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LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching
LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching, to be published twice a year, namely in April and October, is a peer-reviewed journal published by the English Language Education Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta. The journal welcomes articles on language and language teaching, including 1. language studies/investigations, 2. language teaching/learning, 3. literature related to language studies or learning, and 4. linguistics related to language learning.
Articles
91
Articles
PAIRED ORAL TESTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW

Prasetyo, Hardi

LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching Vol 21 (2018)
Publisher : English Education Study Programme of Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

This paper reviews the studies on paired oral tests in the last ten years (2007-2017). Using the search facilities in Iowa State University’s library, nine articles from some journals in the field of applied linguistics were chosen based on the inclusion criteria. Those journals are Language Testing, Language Assessment Quarterly, Applied Linguistics, and Procedia – Social and Behavioral Science. Three reasons why paired oral tests are better than interview test or individual format test are then discussed. Those are promoting and improving students’ interactional competence, creating students’ co-constructed discourse, and providing insights for better scale development and rater training. Paired oral tests provide opportunities for students to interact with peers in the tests, enable them to practice and improve their interactional competence. Paired oral tests also enable students to co-construct their discourse, even though there is an issue of grading the scores individually or collaboratively. The last is, more information about students’ and raters’ perception were gained that helps improve the rating scale and inform rater training. This paper is concluded with the call for more studies on paired oral tests to provide more insights into this complex process of creating co-constructed discourse and how to validly and reliably test both its process and product.DOI: doi.org/10.24071/llt.2018.Suppl2110

INDONESIAN STUDENTS’ LANGUAGE ATTITUDES TOWARDS INDONESIAN AND ENGLISH THROUGH EDUCATION AND WORKING FRAME

Kurniasari, Monika Dini, Mbato, Concilianus Laos

LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching Vol 21 (2018)
Publisher : English Education Study Programme of Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

This research aimed to explore language attitudes of Indonesian EFL learners towards English and Indonesian and studied the relationship of language attitudes in terms of educational background and study programs. A total of 256 Indonesian participants, randomly selected from five universities (two public, three private), answered a two-part questionnaire (Language Background Questionnaire and General Language Attitudes Survey). The analyses of the data expose that the participants alleged to the positive attitudes towards English as they were stimulated to learn the language, and appreciated their English skill as a means to attain better study or work opportunities, meanwhile in view of their native language-Indonesian superior to English. As a result, the study infers that the participants had a positive attitude of Indonesian identity with a positive reception of the importance of the English language. English is significant not only as an international language but also considered as an important language along with Indonesian language in education and profession. This study is a part of a major research project written by a team of researchers from Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta Indonesia. The first article investigated relationship the students’ language attitudes, gender and socio-economic status (Paradewari&Mbato, 2018). The second article looks into language attitudes and language orientation (Kharismawan & Mbato, in press). A similarity will be found across the three articles in terms of data on students’ language attitudes.DOI: doi.org/10.24071/llt.2018.Suppl2107

ENGLISH TEACHERS’ MOTIVATION AND CHALLENGES IN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL IN YOGYAKARTA

Indraswari, Veronica Noviatri, Kuswandono, Paulus

LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching Vol 21 (2018)
Publisher : English Education Study Programme of Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

This study examines English teachers’ voices regarding the teacher professional development (TPD) experiences in state vocational high school in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The voices include their motivation and perceived challenges of professional development efforts. The study is a qualitative research employing questionnaire and interviews to gather the data from ten English teachers in state vocational high school. The findings unravel some intrinsic motivations of English teachers and the challenges and needs perceived in doing TPD related to their time management, namely problems related to teaching schedule and time to look after the family. Most teachers also need more training to practice their ICT skills and performance. The suggestions for further studies are also discussed.DOI: doi.org/10.24071/llt.2018.Suppl2109

ENHANCING DESCRIPTIVE WRITING ACHIEVEMENT BY APPLYING PROCESS APPROACH THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL OBSERVATION

Febriyanti, Riana, Inderawati, Rita, Fiftinova, Fiftinova

LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching Vol 21 (2018)
Publisher : English Education Study Programme of Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

