ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS)
Published by Universitas Bengkulu
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Asian Journal for Poverty Studies (AJPS) is the official publication of Regional Network on Poverty Eradication (RENPER) and serves as media for promoting innovative theoretical and empirical research on poverty alleviation. AJPS is a peer reviewed international journal publishing research articles on poverty studies including, but not limited to, urban and rural poverties, gender issues in poverty, public policy on poverty, and community empowermen
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CENTERING VULNERABLE INTERESTS: THE CONSTRUCTION OF WOMEN’S PROTECTION MODEL FROM FIELD LESSONS Hendrastiti, Titiek Kartika; Riza, Irna
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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The position of women in Indonesian society is progressing. The progress trend is supported by several legal instruments and policies that guarantee womens rights. Although adequate legal instruments began, many implementations in the field are distorted. Implementation of the protection schemes for women does not address to the changing of the poor women’s living condition, instead it remains vulnerable. This action research was addressed to analyze and discuss the practices of state social protection for the poor communities, as well as the testimony of beneficiaries. Based on the field learning from both parties, activists from universities and non-governmental organizations, attempt was made to knit some state schemes and policies into a model of protection; it also aimed to facilitate access and accelerate changes.
POOR HOUSEHOLDS’ CREDIT ACCESSIBILITY: THE CASE OF RURAL VIETNAM Dao, Ha Thi Thieu; Kim, Nguyen Thien; Mai, Nguyen Thi
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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This paper examines determinants of accessibility to rural poor households in Vietnam from the viewpoint of policy makers, credit institutions and poor households. From supply side annual report of provider will be cited, from demand side, VHLSS primary data provided by GSO will be used. Beside that semi-structured questionnaire survey will be conducted to collect qualitative information. Logit model is employed to investigate the determinants of their outstanding loan. The quantitative model’s results express that age, education, regional differentiation, industrial differentiation, land, asset affect to credit access of poor households. The qualitative analysis finds out some recommendations for adjustment the poverty reducing credit policy
PROFILES OF WOMEN IN RECYCLING BUSINESS IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED STATES IN MALAYSIA – AN ALTERNATIVE ENTERPRISE? Yaacob, Mohd Rafi
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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Kelantan and Terengganu have the highest number of hardcore poors in Malaysia. Over the years entrepreneurship is one of the means that has been propagated by the government to address this inherent problem. While women hitherto involve in usual business activities, recently more and more women in the said states dare to jump into a new domain of businesses which usually monopolized by men - recycling. This phenomenon warrants empirical research to unearth pertinent questions of the inroad of female entrepreneurs in a new territory of business which overwhelmingly dominated by male entrepreneurs. Yet at present not many researchers and relevant government agencies look into recycling as an alternative business but for men entrepreneurs, not women. This paper is a part of a larger study that investigated entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in recycling business in the both states. Results of the study found that women entrepreneurs in this business are matured, married, and received full support from their families – husband and children. In terms of education majority of them only study until secondary school. Highlighting women entrepreneurs’ profiles is deemed important because interested parties including future ntrepreneurs, researchers as well as relevant government agencies gain some understanding of characteristics of women entrepreneurs have made a dent in the socalled male dominant business.
SUSTAINABILITY OF HOUSEHOLDS’ SEAFOOD PROCESSING ACTIVITIES IN MEKONG DELTA Nguyen, Xuan Minh; Tran, Quoc Trung
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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Seafood processing industry including companies and households accounts for 35% of Mekong delta’s total agricultural output. The former mainly concentrates on exports; their processing activities are required and supervised to meet manycriteria of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility by foreign importers. Meanwhile, the latter’s production is for the local market; its processing activities mainly rely on experience and surrounding environment.This study focuses on sustainability of households’ seafood processing activities with three pillars including economic, social and environmental ones. The research sample of 300 households was collected in 6 provinces of Mekong deltaincluding Ben Tre, Ca Mau, Tien Giang, Dong Thap, Tra Vinh, Bac Lieu in July 2014. Research findings show that from the economic perspective, physical facilities are outdated; revenues and profits are not stable and household havemore difficulties in collecting materials, obtaining loans for their business and selling their products. In addition, from social perspective, the average income for seasonal workers is at low levels with 60% paid from 50 - 80 thousands VNDper day and 70% of surveyed households have members and seasonal workers suffering from syndromes of work-related diseases including sinusitis, rheumatism, dermatology, eye itching. Moreover, the environment surrounding seafood processing households is seriously polluted with 71% of households discharging untreated wastewater into nearby seas, rivers and canals and disposing solid wastes around their houses. Therefore, 80% of households fail to control and kill insects such as flies and bluebottles in their processing area, especially up to 50% failing to know the origins of anti-insect chemistries used. Based on these findings, this paper delivers implications and recommendations for the local government and households to improve the sustainability of households’ seafood processing activities in Mekong delta.
