Asian Journal for Poverty Studies (AJPS) is the official publication of Regional Network on Poverty Eradication (RENPER) and serves as media for promoting innovative theoretical and empirical research on poverty alleviation. AJPS is a peer reviewed international journal publishing research articles on poverty studies including, but not limited to, urban and rural poverties, gender issues in poverty, public policy on poverty, and community empowermen
It is globally accepted that the agricultural sector is the backbone of every economy. This sector plays a significant role over the course of economic development by contributing a considerable share in the gross domestic product and employment generation. Further, this sector is considered as a herculean weapon to eradicate extreme poverty, food insecurity and poor standard of living particularly in the underdeveloped and developing nations. There are some internal and external forces which have both positive and negative effects on this sector, which includes government policies, environmental condition, population pressure on land, cropping pattern, globalization, international trade and information, communication and technology. Against the above theoretical background, the present study tries to assess the role of ICTs in the development of agriculture in the Union territory of Puducherry, India. In order to execute this study, both primary and secondary data have been used. Secondary data have been collected from the published reports and materials while primary data have been collected from 90 sample respondents from three villages using simple random sampling method. The dataset include socio-economic profiles of the sample respondents and role of television, radio, cell phone, news papers and internet in offering information for the development of agriculture. The study uses simple percentage and Garrett Ranking method to analyze the data. The result of this study shows that television is in the towering position, followed by radio, news papers, cell phone, and internet in generating awareness on suitable input applications like pesticide and fertilizer use, soil quality test, credit opportunities, agricultural prices and cultivation methods. Hence, the study suggests that agro-based programmes should be more effectively relayed through local and national level channels in vernacular language to enhance the agricultural production and productivity.
Banana is one of the common fruit preferences in the world. The market demand for this crop increasing year round. Tissue-cultured banana seedlings are getting widely used as planting materials among the growers for its quality assured properties, particularly for commercial plantation. However, most of the small scale growers are still using conventional planting sources (water suckers and sword suckers). They do not prefer tissue-cultured seedlings due to its expensive price, delicate to handle and often result in high post-transplanting mortality rate. The considerably high cost is due to the process of producing the tissue-cultured seedlings at the nursery stage (acclimatization). Even at the nursery stage, the conventional acclimatization process of the plantlets in the nursery results in non-uniformity of establishment and high mortality rate. The research was conducted to develop a nursery technique that will improve these drawbacks in order to improve greater acceptance and responsive level for the growers towards tissue-cultured seedlings. Based on the results, the developed technique has increased the survival rate (reducing mortality rate) of seedlings as compared to the conventional technique. In addition, this developed technique can be adopted on-farm instead of using protected nursery as conventionally practiced. Using this technique, the seedlings would be more easily adapted to the farm after transplanting. Ordinary farmers prefer younger seedlings (10-15cm in height) for planting as they grow faster than that of older seedlings with common quality (15-25cm in height). Girth size of seedlings would be the higher consideration in meeting the requirement for transplanting purpose. The developed technique has shown better growth performance in both height and girth parameters in the first 36 days as compared to conventional technique. Meaning that this helps to shorten the nursery period and create an alternative standard for seedlings to be transplanted.
Kelantan and Terengganu have the highest number of hardcore poors in Malaysia. Over the years entrepreneurship isÂ one of the means that has been propagated by the government to address this inherent problem. While women hithertoÂ involve in usual business activities, recently more and more women in the said states dare to jump into a new domainÂ of businesses which usually monopolized by men - recycling. This phenomenon warrants empirical research to unearthÂ pertinent questions of the inroad of female entrepreneurs in a new territory of business which overwhelmingly dominatedÂ by male entrepreneurs. Yet at present not many researchers and relevant government agencies look into recycling asÂ an alternative business but for men entrepreneurs, not women. This paper is a part of a larger study that investigatedÂ entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in recycling business in the both states. Results of the study found that womenÂ entrepreneurs in this business are matured, married, and received full support from their families â husband andÂ children. In terms of education majority of them only study until secondary school. Highlighting women entrepreneursâÂ profiles is deemed important because interested parties including future ntrepreneurs, researchers as well as relevantÂ government agencies gain some understanding of characteristics of women entrepreneurs have made a dent in the socalledÂ male dominant business.