This study aimed at finding out whether or not: (1) there was a significant difference in descriptive writing achievement after they were taught by using process approach through environmental observation and (2) there was a significant difference in descriptive writing achievement between the students who were taught by using process approach through environmental observation and those who were not. By employing a quasi-experimental design, the sample of this study was 80 students of tenth graders of SMA Negeri 9 Palembang taken by using purposive sampling method. The data were analyzed by using paired sample and independent sample t-test. The result of this study showed that: (1) there was significant improvement in descriptive writing achievement of the experimental group; mean difference of post-test and pre-test was 7.500 and the significance value was 0.000 (p-value<0.05), and (2) there was significant difference in descriptive writing achievement between the students who were taught by applying process approach through environmental observation and those who were not.  The mean difference of the post-test of the experimental group was higher than the control group (7.537>0.128) and the significance value was 0.000 (p-value<0.05). Therefore, process approach through environmental observation is effective to enhance students’ descriptive writing achievement.DOI: doi.org/10.24071/llt.2018.Suppl2103

LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM IN INDONESIAN HIGHER EDUCATION CONTEXT

Tanjung, Firima Zona

LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching Vol 21 (2018)
Publisher : English Education Study Programme of Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

Indonesian university students are not well-familiar with language learning strategies (LLS) as they are dependent on their lecturers. This condition also gets worse because the students still have low level of proficiency although they have already been learning English for multiple years. There have been many researches on students’ LLS related to the four language skills and gender but there is a high need of studying the students’ LLS regarding their age in the Indonesian higher education context. This research aimed at investigating students’ language learning strategies related to their ages and providing some steps to make teaching program more effective by considering students’ LLS and their age as well. This research utilized descriptive survey research design. The participants were 122 English Department students at one of public universities in Borneo Island, Indonesia. The instrument was SILL questionnaire. All the collected data were analyzed statistically. The findings show that students mostly used metacognitive (M=3.857), cognitive (M=3.707), and compensation strategies (M=3.563). The students’ different age led them to select and implement different strategies. Some steps to optimize students’ learning strategies are through inserting LLS instruction in the curriculum of teaching program, implementing certain models of strategy instruction, and developing lecturers’ awareness of designing instruction at which one of the methods that can be employed is eclective methods. Considering all findings, it can be concluded that although indirect strategies get higher means of preference from the participants but they do not only focus on using indirect strategies. They combine those with direct strategies. Further, to make students more successful on their learning, the institution including lecturers and the academic community should take part in the effort of teaching learning strategies. This provides future research area that emphasizes on designing LLS instruction regarding students’ age and level of their education.     DOI: doi.org/10.24071/llt.2018.Suppl2106   

STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION ON THE USE OF VIDEO TO ASSESS PERFORMANCES IN PUBLIC SPEAKING CLASS

Pratiwi, Septi Widhiayu, Triprihatmini, Veronica

LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching Vol 21 (2018)
Publisher : English Education Study Programme of Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

This paper attempts to recognize the use of video as teaching and learning aid related to students’ perception. As survey research, it focuses on finding the students’ perception on the use of video to assess students’ performances in Public Speaking class. In addition to that, this paper presents the discussion about the implication of the students’ perception on the use of video to assess their public speaking performances. It is found that the students have good or positive perception and the use of video is beneficial to identify their strengths and weaknesses in public speaking performance. Therefore, the students are encouraged to perform better in public speaking. It implies that video is an appropriate teaching and learning aid for Public Speaking students and the lecturers themselves have contributed well in assisting the students in the activities using video in Public Speaking class.DOI: doi.org/10.24071/llt.2018.Suppl2104

SWEAR WORDS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING-TEACHING

Andang, Kristina, Bram, Barli

LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching Vol 21 (2018)
Publisher : English Education Study Programme of Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

This study attempts to explore the frequency of use of swear words and their implication for English language learning-teaching. Swear words or expletives are usually considered negative or rude to be used even in the United States or United Kingdom as English-speaking countries. In English language learning-teaching, swear words become part of linguistic studies and socio-cultural knowledge for teachers and students. This study aims to resolve two questions, namely first, what swear words have the highest frequency based on COCA and second, what implications of the frequency of swear words are for learners and teachers of English. Data were collected from a survey conducted using Facebook, which is a social medium used widely in both the United States and Indonesia for more than 13 years, and were retrieved from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), more precisely the frequency of swear words. The results of this study are expected to give knowledge on English language learning-teaching in a cultural context.DOI: doi.org/10.24071/llt.2018.Suppl2105