DEVELOPMENT PARTICIPATION AMONG ORANG ASLI IN SUNGAI BERUA VILLAGE, MALAYSIA Abdullah, Ramle; Simin, Mohamad Hafis Amat; Ibrahim, Mohamad Asmawi
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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The Orang Asli is one of the natives in Peninsular Malaysia lagging behind in rapid development, and has a high poverty rate. Although since the independence, Malaysian government has been implementing various development programs to solve the poverty problem, but the effect is not comprehensive. There are still tribes of Orang Asli less to participate in implementation of development programs. Instead, they are more focused on performing traditional economic activities especially hunting and gathering activities. Orang Asli from Semaq Beri tribes in the state ofTerengganu are among the communities that are in the situation. Based on this problem a study was made with the objective; (i) evaluate the implementation of development programs such as agriculture and fisheries projects that have been implemented for the locals, (ii) understand the problems faced by residents in their programs. To meet this objective, data were collected through observation techniques and interview process. Observation technique used to find out peoples reactions to the implementation of development programs, and interview techniques used to obtain information in the form of views and comments on the residents of the development. Studies of the documents were also made to get a clearer picture of the problem. The results showed that the implementation of development programs such as palm oil and fish farming cages less involving locals since the beginning of its implementation. Residents do not have sufficient information and skills to participate in this project. In addition, people also have trouble participating in the project on a number of factors such as lack of exposure, skills training, lack of guidance, leadership problems, culture and current financial problems
ADAPTABILITY OF VIETNAMESE SMEs TOWARD OUTSOURCING TREND Tran, Nguyen T.H.; Van, Thong A; Truong, H.A. Tho; Trang, To Thuy; Thuy, Tran T.P.
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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This article is to determine the adaptability of Vietnamese SMEs (small and toward international outsourcing trend. Organizations in developed countries usually find some less developed countries within which they may outsourceoperations. Outsourcing has become an effective good way for companies to increase profits by reducing production costs. This is attractive to less developed and developing countries as it encourages economic growth. However, to become an attractive destination of outsourcers, these developing countries need to possess high level human resources, attractive policies and business climate in conjunction with excellent infrastructure but low operation costs. Vietnamese SMEs only focus on labor-based outsourcing services which can bring about much lower benefits than aknowledge based services. A survey was done to get the viewpoints of Vietnamese SMEs’ managers about outsourcing requirements. After that we use the zero-sum method to determine which factors Vietnamese SMEs’ managers think the outsourcers should consider the most important when seeking outsource destination. Beside, we also base on background knowledge to understand Vietnamese SMEs’ entrepreneurship basing on this aspect. The result shows that Vietnamese SMEs think costs, especially labor costs, operation costs and administration costs are most important elements encourage outsourcers choose an outsourcing place.
