Asian Journal for Poverty Studies (AJPS) is the official publication of Regional Network on Poverty Eradication (RENPER) and serves as media for promoting innovative theoretical and empirical research on poverty alleviation. AJPS is a peer reviewed international journal publishing research articles on poverty studies including, but not limited to, urban and rural poverties, gender issues in poverty, public policy on poverty, and community empowermen
The position of women in Indonesian society is progressing. The progress trend is supported by several legal instrumentsÂ and policies that guarantee womens rights. Although adequate legal instruments began, many implementations in theÂ field are distorted. Implementation of the protection schemes for women does not address to the changing of the poorÂ womenâs living condition, instead it remains vulnerable. This action research was addressed to analyze and discussÂ the practices of state social protection for the poor communities, as well as the testimony of beneficiaries. Based on theÂ field learning from both parties, activists from universities and non-governmental organizations, attempt was made toÂ knit some state schemes and policies into a model of protection; it also aimed to facilitate access and accelerateÂ changes.
This paper examines determinants of accessibility to rural poor households in Vietnam from the viewpoint of policyÂ makers, credit institutions and poor households. From supply side annual report of provider will be cited, from demandÂ side, VHLSS primary data provided by GSO will be used. Beside that semi-structured questionnaire survey will beÂ conducted to collect qualitative information. Logit model is employed to investigate the determinants of their outstandingÂ loan. The quantitative modelâs results express that age, education, regional differentiation, industrial differentiation,Â land, asset affect to credit access of poor households. The qualitative analysis finds out some recommendations forÂ adjustment the poverty reducing credit policy
Kelantan and Terengganu have the highest number of hardcore poors in Malaysia. Over the years entrepreneurship isÂ one of the means that has been propagated by the government to address this inherent problem. While women hithertoÂ involve in usual business activities, recently more and more women in the said states dare to jump into a new domainÂ of businesses which usually monopolized by men - recycling. This phenomenon warrants empirical research to unearthÂ pertinent questions of the inroad of female entrepreneurs in a new territory of business which overwhelmingly dominatedÂ by male entrepreneurs. Yet at present not many researchers and relevant government agencies look into recycling asÂ an alternative business but for men entrepreneurs, not women. This paper is a part of a larger study that investigatedÂ entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in recycling business in the both states. Results of the study found that womenÂ entrepreneurs in this business are matured, married, and received full support from their families â husband andÂ children. In terms of education majority of them only study until secondary school. Highlighting women entrepreneursâÂ profiles is deemed important because interested parties including future ntrepreneurs, researchers as well as relevantÂ government agencies gain some understanding of characteristics of women entrepreneurs have made a dent in the socalledÂ male dominant business.
Seafood processing industry including companies and households accounts for 35% of Mekong deltaâs total agriculturalÂ output. The former mainly concentrates on exports; their processing activities are required and supervised to meet manycriteria of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility by foreign importers. Meanwhile, the latterâsÂ production is for the local market; its processing activities mainly rely on experience and surrounding environment.This study focuses on sustainability of householdsâ seafood processing activities with three pillars including economic,Â social and environmental ones. The research sample of 300 households was collected in 6 provinces of Mekong deltaincluding Ben Tre, Ca Mau, Tien Giang, Dong Thap, Tra Vinh, Bac Lieu in July 2014. Research findings show thatÂ from the economic perspective, physical facilities are outdated; revenues and profits are not stable and household havemore difficulties in collecting materials, obtaining loans for their business and selling their products. In addition, fromÂ social perspective, the average income for seasonal workers is at low levels with 60% paid from 50 - 80 thousands VNDper day and 70% of surveyed households have members and seasonal workers suffering from syndromes of work-relatedÂ diseases including sinusitis, rheumatism, dermatology, eye itching. Moreover, the environment surrounding seafoodÂ processing households is seriously polluted with 71% of households discharging untreated wastewater into nearby seas,Â rivers and canals and disposing solid wastes around their houses. Therefore, 80% of households fail to control and killÂ insects such as flies and bluebottles in their processing area, especially up to 50% failing to know the origins of anti-insectÂ chemistries used. Based on these findings, this paper delivers implications and recommendations for the local governmentÂ and households to improve the sustainability of householdsâ seafood processing activities in Mekong delta.
The Orang Asli is one of the natives in Peninsular Malaysia lagging behind in rapid development, and has a highÂ poverty rate. Although since the independence, Malaysian government has been implementing various developmentÂ programs to solve the poverty problem, but the effect is not comprehensive. There are still tribes of Orang Asli less toÂ participate in implementation of development programs. Instead, they are more focused on performing traditionalÂ economic activities especially hunting and gathering activities. Orang Asli from Semaq Beri tribes in the state ofTerengganu are among the communities that are in the situation. Based on this problem a study was made with theÂ objective; (i) evaluate the implementation of development programs such as agriculture and fisheries projects thatÂ have been implemented for the locals, (ii) understand the problems faced by residents in their programs. To meet thisÂ objective, data were collected through observation techniques and interview process. Observation technique used toÂ find out peoples reactions to the implementation of development programs, and interview techniques used to obtainÂ information in the form of views and comments on the residents of the development. Studies of the documents wereÂ also made to get a clearer picture of the problem. The results showed that the implementation of development programsÂ such as palm oil and fish farming cages less involving locals since the beginning of its implementation. Residents do notÂ have sufficient information and skills to participate in this project. In addition, people also have trouble participatingÂ in the project on a number of factors such as lack of exposure, skills training, lack of guidance, leadership problems,Â culture and current financial problems
This article is to determine the adaptability of Vietnamese SMEs (small and toward international outsourcing trend.Â Organizations in developed countries usually find some less developed countries within which they may outsourceoperations. Outsourcing has become an effective good way for companies to increase profits by reducing productionÂ costs. This is attractive to less developed and developing countries as it encourages economic growth. However, toÂ become an attractive destination of outsourcers, these developing countries need to possess high level human resources,Â attractive policies and business climate in conjunction with excellent infrastructure but low operation costs. VietnameseÂ SMEs only focus on labor-based outsourcing services which can bring about much lower benefits than aknowledge basedÂ services. A survey was done to get the viewpoints of Vietnamese SMEsâ managers about outsourcing requirements.Â After that we use the zero-sum method to determine which factors Vietnamese SMEsâ managers think the outsourcersÂ should consider the most important when seeking outsource destination. Beside, we also base on background knowledgeÂ to understand Vietnamese SMEsâ entrepreneurship basing on this aspect. The result shows that Vietnamese SMEsÂ think costs, especially labor costs, operation costs and administration costs are most important elements encourageÂ outsourcers choose an outsourcing place.