ANALYZING THE VALUES AND EFFECTS OF POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONS

Hadiyanti, K.M. Widi, Widya, Widya

LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching Vol 21 (2018)
Publisher : English Education Study Programme of Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

PowerPoint Presentation (PPtP) is now quite common in many aspects of life, not only at schools (Yilmazel-Sahin, 2007). It facilitates events in various ways owing to its practicality (Craig & Armenic, 2006). In classes, it provides advantages for both students and teachers, but it may be problematic as well (Davies et al., 2009; Oommen; Taylor, 2012). Therefore, Howard & Conway (1985) recommended verifying if students’ viewpoints may maximize its contribution for class empowerment. This study focused on how students appreciated the values of PPP and how it affected lecturers. It involved 90 students responding to a questionnaire asking their standpoint about the use of PPP including commentary and suggestion. Results revealed that in general, participants out looked positively towards PPP and its impact to teachers. It aided students and teacher in the learning-teaching process, although it was occasionally blamed as not engaging or even boring.DOI: doi.org/10.24071/llt.2018.Suppl2108

USING DEBATE ACTIVITIES TO DEVELOP INDONESIAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILLS

Wulandari, Astri, Ena, Ouda Teda

LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching Vol 21 (2018)
Publisher : English Education Study Programme of Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

This research explores the use of debate activities which are implemented in an Indonesian high school. The aim of this research was to find out students’ perception on the use of debate activities in improving students’ speaking skills. The participants of this research were eight students participating in a debate extracurricular club in a public school. It was a descriptive-qualitative research. The data were collected through observations, questionnaires, and interviews. There were three observations in the debate activities. After that, the researchers distributed the questionnaires to the students. Interviews were conducted with eight students. The research result showed that debate activities enriched students’ vocabulary, improved students’ confidence, and helped students to become better public speakers.DOI : doi.org/10.24071/llt.2018.Suppl2102

OBAMA’S REMARKS ON TRAYVON MARTIN’S DEATH SEEN FROM CDA VIEWPOINTS: AN EXAMPLE OF AUTHENTIC ACADEMIC WRITING MATERIAL

Listyani, Listyani

LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching Vol 21 (2018)
Publisher : English Education Study Programme of Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

Racism and all its problems like injustice, inequality, discrimination, and so on, have become an interestingly never-ending topic to be discussed along the history. Even in America, a country which is so rich with its fighters of racial discrimination and injustice, this problem still occurs here and there. No matter how hard these heroes speak up their voices, this problem remains unsolved, or, at least, not entirely solved. One event, for example, happened on February 26, 2012in Sanford, Florida, the United States of America. The victim was a young man named Trayvon Martin; an Afro-American high school student. George Zimmerman shot this seventeen-year-old teenager, which led to death. Zimmerman was a 28-year-old Hispanic American man. At that time, he worked as a watchman coordinator in the neighborhood. Martin temporarily stayed there. Obama, who was then the President of the United States, made a speech on Martin’s death. This paper analyzes Barack Obama’s speech from Discourse Analysis viewpoints, as well as the ideological and cultural discourse contained in the speech. In the text analysis, some significant aspects are discussed based on my understanding of SFL (Systemic Functional Linguistics), that is, the aspects of connections, like mode, tenor, and field.  Another central issue to be discussed in this paper is the ideological and cultural aspects of Obama’s remarks upon Trayvon Martin’s death. This speech can be a very good example of how an argumentative writing appeals so many people and makes them sympathize with the victim of the shooting. Through this paper, I hope that my own understanding of discourse analysis will be deepened, and readers will also gain some new horizon and knowledge of discourse study in general, including the cultural and ideological analysis of the text under study. I also hope that more convincing speeches of the authentic world like this one can benefit students of Academic Writing. DOI: doi.org/10.24071/llt.2018.Suppl2101