Asian Journal for Poverty Studies (AJPS) is the official publication of Regional Network on Poverty Eradication (RENPER) and serves as media for promoting innovative theoretical and empirical research on poverty alleviation. AJPS is a peer reviewed international journal publishing research articles on poverty studies including, but not limited to, urban and rural poverties, gender issues in poverty, public policy on poverty, and community empowermen
Bangladesh is a country of 140 million populations where poverty reduction is the prior challenge. With a low level of per capita income, Bangladesh needs to formulate a multi-sectorial strategy for poverty reduction. As Bangladesh is an agricultural based country poverty can be minimized by enhancing agricultural inputs to maximize our production. Tea is an important cash crop in our country. Vast population directly or indirectly depends on our tea industry. The present study was conducted to investigate yield, quality and drought performance of the two newly released variety named BT19 and BT20 by Bangladesh Tea Research Institute. The experiment was conducted at Bangladesh Tea Research Institute experimental farm where four test clones namely Sh/D/11/313, A/8/8, A/17/7, A/22/39 and a well renowned Indian clone TV1 used as a control. The experimental result revealed that amongst the four test clones A/17/7 and A/8/8 are statistically more high yielder and drought tolerant than the control. A/17/7 is more high yielding than A/8/8 but A/8/8 is more drought tolerant. So considering yield, quality and drought potentials, the test clone A/17/7 and A/8/8 have recently released as BT19 and BT20 respectively which can be used as improved planting material in our tea growing areas by small growers and small holders to increase our production, quality as well as job opportunities and national income to eradicate our poverty.
This study aims at finding possible links between the economic performance and institutional quality of provinces and cities in Vietnam by using regression analysis. The economic performance is measured by Net revenue of all firms in each province or city. The institutional quality is representative with Provincial Competitiveness Index (PCI) of respective province or city. For regression models, while the dependent variable is economic performance of provinces, PCI is used as the key independent variable. Labor and capital are main production factors of the economic performance, so they are also included in the regression models. The data of the years 2012 and 2013 collected from sixty-three provinces and cities in Vietnam is used in the study. The study shows a link between the economic performance and the institutional quality of provinces and cities in Vietnam.
Banana is one of the common fruit preferences in the world. The market demand for this crop increasing year round. Tissue-cultured banana seedlings are getting widely used as planting materials among the growers for its quality assured properties, particularly for commercial plantation. However, most of the small scale growers are still using conventional planting sources (water suckers and sword suckers). They do not prefer tissue-cultured seedlings due to its expensive price, delicate to handle and often result in high post-transplanting mortality rate. The considerably high cost is due to the process of producing the tissue-cultured seedlings at the nursery stage (acclimatization). Even at the nursery stage, the conventional acclimatization process of the plantlets in the nursery results in non-uniformity of establishment and high mortality rate. The research was conducted to develop a nursery technique that will improve these drawbacks in order to improve greater acceptance and responsive level for the growers towards tissue-cultured seedlings. Based on the results, the developed technique has increased the survival rate (reducing mortality rate) of seedlings as compared to the conventional technique. In addition, this developed technique can be adopted on-farm instead of using protected nursery as conventionally practiced. Using this technique, the seedlings would be more easily adapted to the farm after transplanting. Ordinary farmers prefer younger seedlings (10-15cm in height) for planting as they grow faster than that of older seedlings with common quality (15-25cm in height). Girth size of seedlings would be the higher consideration in meeting the requirement for transplanting purpose. The developed technique has shown better growth performance in both height and girth parameters in the first 36 days as compared to conventional technique. Meaning that this helps to shorten the nursery period and create an alternative standard for seedlings to be transplanted.
The paper examines food security in terms of its three basic indicators, viz., availability, accessibility and absorption, across IBSA countries and Bangladesh, which together account for nearly a quarter of the worldâs population and more than one-third the undernourished. It also analyses the determinants of prevalence of food inadequacy in these countries. The study is based on data drawn from FAOSTAT, World Development Indicators (World Bank) and Global Food Security Index 2016 for the period 1990-2016. The objectives of the study have been analysed using ratios, percentages, simple average and multiple regressions. The results of the study indicate Brazil to be leading in achievement of the three indicators of food security indicators, whereas India and Bangladesh lag behind in most of the parameters. The determinants of prevalence of food inadequacy revealed that while increase in GDP per capita significantly reduced food inadequacy, growth in population significantly increased it in Brazil. Value of food production and targeted policies ensuring food security emerged as the most significant factors reducing prevalence of food inadequacy in most of the selected countries. The study recommends increasing food production and effective implementation of the food security policies by the four countries. Above all, these countries could also benefit from sharing each othersâ best practices.