A total of 735 rural entrepreneurs were selected and sub sampled from 2,093 rural enterprises of Women ExtensionÂ Group (KPW) under the governance of Malaysia Department of Agriculture (DOA). They are producing processedÂ food products, which is a popular industry to eradicate rural feminism poverty. The main objective of this paper is toÂ explore the leadership positions of rural entrepreneurs in communal activity in relation with type of business ownership.Â Then, follows by identifying factors explain the active group of entrepreneurs in communal activities. To summarize,five types of community activities were traced â politics, religion, community, socio-economy and parent and teacherÂ association (PIBG). The leadership score for entrepreneurs in company was high for political activity, while forentrepreneurs in all other types of business ownership their leadership scores were high in socio-economic activity.Â By sex of entrepreneurs, it may be concluded that entrepreneurs who usually have a leadership position in politicalÂ activities have a tendency to develop their enterprise. By dividing leadership score into two groups â active and lessÂ active, as dependent variable; against gender, family business status, size of business,registration status and numberÂ of family members, as independent variables; Binary Logistic Regression obtained (p<0.05) that an active group canÂ be explained by number of family members and family business status. Every one additional family member mayÂ decrease about 36.1% the likelihood of one respondent in this study to be in active group. Despite offering opportunityfor networking, leadership positions require a lot of time and high commitment. For rural women with many childrenÂ under their care, to active in communal activities is almost inconceivable. Non-family business status may reduceÂ about 37.6% likelihood of one respondent in this paper to be in active group. Thus, especially for rural womenÂ enterprises, they had to operate in form of family business to success. Family business status may reflect potential ofÂ development in rural women business, which is good for family business development. No significant relationshipÂ between other dependent variables with the likelihood of the respondent to be in active group level in this study.
Counterfeiting is increasing and becoming a complicated issue across different countries in the world and Vietnam isÂ not exceptional, so the policy makers and managers always try to find ways to face with the counterfeiting and reduceÂ counterfeit products in the market. This paper attempts to investigate determinants that impact on consumersâ attitudeÂ toward non-deceptive counterfeit products and behavioral intention to purchase them. Using a data set collected fromÂ a sample of 176 consumers we found that social cost has an impact on consumersâ attitude and purchase intentiontoward counterfeit products. Moreover, the result indicates that intention to buy counterfeit products is influenced byÂ consumersâ attitude toward these products. These findings suggest that companies should rely on the social cost as theÂ main component of marketing communication messages to discourage consumption of fake products by implying theÂ seriously harmful consequences of these goods to society and economy.
In recent decades, corporate social responsibility has emerged as a crucial goal in business. Several researchers haveÂ agreed that it is a win-win business strategy which contributes to the financial well-being of the firm. However, theÂ question of how corporate social responsibility contributes to the well-being of workers is still unanswered, especiallyÂ in transitioning markets like Vietnam. Realizing this role of corporate social responsibility in business, this studyÂ investigates the impact of corporate social responsibility on both trust in organization and quality of work life ofÂ workers in Vietnam. Based on a data set collected from 501 employees working for various firms in Ho Chi Minh City,Â Vietnam, the study finds that corporate social responsibility directly and indirectly (mediated by trust in organization)enhances quality of work life of workers. The findings of the study suggest that the government and managementÂ should pay close attention to corporate social responsibility and make efforts to communicate its corporate socialÂ responsibility mission and activities to their employees.
The aim of the study is to investigate the decision making behaviour of the Malay women entrepreneurs at the peripheralÂ area of Tok Bali, Kelantan Malaysia. Six respondents were observed and interviewed using in depth interview protocol.Â The in depth interview (IDI) transcripts concluded that most respondents venture into business is just to raise theirÂ respective families and solve their current financial problem instead of contributing to the economy of the area. Thus,Â the characteristics of entrepreneurship among them do not exist. Therefore, most of the respondents cannot be categorizedÂ as real entrepreneurs as most of their businesses are just small-scale businesses to support their family. However, theyÂ do bring a significant change to their familyâs economy and play a role in changing their familyâs economic conditionÂ but do not act as catalyst for the economic change for the peripheral area. It was also found that the most popularÂ businesses in Tok Bali is âFish crackers (âi.e. Keropokâ)â business and they have received the governments assistanceÂ such as capital, machinery, business training and business premises. The present study is exploratory in nature, thus Â researchers will only able to describe the situation instead of recommending what should be done to improve theÂ situation. For further research, it is recommended that more extensive study to be done to gain more information onÂ their decision making behaviour towards entrepreneurship and their attribution to success. More respondents shouldÂ be interviewed to gauge more factors and issues. A mixed method with quantitative analysis will enrich the result.