This study is intended to apply participatory prospective analysis to formulate women empowerment programs andÂ activities to reduce poverty. Participatory prospective analysis may facilitate the process of integrating multiplestakeholdersâ preferences in public policy decision since the involvement of stakeholders as part of the povertyÂ alleviation solution; it can be expected to increase the effectiveness of the programs and activities. This study wasconducted in South Bengkulu Regency, Bengkulu Province, Indonesia. Data were collected through focus groupÂ discussion (FGD). A number of 23 participants from various delegates of stakeholders including head or officers ofregency government and its regional working units, non government organizations, community groups and localÂ university were involved in the FGD. Data were analysed using participatory prospective method. The results revealthat there are 15 factors identified shaping the system of women empowerment for poverty reduction. By using a fourquadrantÂ window, those factors are grouping into four categories: input, stakes, unused, and output, as the key of theÂ empowered programs. Input factors are human resource skills, social cultural, formal education attainment andÂ health status. The stakes are access to natural resources, access to capital, local policies and access to decisionmaking process. While the unused factors are past experiences, infrastructure and technology. The outputs areÂ employment, community empowerment, motivation, and job availability. This study shows that the strategy to reducepoverty have to be done via women empowerment programs, which are comprising better off education, skillÂ development, health status and social culture. Access to education, skills and health should be part of the poor asset.Poor women need to equip with assets to reduce their vulnerabilities.
This paper aims to examine the impact of the Program Titian Saksama Rakyat (PTSR) to the petty traders. PTSR is a microfinance program which focuses on the growth and the development of the micro entrepreneurs in Penang, Malaysia. It was initiated by the Penang Development Corporation (PDC) in co-operation with the Penang State Government in November 2008. Based on the sample of 150 petty traders involved in various business activities, the results showed that the amount of the loan received has a significant effect on their income. In addition, this study revealed that the amount of the loan received and the actual amount of the loan application (whether it is fully approved or not) were significantly affect the success of these traders. The results of the analysis also indicated that, the traders enjoyed significant benefits from the PTSR as this program was able to increase their income, expand their business, lift them out of poverty, improve their ability to increase the amount of deposits and their property, improve the quality of their health and improve their ability to own a house and land. Because of these benefits, these traders are interested and plan to apply for another loan from the PTSR program. This study, therefore, suggests that the PTSR program should be continued as it played significant roles in improving the socio-economic performance of the petty traders.
The paper examines food security in terms of its three basic indicators, viz., availability, accessibility and absorption, across IBSA countries and Bangladesh, which together account for nearly a quarter of the worldâs population and more than one-third the undernourished. It also analyses the determinants of prevalence of food inadequacy in these countries. The study is based on data drawn from FAOSTAT, World Development Indicators (World Bank) and Global Food Security Index 2016 for the period 1990-2016. The objectives of the study have been analysed using ratios, percentages, simple average and multiple regressions. The results of the study indicate Brazil to be leading in achievement of the three indicators of food security indicators, whereas India and Bangladesh lag behind in most of the parameters. The determinants of prevalence of food inadequacy revealed that while increase in GDP per capita significantly reduced food inadequacy, growth in population significantly increased it in Brazil. Value of food production and targeted policies ensuring food security emerged as the most significant factors reducing prevalence of food inadequacy in most of the selected countries. The study recommends increasing food production and effective implementation of the food security policies by the four countries. Above all, these countries could also benefit from sharing each othersâ best practices.
Indonesia faces unemployment and poverty problems which may cause this country as one of the main countries inÂ Asia to send international migrant workers. The main objective of this paper is to examine whether unemployment andÂ poverty determine Indonesian Overseas Workers (IOWs). The study uses secondary data and the data are analysed byÂ utilizing a Vector Autoregressive (VAR) framework. The findings show that unemployment has a significant negativeÂ effect on the IOWs while poverty has a significant positive effect. The unemployed youth in Indonesia mainly haveÂ higher education and are not poor which are least likely to migrate while poor people migrate for survival. Hence,Â freeze on sending the IOWs may not be effective since the poor people will keep working overseas by being illegalworkers.
