ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS)
Published by Universitas Bengkulu
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Asian Journal for Poverty Studies (AJPS) is the official publication of Regional Network on Poverty Eradication (RENPER) and serves as media for promoting innovative theoretical and empirical research on poverty alleviation. AJPS is a peer reviewed international journal publishing research articles on poverty studies including, but not limited to, urban and rural poverties, gender issues in poverty, public policy on poverty, and community empowermen
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SETTLEMENT HOUSEHOLD LIVELIHOODS FOR POOR FISHERMEN: THE CASE OF CAM RANH RESERVOIR,KHANH HOA PROVINCE Dao, Ha Thi Thieu; Manh, Pham Hong
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Regional Network on Poverty Eradication

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This study aims to find solutions to solve the basic livelihoods of poor households in the tide reservoir Central Coast. The study results show that livelihoods of majority of families living around Cam Ranh reservoir depend mainly on fisheries resources. The increase effort in fishing effort using different fishing means has caused challenges for local government in solving problems of livelihood, environment and resources. Regression model finds out that besides demographic characteristics: the dependency ratio, education of household members and employment rate of adults, an increase fishing effort (boat) has affected the income and expenditure of poor households. Based on these findings, the authors suggest some recommendations to settle harmonious relationship between livelihoods and the environmentfor the poor fisherman in this area.
MEASURING POVERTY AMONG ELDERLY MALAYSIANS Masud, Jariah; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Haron, Sharifah A.
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 1 (2015)
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Poverty among the elderly should be measured using different methodology as to differentiate them based on the different dimensions of poverty and to reflect the true differences in needs and resource insufficiency among elderly. How poverty is measured will influence coverage of programs for older persons and to date no specific measurement is available to determine poverty among older persons. This paper is focus on poverty measurement among elderly in Malaysia. Household income data 2009/10 obtained from the Department of Statistic Malaysia were utilized to examine the incidence of poverty among older persons in Malaysia. Incidence of poverty among older persons was measured using two measurements; absolute poverty (Yearly Poverty line income (PLI) of RM8640) and relative poverty (Half Median income of Malaysia of RM21756). Two income measurements were compared; individual elderlyincome and income of households headed by older persons. Measuring poverty using individual income will support the philosophy of economic empowerment of older persons. Income of household headed by older persons will reflectthe economic situation of household headed by older persons, the proportion expected to increase in the future. Data of the study comprised of 184,447 individual member records of which 16325 were those age 60 and older (8.85%). There was also information on 43026 households, 7892 of which are headed by those ages 60 and older (18.3%). The incidence of absolute and relative poverty using the two measurements will be calculated and the implications of such measurement will be discussed.
POTENTIAL LINK PATTERNS OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION TO POVERTY REDUCTION IN INDONESIA Kusumaningrum, Sita Dewi; Sambodo, Deny Purwo
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 1 (2015)
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Fiscal decentralization is considered to give positive as well as negative impacts for development policy such as poverty reduction. The implementation of fiscal decentralization in Indonesia has changed the patterns of local governments’budget allocation for poverty reduction. Local governments have wider discretion to allocate their budget for poverty reduction strategy. This study aims at observing the potential link patterns of fiscal decentralization to poverty reduction in Indonesian provinces before and in the period of fiscal decentralization implementation. This study applies a descriptive analysis as a method for identifying the potential link patterns of fiscal decentralization to poverty reduction in Indonesia. Firstly, this study identifies the trend of several poverty indicators in Indonesia, namely 1) the percentage rate of poverty; 2) poverty gap index (P1) and poverty severity index (P2); and 3) Human Development Index (HDI). Secondly, the link of fiscal decentralization to poverty reduction in Indonesia is elaborated using the share of government budget expenditure on relevant sector to total expenditure and the percentage rate of poverty. This study shows that there is no clear link pattern of fiscal decentralization to poverty reduction in Indonesia. Three link patterns, namely positive link, negative link, and no link appear differently among provinces and regions. Several factors that support the conditions need to be elaborated more.
