ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS)
Published by Universitas Bengkulu
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Asian Journal for Poverty Studies (AJPS) is the official publication of Regional Network on Poverty Eradication (RENPER) and serves as media for promoting innovative theoretical and empirical research on poverty alleviation. AJPS is a peer reviewed international journal publishing research articles on poverty studies including, but not limited to, urban and rural poverties, gender issues in poverty, public policy on poverty, and community empowermen
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IMPACT OF HYBRID RICE AND MAIZE SEED IN CEREAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN BANGLADESH Anwar, M.M.; Awal, M.A.; Khan, A.S.M. M.R.; Haque, M.E.; Hossain, A.
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 3, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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The study was undertaken on production and marketing scenario, farmers’ perception and efficiency of hybrid rice and maize producers in Bangladesh. Data from400 farmers and 40 seed dealerswere collected fromDinajpur, Sherpur, Gopalganj andNoakhali district.Ten leading seed companies were also included in the study. About 4 thousand tons of hybrid rice seed were imported by leading 10 seed companies in 2014-15 which was about 38% of total import of hybrid rice seed. BADC is the main hybrid seed producer (HL 8 h) in Bangladesh but it is not more than 10% of total import. Twelve to twenty seven hybrid rice varieties were found in the study districts, and the highest area covered by hybrid in GopalganjSadar (13813 ha) followed by Sonaimuri (7200 ha) ofNoakhali. Farmer’s gross return and gross margin increased by using hybrid rice seed. The solution of the linear programming model shows that area under HYV rice have been shifted to hybrid rice about 8 to 52 percent. The results of stochastic frontier production modelindicated that inefficiency effects are present in hybrid rice and maize production. Hence, technical inefficiency effects have significant impact on output. These results suggest that there is a substantial scope for increasing rice production in the country using hybrid seed. Farmers are happy by producing hybrid rice as it is higher yielder.
CREDIT GUARANTEE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES THE CASE OF MUNICIPAL CREDIT GUARANTEE FUNDS IN VIETNAM Dao, Ha Thi Thieu
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 3, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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Only 23 out of 63 provinces in Vietnam have established credit guarantee funds since 2001, when Vietnamese government encouraged the establishment of provincial credit guarantee funds to support small and medium enterprises. The Credit Guarantee Fund which reach the largest small and medium enterprises guarantee for only 105 loans. The article uses content analysis method to assess the situation of credit guarantee operation for small and medium enterprises in Vietnam. Research shows that guarantee funds are currently not expanding due to the fact that unfavorable guarantee regulations do not encourage borrowing under the guarantee of these funds; charter capital is at small scale; cooperation between banks and these funds are not based on sharing benefits and risks; inflexible and increative Municipal Credit Guarantee Funds. Following the recent findings, the paper suggests recommendations for the policies to strengthen the credit accessibility of SMEs in Vietnam.
PATTERN OF FARMING PRACTICES AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: A STUDY ON THE LINKAGE Baksh, S. Allah; Rajkumar, P.; Sankaran, A.
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 3, No 1 (2017)
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Agricultural development is the sine qua non for socio-economic development of a nation in general and developing countries in particular. The sustainable agriculture can be traced that it enhances the environmental quality and the resource base upon which agriculture depends. This form of agriculture is expected to provide basic human food and other major needs which are socially desirable and economically viable. This awareness has come to the centre stage of global debate as a result of degradation of natural resources and environment. The present study is an attempt to examine the farming practices in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, India. The study is an empirical investigation based upon the data collected from the above mentioned field. The data were collected from 335 respondents of the district who were selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling method. In the first phase one developed taluk, a backward taluk, and a most backward taluk were identified. In the second phase one community development block is selected from each taluk. Third phase is the selection of five villages from each block. And at the final stage from each village 10 per cent of the farm households were selected at random. From the selected respondents the data were collected by using the tool of interview-schedule. The farming pattern of each educational group is associated with the views on advantages of cultivating traditional crop variety and the awareness of impact of chemical fertilizer on land and crops.
AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF ICTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNION TERRITORY OF PUDUCHERRY, INDIA Sankaran, A.; Rajkumar, P.