The empowerment of women is one of the central issues in the process of development of countries all over the world. Poverty is one of the major reasons of womenâs disempowerment. Different micro and macro level strategies are being used by government agencies and NGOs for poverty alleviation of women as a way to empower them. Microfinance has become an important component of development, poverty reduction and economic regeneration strategy around the world. In India, Microfinance programme are implemented through Self Help Groups (SHGs). The SHG is an association of people belonging to similar socio-economic characteristic, residing in same locality. The SHGs are voluntary associations of people formed to attain some common goals. These are groups have similar social identity, heritage, caste or traditional occupations. The present study is analyses the role of microfinance in empowering Muslim women as well as non-Muslim women in a comparative perspective and a comparison between members of SHGs and non-members to gain better insights into the working of SHGs. The concept of microfinance is analysed by using the size of loan received, recovery of loan, and period of loan and the economic, social and knowledge empowerment is used to analyse the empowerment. The results were tabulated by using of logistic regression model. Finally, it is concluded that that microfinance brought knowledge and social empowerment than economic empowerment. Impact of micro finance is appreciable in bringing confidence, courage, skill development and empowerment.
Seafood processing industry including companies and households accounts for 35% of Mekong deltaâs total agriculturalÂ output. The former mainly concentrates on exports; their processing activities are required and supervised to meet manycriteria of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility by foreign importers. Meanwhile, the latterâsÂ production is for the local market; its processing activities mainly rely on experience and surrounding environment.This study focuses on sustainability of householdsâ seafood processing activities with three pillars including economic,Â social and environmental ones. The research sample of 300 households was collected in 6 provinces of Mekong deltaincluding Ben Tre, Ca Mau, Tien Giang, Dong Thap, Tra Vinh, Bac Lieu in July 2014. Research findings show thatÂ from the economic perspective, physical facilities are outdated; revenues and profits are not stable and household havemore difficulties in collecting materials, obtaining loans for their business and selling their products. In addition, fromÂ social perspective, the average income for seasonal workers is at low levels with 60% paid from 50 - 80 thousands VNDper day and 70% of surveyed households have members and seasonal workers suffering from syndromes of work-relatedÂ diseases including sinusitis, rheumatism, dermatology, eye itching. Moreover, the environment surrounding seafoodÂ processing households is seriously polluted with 71% of households discharging untreated wastewater into nearby seas,Â rivers and canals and disposing solid wastes around their houses. Therefore, 80% of households fail to control and killÂ insects such as flies and bluebottles in their processing area, especially up to 50% failing to know the origins of anti-insectÂ chemistries used. Based on these findings, this paper delivers implications and recommendations for the local governmentÂ and households to improve the sustainability of householdsâ seafood processing activities in Mekong delta.
The Orang Asli is one of the natives in Peninsular Malaysia lagging behind in rapid development, and has a highÂ poverty rate. Although since the independence, Malaysian government has been implementing various developmentÂ programs to solve the poverty problem, but the effect is not comprehensive. There are still tribes of Orang Asli less toÂ participate in implementation of development programs. Instead, they are more focused on performing traditionalÂ economic activities especially hunting and gathering activities. Orang Asli from Semaq Beri tribes in the state ofTerengganu are among the communities that are in the situation. Based on this problem a study was made with theÂ objective; (i) evaluate the implementation of development programs such as agriculture and fisheries projects thatÂ have been implemented for the locals, (ii) understand the problems faced by residents in their programs. To meet thisÂ objective, data were collected through observation techniques and interview process. Observation technique used toÂ find out peoples reactions to the implementation of development programs, and interview techniques used to obtainÂ information in the form of views and comments on the residents of the development. Studies of the documents wereÂ also made to get a clearer picture of the problem. The results showed that the implementation of development programsÂ such as palm oil and fish farming cages less involving locals since the beginning of its implementation. Residents do notÂ have sufficient information and skills to participate in this project. In addition, people also have trouble participatingÂ in the project on a number of factors such as lack of exposure, skills training, lack of guidance, leadership problems,Â culture and current financial problems