THE APPLICATION OF PARTICIPATORY PROSPECTIVE ANALYSES TO DEVISE WOMEN EMPOWERMENT PROGRAMS FOR REDUCING POVERTY: CASE STUDY IN SOUTH BENGKULU REGENCY, BENGKULU PROVINCE, INDONESIA Erni, Agustina; Sitepu, Pribuiarta N.; Gunawan, Indra; Adiprasetyo, Teguh; Mersyah, Rohidin
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 1 (2015)
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This study is intended to apply participatory prospective analysis to formulate women empowerment programs and activities to reduce poverty. Participatory prospective analysis may facilitate the process of integrating multiplestakeholders’ preferences in public policy decision since the involvement of stakeholders as part of the poverty alleviation solution; it can be expected to increase the effectiveness of the programs and activities. This study wasconducted in South Bengkulu Regency, Bengkulu Province, Indonesia. Data were collected through focus group discussion (FGD). A number of 23 participants from various delegates of stakeholders including head or officers ofregency government and its regional working units, non government organizations, community groups and local university were involved in the FGD. Data were analysed using participatory prospective method. The results revealthat there are 15 factors identified shaping the system of women empowerment for poverty reduction. By using a fourquadrant window, those factors are grouping into four categories: input, stakes, unused, and output, as the key of the empowered programs. Input factors are human resource skills, social cultural, formal education attainment and health status. The stakes are access to natural resources, access to capital, local policies and access to decisionmaking process. While the unused factors are past experiences, infrastructure and technology. The outputs are employment, community empowerment, motivation, and job availability. This study shows that the strategy to reducepoverty have to be done via women empowerment programs, which are comprising better off education, skill development, health status and social culture. Access to education, skills and health should be part of the poor asset.Poor women need to equip with assets to reduce their vulnerabilities.
UNEMPLOYMENT, POVERTY AND INDONESIAN OVERSEAS WORKERS Djafar, Fariastuti; Kurniasih, Erni Panca
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 1 (2015)
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Indonesia faces unemployment and poverty problems which may cause this country as one of the main countries in Asia to send international migrant workers. The main objective of this paper is to examine whether unemployment and poverty determine Indonesian Overseas Workers (IOWs). The study uses secondary data and the data are analysed by utilizing a Vector Autoregressive (VAR) framework. The findings show that unemployment has a significant negative effect on the IOWs while poverty has a significant positive effect. The unemployed youth in Indonesia mainly have higher education and are not poor which are least likely to migrate while poor people migrate for survival. Hence, freeze on sending the IOWs may not be effective since the poor people will keep working overseas by being illegalworkers.
INCOME COMPONENTS AND POVERTYAMONG OLDER MEN AND WOMEN IN MALAYSIA Ismail, Norisma Aiza; Masud, Jariah; Zainalaludin, Zumilah
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 1 (2015)
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The study aims to identify the income components and the incidence of poverty among older men and women in Malaysia. A national data on Household Income Survey (HIS) collected in year 2009-2010 was used in this study. Data from subsample of 16,325 out of 43,026 older persons was used in the analysis. The respondents comprised of 47.9% male and 52.1% female with an equal proportion living in urban and rural areas. The total net income was used to determine poverty status among respondents who reported receiving income. Income Per Capita was used to determine the poverty status. Resultsindicated thata there were 42.3% older persons did not receive any income and can be assumed to be dependent on others to support their living. Only 57.7% of the elderly received income from the four main sources namely paid employment, other earned income, property income and total current transfer income. Majority of the elderly received income from other earned income as well as total current transfer income. Overall, a higher proportion of men received income from all sources except transfer income. A small percentage of the elderly received income from paid employment. This reflects that majorityof the elderly are no longer employed. In addition, a large proportion of the elderly rely on other earned and transfer income in old age. Older women are more vulnerable to poverty in old age. Even though a higher percentage of olderpersons, especially women, received income from total current transfer, however this income component is still insufficient to address poverty among older persons. Thus, as part of productive ageing strategies, focus should be given on providing more job opportunities to enable older persons to increase their income.
HOMELESSNESS IN MALAYSIA: VICTIMS OF CIRCUMSTANCE OR BY CHOICE? Ghee, Wee Yu; Omar, Raja Norliana Binti Raja
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 1 (2015)
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This paper discusses the issues of homelessness in Malaysia, what constitutes and causes homelessness in Malaysia and how the society and government can help this marginalised group, according to public opinion. There is no officialstatistics showing the number of homeless in the city as only a few non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are aware of their existence. Needless to mention, the reasons why they end up sleeping on the streets. Homelessness affects thousands across Malaysia – people from all ethnicities, age groups, education levels, and geographic regions. Despite the pervasiveness of homelessness, people who are homeless are typically blamed for their homelessness. The media and public perpetuate myths of homeless women and men as "lazy", unmotivated people prone to making poor choices or as deviants who care nothing of the society or "being a burden". Observations, interviews and discussions were conducted among urban citizens. Data collected include their opinions, awareness and perceptions on the homelessin the country and various assistance currently available. Findings show not many are aware of the state of the homeless in the country. However, majority are concerned and willing to help through donations, food distribution,and creations of job and social services programs organized by the government or NGOs.
ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT FOR HUNTING AND GATHERING COMMUNITY IN MALAYSIA THROUGH ECOTOURISM ACTIVITIES IN THE NATIONAL PARK Ibrahim, Asmawi; Abdullah, Ramle; Simin, Hafis Amat
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 1 (2015)
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Kuala Koh National Park located in Kelantan is one of ecotourism destination is really beautiful with flora and fauna. This National Park is open to public since 1995. Ecotourism is a source to maintain the habitant and all live speciesdirectly including to maintain the culture of the aborigine as to increase their socioeconomic. This sector really has a good potential to develop an income for Batek Tribe which just hunting and gathering for their living. Some of BatekTribe which live nearby Kuala Koh National Park actively participate in some area of ecotourism directly. Therefore this paper will discuss about this three objectives: (i) to explain the economic activities among Batek Tribe at KualaKoh National Park. (ii) To determine the strength of Batek Tribe in increasing their socioeconomic through ecotourism. (iii) To explain the aspiration of Batek Tribe towards ecotourism activity. This research is conducted via qualitativemethod. Data is gathered by participation observation, interview and document analysis. The data is coordinated and analyze using QSR Nvivo application. Finding shows that Batek Tribe in Kuala Koh still hunting and gathering astheir main economic source. Many strength and skill have been recognized on Batek Tribe to increase their economy through their involvement in ecotourism in their area. Moreover, Batek Tribe have high aspiration to gain more workand income in ecotourism activity in Kuala Koh National Park.
FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE AND OUTREACH OF MICROFINANCE Loan, Ph?m Ng?c T??ng; Huy, Nguy?n T?n
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 1 (2015)
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Microfinance is generally considered as a power tool for poverty alleviation. However, the development of microfinance leads to a concern about self-sufficiency of microfinance institutions (MFIs). MFIs are expected not only to serve the poor but also to become profitable; and therefore adapting more commercial practices. From the point of view, the commercialization trend of microfinance has raised a debate that whether the focuses on financial objectives go against the original goal of reducing poverty. Using cross-sectional data of Indian MFIs in 2010 collected from the MIX, this dissertation aims to explain determinants of MFIs’ performance in terms of financial objectives and outreach to the poor. The paper also tries to address the trade-off between financial success outcomes and poverty reduction purposes. The study reveals that no evidences of this trade-off are found, indicating that it is possible to maintain greater outreach to the poor in a financially viable way.
VULNERABILITY TO POVERTY IN MALAYSIA: WHAT LONGITUDINAL DATA CAN TELL US? Senadjki, Abdelhak; Sulaiman, Jamalludin; Mohd, Saidatulakmal
ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) Vol 1, No 1 (2015)
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In developing countries, many household are exposed to high risk, uncertainties and crises, which not only causes of poverty, but also a path to micro-economic downturn. Studies have shown that households who have the fewest instruments to deal with these risks are considered poor. In some cases, they are seen as the most vulnerable. In Malaysia, both povertyand a wide variety of risks are widespread among household member, especially in the rural areas. The present research aims to examine rural households’ vulnerability to poverty using longitudinal data set of three waves. The present study developed and designed (an alternative to panel data) modules in cross-sectional surveys with recall questions that can beused to tract a households’ history and its evolution along various welfare dimensions. The study aims, in general, to analyse the link between exposure to risks and vulnerability to poverty of rural households in Kelantan and Terengganu. Data was collected from a three-round panel survey undertaken at 6 month interval to allow measurement of seasonal variation in behaviour and outcome and to balance both cross-sectional and time series requirements of panel data. 460 respondents were interviewed in the first round, but only 301 questionnaires in the last round were valid for dataanalysis. The findings illustrated that fighting future poverty is not only to incorporate monetary measure but also non -monetary measure need to be merged. The lack of access to assets and resources and the exposure to threats have made the process of recovering from poverty unsuccessful. Assets are regarded as the core element of vulnerability reduction. Both covariate and idiosyncratic risks are central causes behind a household future vulnerability. The effect of these threats is determined by its nature and level of severity, as well as by the type of strategies to respond tothe threats.

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