The empowerment of women is one of the central issues in the process of development of countries all over the world. Poverty is one of the major reasons of womenâs disempowerment. Different micro and macro level strategies are being used by government agencies and NGOs for poverty alleviation of women as a way to empower them. Microfinance has become an important component of development, poverty reduction and economic regeneration strategy around the world. In India, Microfinance programme are implemented through Self Help Groups (SHGs). The SHG is an association of people belonging to similar socio-economic characteristic, residing in same locality. The SHGs are voluntary associations of people formed to attain some common goals. These are groups have similar social identity, heritage, caste or traditional occupations. The present study is analyses the role of microfinance in empowering Muslim women as well as non-Muslim women in a comparative perspective and a comparison between members of SHGs and non-members to gain better insights into the working of SHGs. The concept of microfinance is analysed by using the size of loan received, recovery of loan, and period of loan and the economic, social and knowledge empowerment is used to analyse the empowerment. The results were tabulated by using of logistic regression model. Finally, it is concluded that that microfinance brought knowledge and social empowerment than economic empowerment. Impact of micro finance is appreciable in bringing confidence, courage, skill development and empowerment.
Cancer is recognized as global threat to human development and it was estimated that in 2030 there will be 22.2 million new cases of cancer and 12.7 million cancer-related deaths worldwide. Herbal medicine plant till this day all over in the word is still the main source and one of the most important fields of traditional medicine agents to fight breast cancer. The usage of plants is still important because has its own beaviour advantages such as low toxicity, easy to get, cheap and has less side effect if it is used in a right. One of this plant it has been used as a traditional medicine is a Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl) also known as Mahkota Dewa from Papua island. It has been used traditionally for treatment of cancers in Indonesia and also to cure many diseases. The therapeutic effect of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl, is related to the its bioactive compounds contents. There are many reported compounds from Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl, which are found, reported and published such as Icariside, phalerin, mangiferin, gallic acid, 29-Norcucurbitacin, gentiobioside and glucoside. All compounds reported above have already published as anticancer agents,where anticancer activity were detected and showed against Hela cells, leukemia cells, cervical cancer, breast cancer, and L1210 cells. Research on Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruit and leaves merit have been done and published, however, there are very limited research on linked correlation between the concentration of compounds and its the cytotoxicity Â level. Because of that, research about correlation level of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl leaves extract still need to investigate to find the relationship between them in the goal to investigate alternative low cost herbal medicine agents to fight breast cancer especially useful for low income people, thus, information about Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.Leaves became more complete. Cytotoxicity properties of samples against breast cancer cell lines was performed by using the MTT assay against MCF-7 cell line. The correlation between concentration of crude and cytotoxic activity was interpreted by statistical analyses. The study showed that Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl.) leaves extracts showed cytoxicity activity against breast cancer MCF7 cell lines. Correlation between concentration of extract and cytotoxicity property (absorbance value) were founded in weak relationship (R = -0.37181). It could be effect of many different compounds in the Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl.) leaves methanol extracts may cause the pharmacological interactions, so lower or higher concentration will be antagonistic effect on absorbance or cell viability.Further study on its mechanism pathway on revealing against breast cancer could be explored. Furthermore, the natural product derived from Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl.) leaves extracts have potential use in cheap alternative agents against breast cancer
The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of set of dairy supporting policies within the framework of the government âNational Livestock Development Policy (NLDP)â on the potential for reduction of cost of milk production in small-scale dairy farmers under different production systems. This study further aims at identifying the link among increasing household income and rural livelihoods-thus reducing poverty. This study applies the method developed by the International Farm Comparison Network (IFCN). The underlying principle of this method is the application of the concept of âTypical Farm Approach (TFA)â and Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculations (TIPI-CAL) model. Three typical farms from three production systems (e.g. extensive, intensive and traditional) were selected from three agro-ecological zones. The required data collection was done in two steps: first, the data were collected from three baseline typical farms (status quo) operating without policy by applying the âPanel Approachâ. In the second step, 10 different dairy supporting policy scenarios and technologies were simulated and applied in each of the base line farms in each production system and data were collected from 30 farms using the base farm as the status quo farm. The data were analysed by utilizing the extended version of TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculations) model (TIPI-CAL software version 5.1). The results showed that improved dairy support services: improved veterinary services (IM-VHS), improved marketing access (IM-MKS), improved feeding and nutritional services (IM-FNS), community based fodder production system (CB-FPS), national breeding programme (NL-BRP) showed the highest impact on increasing milk productivity, decreasing milk production cost, increasing income from dairy and overall household income in all three production systems compared with base line farms. However, the magnitude of the impacts substantially differs among the production systems. This study also reveals that that there is a direct link among increasing income and reducing poverty since the household income increases as a result of implementing dairy support services to a level above the poverty line (1.9 US$/day equivalent to 147.96 BDT). This study results could be useful for prioritizing the policies on delivery of support services and technology and are expected to be helpful as a benchmark to implement the âdraft policy proposalâ by the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock (MOFL) in Bangladesh.