NUMBER OF FAMILY MEMBERS AND FAMILY BUSINESS STATUS EXPLAINED THE LEADERSHIP POSITION IN COMMUNAL ACTIVITY OF FOOD PROCESSING ENTREPRENEUR FOR POVERTY ERADICATION IN RURAL MALAYSIA Z., Zumilah,; M., Jariah; I, Norisma Aiza
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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A total of 735 rural entrepreneurs were selected and sub sampled from 2,093 rural enterprises of Women Extension Group (KPW) under the governance of Malaysia Department of Agriculture (DOA). They are producing processed food products, which is a popular industry to eradicate rural feminism poverty. The main objective of this paper is to explore the leadership positions of rural entrepreneurs in communal activity in relation with type of business ownership. Then, follows by identifying factors explain the active group of entrepreneurs in communal activities. To summarize,five types of community activities were traced – politics, religion, community, socio-economy and parent and teacher association (PIBG). The leadership score for entrepreneurs in company was high for political activity, while forentrepreneurs in all other types of business ownership their leadership scores were high in socio-economic activity. By sex of entrepreneurs, it may be concluded that entrepreneurs who usually have a leadership position in political activities have a tendency to develop their enterprise. By dividing leadership score into two groups – active and less active, as dependent variable; against gender, family business status, size of business,registration status and number of family members, as independent variables; Binary Logistic Regression obtained (p<0.05) that an active group can be explained by number of family members and family business status. Every one additional family member may decrease about 36.1% the likelihood of one respondent in this study to be in active group. Despite offering opportunityfor networking, leadership positions require a lot of time and high commitment. For rural women with many children under their care, to active in communal activities is almost inconceivable. Non-family business status may reduce about 37.6% likelihood of one respondent in this paper to be in active group. Thus, especially for rural women enterprises, they had to operate in form of family business to success. Family business status may reflect potential of development in rural women business, which is good for family business development. No significant relationship between other dependent variables with the likelihood of the respondent to be in active group level in this study.
COUNTERFEITS AND THEIR COSTS Hien, Pham Thi My; Trang, Nguyen Thi Mai
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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Counterfeiting is increasing and becoming a complicated issue across different countries in the world and Vietnam is not exceptional, so the policy makers and managers always try to find ways to face with the counterfeiting and reduce counterfeit products in the market. This paper attempts to investigate determinants that impact on consumers’ attitude toward non-deceptive counterfeit products and behavioral intention to purchase them. Using a data set collected from a sample of 176 consumers we found that social cost has an impact on consumers’ attitude and purchase intentiontoward counterfeit products. Moreover, the result indicates that intention to buy counterfeit products is influenced by consumers’ attitude toward these products. These findings suggest that companies should rely on the social cost as the main component of marketing communication messages to discourage consumption of fake products by implying the seriously harmful consequences of these goods to society and economy.
DOES CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ENHANCE TRUST AND QUALITY OF WORK LIFE OF WORKERS? Tho, Nguyen Dinh; Phong, Nguyen Dong; Quan, Tran Ha Minh
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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In recent decades, corporate social responsibility has emerged as a crucial goal in business. Several researchers have agreed that it is a win-win business strategy which contributes to the financial well-being of the firm. However, the question of how corporate social responsibility contributes to the well-being of workers is still unanswered, especially in transitioning markets like Vietnam. Realizing this role of corporate social responsibility in business, this study investigates the impact of corporate social responsibility on both trust in organization and quality of work life of workers in Vietnam. Based on a data set collected from 501 employees working for various firms in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, the study finds that corporate social responsibility directly and indirectly (mediated by trust in organization)enhances quality of work life of workers. The findings of the study suggest that the government and management should pay close attention to corporate social responsibility and make efforts to communicate its corporate social responsibility mission and activities to their employees.
WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN PERIPHERAL FISHING AREA: ARE THEY REAL ENTREPRENEURS? Muhammad, Nik Maheran Nik; Mustafa, Wan Zumusni Wan; Muin, Norhayati Abd.
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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The aim of the study is to investigate the decision making behaviour of the Malay women entrepreneurs at the peripheral area of Tok Bali, Kelantan Malaysia. Six respondents were observed and interviewed using in depth interview protocol. The in depth interview (IDI) transcripts concluded that most respondents venture into business is just to raise their respective families and solve their current financial problem instead of contributing to the economy of the area. Thus, the characteristics of entrepreneurship among them do not exist. Therefore, most of the respondents cannot be categorized as real entrepreneurs as most of their businesses are just small-scale businesses to support their family. However, they do bring a significant change to their family’s economy and play a role in changing their family’s economic condition but do not act as catalyst for the economic change for the peripheral area. It was also found that the most popular businesses in Tok Bali is “Fish crackers (‘i.e. Keropok’)” business and they have received the governments assistance such as capital, machinery, business training and business premises. The present study is exploratory in nature, thus  researchers will only able to describe the situation instead of recommending what should be done to improve the situation. For further research, it is recommended that more extensive study to be done to gain more information on their decision making behaviour towards entrepreneurship and their attribution to success. More respondents should be interviewed to gauge more factors and issues. A mixed method with quantitative analysis will enrich the result.

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