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 3, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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It is globally accepted that the agricultural sector is the backbone of every economy. This sector plays a significant role over the course of economic development by contributing a considerable share in the gross domestic product and employment generation. Further, this sector is considered as a herculean weapon to eradicate extreme poverty, food insecurity and poor standard of living particularly in the underdeveloped and developing nations. There are some internal and external forces which have both positive and negative effects on this sector, which includes government policies, environmental condition, population pressure on land, cropping pattern, globalization, international trade and information, communication and technology. Against the above theoretical background, the present study tries to assess the role of ICTs in the development of agriculture in the Union territory of Puducherry, India. In order to execute this study, both primary and secondary data have been used. Secondary data have been collected from the published reports and materials while primary data have been collected from 90 sample respondents from three villages using simple random sampling method. The dataset include socio-economic profiles of the sample respondents and role of television, radio, cell phone, news papers and internet in offering information for the development of agriculture. The study uses simple percentage and Garrett Ranking method to analyze the data. The result of this study shows that television is in the towering position, followed by radio, news papers, cell phone, and internet in generating awareness on suitable input applications like pesticide and fertilizer use, soil quality test, credit opportunities, agricultural prices and cultivation methods. Hence, the study suggests that agro-based programmes should be more effectively relayed through local and national level channels in vernacular language to enhance the agricultural production and productivity.
THE ROLE OF MICROFINANCE IN THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF PETTY TRADERS IN PENANG: THE CASE OF PROGRAMS TITIAN SAKSAMA RAKYAT BY PENANG DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION Yusoff, Dalilah; Omar, Mohd Zaini; Hassan, Fatimah
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 3, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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This paper aims to examine the impact of the Program Titian Saksama Rakyat (PTSR) to the petty traders. PTSR is a microfinance program which focuses on the growth and the development of the micro entrepreneurs in Penang, Malaysia. It was initiated by the Penang Development Corporation (PDC) in co-operation with the Penang State Government in November 2008. Based on the sample of 150 petty traders involved in various business activities, the results showed that the amount of the loan received has a significant effect on their income. In addition, this study revealed that the amount of the loan received and the actual amount of the loan application (whether it is fully approved or not) were significantly affect the success of these traders. The results of the analysis also indicated that, the traders enjoyed significant benefits from the PTSR as this program was able to increase their income, expand their business, lift them out of poverty, improve their ability to increase the amount of deposits and their property, improve the quality of their health and improve their ability to own a house and land. Because of these benefits, these traders are interested and plan to apply for another loan from the PTSR program. This study, therefore, suggests that the PTSR program should be continued as it played significant roles in improving the socio-economic performance of the petty traders.
POVERTY REDUCTION AND LIVELIHOOD IMPROVEMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH GOAT REARING Rahman, Md. Matiur; Hossain, M. Mujaffar; Miah, M.A. Momen
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 3, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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This study aimed to examine household in goat keeping farms having more than two goats with respect to its viability, socioeconomic characteristics of the women goat keepers, contribution of small scale goat farming to food security and livelihood, identify major problems associated with small scale goat famers. The study had been conducted in 6 villages namely Kandhapara, Hossainpur, Merigai, Horinadi Shimulia and Nagua of Phulpur upazila in Mymensingh district. In total 60 farmers comprising 07 medium, 43 poor and 10 most vulnerable or extreme poor farmers were randomly for the study. Primary data were collected from the selected farmers by interview method. Both tabular and financial analyses were done to achieve the objectives. The study revealed that most of the women were poor with small family size. However they were young and literate. The study clearly indicated that investment in goat farming were viable. The annual total cost of production per Black Bengal goat was BDT. 3,374, while gross return and net return per household were BDT.21,276 and BDT.17,902 respectively. It was observed that livelihood increased dramatically through goat rearing in the study area. Annual food purchasing capacity increased from 20 to 28 percent. The social status of the farmer?s family increases. Educational status, festival, health facilities acceptance were increased at 19%, 26% and 28% through goat. The position in the family, participation in social activities, water facilities and sanitation also increased remarkably. The study also identified that the goat farmers had been facing some crucial problems with goat keeping. If these problems could be overcome, all the goat farms would be able to earn a higher level of that of the existing level. It was clearly found that the women who reared goat had the most rapid improvement in livelihood.
IMPACT OF LIVESTOCK SECTOR FOR RURAL POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN CHITTOOR DISTRICT Jalari, Vasu; Devarajulu, M.
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 3, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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Livestock sector plays avigorous role in socio-economic progress of rural families. Livestock rearing has substantial optimistic influence on equity in terms of employment, income and poverty lessening in rural zones by way of dispersal of livestock is more democratic as compared to land for agriculture purposes. In Andhra Pradesh, more than 5 percent of the rural households own livestock and a majority of livestock owning households are small, marginal and landless households. Small animals like sheep, goats, pigs and poultry are largely kept by the land scarce poor households for commercial purposes due to their low initial investment and operational costs. In the recent decade, demand for various livestock based products has increased considerably due to rise in per capita income, urbanization, taste and preference and increased awareness about food nutrition. Livestock sector is likely to arise as an appliance for agricultural progress in the coming years. This study only confined to Sree Rangaraja Puram Mandal in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh. In this paper author will make an attempt to analyses the performance of livestock sector in terms of livestock population, production, employment and income on one hand and the role of livestock sector in reducing rural poverty on the other. The study will also highlight the various major problems facing by the people those who are engaging in livestock sector in Sree Rangaraja Puram Mandal of Chittoor district.