Paddy drying after harvest is important for reducing loss and storing long term. High moisture promotes the development of insects and molds that are harmful to the grain. It is necessary to adapt technology for drying paddy at small scale traders and farmersâ level as an alternative to traditional sun drying. The low cost BAU-STR dryer would be one of the alternative effective drying technologies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate technical and financial performance of BAU-STR dryer at the field level. The study of BAU-STR dryer was conducted during Boro Season, 2016 at selected areas of Mymensingh and Jessore districts. Air temperature inside grain bin was recorded using 3 ACR Smart Button data logger. Ambient air temperature was recorded using TRH-1000 sensor. Moisture content of the grain was measured at five locations in the BAU-STR dryer during drying operation. The dryer was evaluated with three verities: T1-SL 8, T2-Hybrid Taj, T3-BRRI dhan28 which consider as three treatments. The dryer capacity was 500 kg per batch. The results showed that the temperature and moisture distributions in BAU-STR dryer were uniform. Paddy was dried from moisture content 22.8 to 12.2% uniformly in between 2.5 to 4.8 hours for 500 kg dryer capacity in different treatments. The drying time for larger grain (T1-SL8) was less compared to other two varieties. The drying efficiency was about 52%, 65% and 52% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The operating cost of drying was found Tk. 0.87 per kg (diesel engine operated blower) for BAU-STR dryer. The benefit-cost ratio and payback period were found 1.9 and 0.28 yr for diesel engine operated BAU-STR dryer from the experiments at field level of Bangladesh.
The project entitled âLivelihood Improvement of Farming Community in Haor Area through System Approach (LIFCHASA)â of the Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University; Mymensingh worked in Purbo Tethulia village of Mohanganj Upazila under Netrakona district from April 2010 to June 2013 with the financial assistance from The Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council. Different research activities were done as per plan for different five components. The Crop and Agroforestry Component conducted experiments both in the homestead land and crop land. Under Livestock Component, experiments were conducted on rearing of egg producing hen, duck, fattening of animals, artificial insemination and continuous vaccination programme. In the Fisheries Component, experiments on cage culture in open water emerged as a promising technology. From the result of the soil sample analysis of the research site under Rural Hydrology and Mechanization Component, it was found that additional application of sulphur and zinc fertilizers were unnecessary. From the study under Socioeconomic Component, it was distinctly clear that the efficiency of marginal and small farms was improved in agro economic productivity with the increase of number of farming enterprises intervened irrespective of farm sizes. The marginal and small farmers appeared to be the most efficient performers in the integration and arrangement of farming enterprises. This was followed by landless and medium farms. The gross margin for marginal and small, landless and medium increased by 84%, 89% and 50 %, respectively involving the enterprises like crop and agroforestry, livestock and fisheries. The findings of 25 physical models on integrated farming systems revealed that the agro-economic/bio-economic productivity of all those models increased tremendously in terms of total production, biodiversity, human resource enlightened with knowledge, skill and motivational spirit in modern techniques and technologies.
Recently the concept of micro credit has been given huge prominence at the global level in order to eliminate poverty and to raise the living conditions of underprivileged and growth excluded groups across the world countries. Community development and poverty eradication through micro credit which combines use of training, organization and career development, efforts to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness develops the essential abilities that enable individuals to perform present and future income generation through planned learning activities. This is not only related to those who are employed but also it is necessary even for those who are socially and economically backward sections and groups to improve their living standards and empowerment. The essential credit supplied at an affordable rate and in time for those who have the capacity to invest it in a suitable productive manner could help to improve their social and economic standards. Many of studies throughout the world evidently concluded that the reliable and affordable credit helps the poor to come out from the vicious circles of poverty. This paper has made an attempt to describe the role of micro credit in eradication of poverty by estimating income generating opportunities and income levels raised by micro credit supplied through self-help groups which results in lifting the rural poor from the poverty crunch in Chittoor rural mandal of Andhra Pradesh.