 20 to 28 percent. The social status of the farmer?s family increases. Educational status, festival, health facilities acceptance were increased at 19%, 26% and 28% through goat. The position in the family, participation in social activities, water facilities and sanitation also increased remarkably. The study also identified that the goat farmers had been facing some crucial problems with goat keeping. If these problems could be overcome, all the goat farms would be able to earn a higher level of that of the existing level. It was clearly found that the women who reared goat had the most rapid improvement in livelihood.
Cancer is recognized as global threat to human development and it was estimated that in 2030 there will be 22.2 million new cases of cancer and 12.7 million cancer-related deaths worldwide. Herbal medicine plant till this day all over in the word is still the main source and one of the most important fields of traditional medicine agents to fight breast cancer. The usage of plants is still important because has its own beaviour advantages such as low toxicity, easy to get, cheap and has less side effect if it is used in a right. One of this plant it has been used as a traditional medicine is a Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl) also known as Mahkota Dewa from Papua island. It has been used traditionally for treatment of cancers in Indonesia and also to cure many diseases. The therapeutic effect of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl, is related to the its bioactive compounds contents. There are many reported compounds from Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl, which are found, reported and published such as Icariside, phalerin, mangiferin, gallic acid, 29-Norcucurbitacin, gentiobioside and glucoside. All compounds reported above have already published as anticancer agents,where anticancer activity were detected and showed against Hela cells, leukemia cells, cervical cancer, breast cancer, and L1210 cells. Research on Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruit and leaves merit have been done and published, however, there are very limited research on linked correlation between the concentration of compounds and its the cytotoxicity Â level. Because of that, research about correlation level of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl leaves extract still need to investigate to find the relationship between them in the goal to investigate alternative low cost herbal medicine agents to fight breast cancer especially useful for low income people, thus, information about Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.Leaves became more complete. Cytotoxicity properties of samples against breast cancer cell lines was performed by using the MTT assay against MCF-7 cell line. The correlation between concentration of crude and cytotoxic activity was interpreted by statistical analyses. The study showed that Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl.) leaves extracts showed cytoxicity activity against breast cancer MCF7 cell lines. Correlation between concentration of extract and cytotoxicity property (absorbance value) were founded in weak relationship (R = -0.37181). It could be effect of many different compounds in the Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl.) leaves methanol extracts may cause the pharmacological interactions, so lower or higher concentration will be antagonistic effect on absorbance or cell viability.Further study on its mechanism pathway on revealing against breast cancer could be explored. Furthermore, the natural product derived from Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl.) leaves extracts have potential use in cheap alternative agents against breast cancer
The study aims to identify the income components and the incidence of poverty among older men and women in Malaysia.Â A national data on Household Income Survey (HIS) collected in year 2009-2010 was used in this study. Data from subsample of 16,325 out of 43,026 older persons was used in the analysis. The respondents comprised of 47.9% male andÂ 52.1% female with an equal proportion living in urban and rural areas. The total net income was used to determine povertyÂ status among respondents who reported receiving income. Income Per Capita was used to determine the poverty status. Resultsindicated thata there were 42.3% older persons did not receive any income and can be assumed to be dependent on othersÂ to support their living. Only 57.7% of the elderly received income from the four main sources namely paid employment,Â other earned income, property income and total current transfer income. Majority of the elderly received income fromÂ other earned income as well as total current transfer income. Overall, a higher proportion of men received income fromÂ all sources except transfer income. A small percentage of the elderly received income from paid employment. This reflects that majorityof the elderly are no longer employed. In addition, a large proportion of the elderly rely on other earned and transferÂ income in old age. Older women are more vulnerable to poverty in old age. Even though a higher percentage of olderpersons, especially women, received income from total current transfer, however this income component is still insufficientÂ to address poverty among older persons. Thus, as part of productive ageing strategies, focus should be given on providingÂ more job opportunities to enable older persons to increase their income.
This article is to determine the adaptability of Vietnamese SMEs (small and toward international outsourcing trend.Â Organizations in developed countries usually find some less developed countries within which they may outsourceoperations. Outsourcing has become an effective good way for companies to increase profits by reducing productionÂ costs. This is attractive to less developed and developing countries as it encourages economic growth. However, toÂ become an attractive destination of outsourcers, these developing countries need to possess high level human resources,Â attractive policies and business climate in conjunction with excellent infrastructure but low operation costs. VietnameseÂ SMEs only focus on labor-based outsourcing services which can bring about much lower benefits than aknowledge basedÂ services. A survey was done to get the viewpoints of Vietnamese SMEsâ managers about outsourcing requirements.Â After that we use the zero-sum method to determine which factors Vietnamese SMEsâ managers think the outsourcersÂ should consider the most important when seeking outsource destination. Beside, we also base on background knowledgeÂ to understand Vietnamese SMEsâ entrepreneurship basing on this aspect. The result shows that Vietnamese SMEsÂ think costs, especially labor costs, operation costs and administration costs are most important elements encourageÂ outsourcers choose an outsourcing place.