ROLE OF NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS IN POVERTY REDUCTION AMONG TRIBALS IN WESTERN GHATS OF TAMILNADU Soundarapandian, M.; Yamuna, G.
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 3, No 1 (2017)
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The enormous natural resources of Indias forests including Non-Wood forest products (NWFPs), such as medicinal and aromatic plants, leaves, seeds, nuts, fruits and gums offer employment that provide up to half the income of about 25 % of the countrys rural labor force. Despite of the potential benefits that are offered by non-wood forest products, it has been widely documented that forest still offers little in terms of opportunities for expanding livelihood options and assets required to reduce livelihood vulnerability. Based on this, a study was carried out to determine the contribution of NWFPs towards poverty reduction by assessing potentials and constraints experienced by adjacent local communities towards their exploitation. The specific objective of the study is to assess the role of NWFPs contribution to tribal income and also influence on the poverty reduction. The study was conducted in Kodaikanal and Palani range in Dindigul district of Tamil Nadu state. The data were collected personally in cooperation with forest officers and other officials of the district by using pre-tested interview schedule. The findings reveals that the 65 selected households involved for collection of myrobalam (kadukkai), honey, amla, broom grass, stone flower, pepper, and coffee. These products were easily accessible and available to them and these activities are the important source of employment and income. The tribes earned at an average per day, from the collection of NWFPs of Rs700 for broom grass, Rs.650 for kadukkai, Rs.600 for amla, Rs.500 for pepper, and Rs.400 for coffee and stone flower. Regarding honey collection, the tribes earned Rs.400 per liter. Majority of the respondents (92.3 %) were facing the problems related to lack of transport facilities for NWFPs existence of bad weather (76.9 %), deforestation(69.2 %), fluctuated market price (61.5 %), lack of storage facilities for NWFPs (56.9 %), over collection of outsiders (38.4 %), low infrastructure facilities for NWFPs (18.4 %), lack of skill oriented training for NWFPs(16.9 %) and lack of timely information for marketing of NWFPs (15.3 %). It is suggested that there is a need to take necessary steps by the government to eliminate these existing problems faced by the respondent of study area. Respondents expected nearby Ration shop and Primary health centre from the district authority.
GREEN KAMPONG: URBAN POVERTY INITIATIVE PROGRAM FOR TRANSIENT POOR FAMILY IN BENGKULU, INDONESIA Santoso, Djonet; Hendrastiti, Titiek Kartika
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 3, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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Urban poverty is still a thorny issue in almost all cities in Indonesia. Urban poverty is grouped into two different characteristics: chronic and transient. Chronic poverty experienced by those who are under the poverty line, while transient poverty experienced by those who are around the poverty line. Unlike the chronic group that is often the target of poverty reduction policies, transient group is often overlooked. They do not exist in the scheme of poverty reduction programs. In fact, the number of transient poor population is about 46 percent, compare to the chronic population that is only 11%. With almost having similar condition with the chronic group, transient group is characterized by unstable income, large spending on food, limited access to drinking water, live in the surrounding slums, and having a low quality sanitation. The question is, how the survival strategy of the neglected transient is able to cope with their difficult life. And the most important thing, what program should be done by the government to deal with transient poverty? This paper will discuss the economic living conditions of transient poor families in urban Bengkulu City, Indonesia, reviews their survival strategy, initiatives and experiences. It also talks about ongoing Green Kampong project promoted by the University of Bengkulu that integrates incomes generation efforts for the transient poor and the commitment of environmental protection through the vegetables planting in every idle land in the kampong area.
THE DETERMINANTS OF POVERTY IN THE MEKONG RIVER DELTA KEY ECONOMIC ZONE IN VIETNAM Ngoc, Le Thanh; Diem, Pham Thi Thuy
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 3, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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This paper investigates the determinants of poverty in Mekong River Delta Key Economic Zone in Vietnam for a sample of 604 households in Can Tho province, An Giang province, KienGiang province and Ca Mau province in 2012. Explanatory variables include demographic, nature, region, finance and physical. Using Binary Logistics regression, results show the complexity of the issues, wherein the financial variable has been the most important influence of poverty in this area.

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