Livestock sector plays avigorous role in socio-economic progress of rural families. Livestock rearing has substantial optimistic influence on equity in terms of employment, income and poverty lessening in rural zones by way of dispersal of livestock is more democratic as compared to land for agriculture purposes. In Andhra Pradesh, more than 5 percent of the rural households own livestock and a majority of livestock owning households are small, marginal and landless households. Small animals like sheep, goats, pigs and poultry are largely kept by the land scarce poor households for commercial purposes due to their low initial investment and operational costs. In the recent decade, demand for various livestock based products has increased considerably due to rise in per capita income, urbanization, taste and preference and increased awareness about food nutrition. Livestock sector is likely to arise as an appliance for agricultural progress in the coming years. This study only confined to Sree Rangaraja Puram Mandal in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh. In this paper author will make an attempt to analyses the performance of livestock sector in terms of livestock population, production, employment and income on one hand and the role of livestock sector in reducing rural poverty on the other. The study will also highlight the various major problems facing by the people those who are engaging in livestock sector in Sree Rangaraja Puram Mandal of Chittoor district.
The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of set of dairy supporting policies within the framework of the government âNational Livestock Development Policy (NLDP)â on the potential for reduction of cost of milk production in small-scale dairy farmers under different production systems. This study further aims at identifying the link among increasing household income and rural livelihoods-thus reducing poverty. This study applies the method developed by the International Farm Comparison Network (IFCN). The underlying principle of this method is the application of the concept of âTypical Farm Approach (TFA)â and Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculations (TIPI-CAL) model. Three typical farms from three production systems (e.g. extensive, intensive and traditional) were selected from three agro-ecological zones. The required data collection was done in two steps: first, the data were collected from three baseline typical farms (status quo) operating without policy by applying the âPanel Approachâ. In the second step, 10 different dairy supporting policy scenarios and technologies were simulated and applied in each of the base line farms in each production system and data were collected from 30 farms using the base farm as the status quo farm. The data were analysed by utilizing the extended version of TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculations) model (TIPI-CAL software version 5.1). The results showed that improved dairy support services: improved veterinary services (IM-VHS), improved marketing access (IM-MKS), improved feeding and nutritional services (IM-FNS), community based fodder production system (CB-FPS), national breeding programme (NL-BRP) showed the highest impact on increasing milk productivity, decreasing milk production cost, increasing income from dairy and overall household income in all three production systems compared with base line farms. However, the magnitude of the impacts substantially differs among the production systems. This study also reveals that that there is a direct link among increasing income and reducing poverty since the household income increases as a result of implementing dairy support services to a level above the poverty line (1.9 US$/day equivalent to 147.96 BDT). This study results could be useful for prioritizing the policies on delivery of support services and technology and are expected to be helpful as a benchmark to implement the âdraft policy proposalâ by the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock (MOFL) in Bangladesh.
This paper discusses the issues of homelessness in Malaysia, what constitutes and causes homelessness in MalaysiaÂ and how the society and government can help this marginalised group, according to public opinion. There is no officialstatistics showing the number of homeless in the city as only a few non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are awareÂ of their existence. Needless to mention, the reasons why they end up sleeping on the streets. Homelessness affectsÂ thousands across Malaysia â people from all ethnicities, age groups, education levels, and geographic regions.Â Despite the pervasiveness of homelessness, people who are homeless are typically blamed for their homelessness. TheÂ media and public perpetuate myths of homeless women and men as "lazy", unmotivated people prone to making poorÂ choices or as deviants who care nothing of the society or "being a burden". Observations, interviews and discussionsÂ were conducted among urban citizens. Data collected include their opinions, awareness and perceptions on the homelessin the country and various assistance currently available. Findings show not many are aware of the state of theÂ homeless in the country. However, majority are concerned and willing to help through donations, food distribution,and creations of job and social services programs organized by the government or NGOs.
Paddy drying after harvest is important for reducing loss and storing long term. High moisture promotes the development of insects and molds that are harmful to the grain. It is necessary to adapt technology for drying paddy at small scale traders and farmersâ level as an alternative to traditional sun drying. The low cost BAU-STR dryer would be one of the alternative effective drying technologies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate technical and financial performance of BAU-STR dryer at the field level. The study of BAU-STR dryer was conducted during Boro Season, 2016 at selected areas of Mymensingh and Jessore districts. Air temperature inside grain bin was recorded using 3 ACR Smart Button data logger. Ambient air temperature was recorded using TRH-1000 sensor. Moisture content of the grain was measured at five locations in the BAU-STR dryer during drying operation. The dryer was evaluated with three verities: T1-SL 8, T2-Hybrid Taj, T3-BRRI dhan28 which consider as three treatments. The dryer capacity was 500 kg per batch. The results showed that the temperature and moisture distributions in BAU-STR dryer were uniform. Paddy was dried from moisture content 22.8 to 12.2% uniformly in between 2.5 to 4.8 hours for 500 kg dryer capacity in different treatments. The drying time for larger grain (T1-SL8) was less compared to other two varieties. The drying efficiency was about 52%, 65% and 52% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The operating cost of drying was found Tk. 0.87 per kg (diesel engine operated blower) for BAU-STR dryer. The benefit-cost ratio and payback period were found 1.9 and 0.28 yr for diesel engine operated BAU-STR dryer from the experiments at field level of Bangladesh.
Kuala Koh National Park located in Kelantan is one of ecotourism destination is really beautiful with flora and fauna.Â This National Park is open to public since 1995. Ecotourism is a source to maintain the habitant and all live speciesdirectly including to maintain the culture of the aborigine as to increase their socioeconomic. This sector really has aÂ good potential to develop an income for Batek Tribe which just hunting and gathering for their living. Some of BatekTribe which live nearby Kuala Koh National Park actively participate in some area of ecotourism directly. ThereforeÂ this paper will discuss about this three objectives: (i) to explain the economic activities among Batek Tribe at KualaKoh National Park. (ii) To determine the strength of Batek Tribe in increasing their socioeconomic through ecotourism.Â (iii) To explain the aspiration of Batek Tribe towards ecotourism activity. This research is conducted via qualitativemethod. Data is gathered by participation observation, interview and document analysis. The data is coordinated andÂ analyze using QSR Nvivo application. Finding shows that Batek Tribe in Kuala Koh still hunting and gathering astheir main economic source. Many strength and skill have been recognized on Batek Tribe to increase their economyÂ through their involvement in ecotourism in their area. Moreover, Batek Tribe have high aspiration to gain more workand income in ecotourism activity in Kuala Koh National Park.
A total of 735 rural entrepreneurs were selected and sub sampled from 2,093 rural enterprises of Women ExtensionÂ Group (KPW) under the governance of Malaysia Department of Agriculture (DOA). They are producing processedÂ food products, which is a popular industry to eradicate rural feminism poverty. The main objective of this paper is toÂ explore the leadership positions of rural entrepreneurs in communal activity in relation with type of business ownership.Â Then, follows by identifying factors explain the active group of entrepreneurs in communal activities. To summarize,five types of community activities were traced â politics, religion, community, socio-economy and parent and teacherÂ association (PIBG). The leadership score for entrepreneurs in company was high for political activity, while forentrepreneurs in all other types of business ownership their leadership scores were high in socio-economic activity.Â By sex of entrepreneurs, it may be concluded that entrepreneurs who usually have a leadership position in politicalÂ activities have a tendency to develop their enterprise. By dividing leadership score into two groups â active and lessÂ active, as dependent variable; against gender, family business status, size of business,registration status and numberÂ of family members, as independent variables; Binary Logistic Regression obtained (p<0.05) that an active group canÂ be explained by number of family members and family business status. Every one additional family member mayÂ decrease about 36.1% the likelihood of one respondent in this study to be in active group. Despite offering opportunityfor networking, leadership positions require a lot of time and high commitment. For rural women with many childrenÂ under their care, to active in communal activities is almost inconceivable. Non-family business status may reduceÂ about 37.6% likelihood of one respondent in this paper to be in active group. Thus, especially for rural womenÂ enterprises, they had to operate in form of family business to success. Family business status may reflect potential ofÂ development in rural women business, which is good for family business development. No significant relationshipÂ between other dependent variables with the likelihood of the respondent to be in active group level in this study.