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THE DIFFERENCE IN THE TOTAL CHOLESTEROL/HDL-C RATIO IN TYPE-2 DM PATIENTS WITH DIABETIC ULCERS AND WITHOUT DIABETIC ULCERS IN BETHESDA HOSPITAL YOGYAKARTA

Sagitania, Devina, Sujatno, Purwoadi, Fenty, Fenty

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the diseases that annually shows an increase. An increase of DM prevalence will follow the increasing diabetic ulcers complication. Cholesterol could influence to create ulcer through atherosclerosis process. Ratio of total cholesterol/HDL is an important predictor to detect early risk of vascular complication in type 2 DM patients that can manifest as diabetic ulcers. This study aims to know whether there is any difference in the Total Cholesterol/HDL-C Ratio in type-2 DM patients with diabetic ulcers and without diabetic ulcers. This study was an analytic observational with cross-sectional approach. Data collection was done using the purposive sampling with a sample size of 30 patients of diabetes mellitus with diabetic ulcers and 30 patients without diabetic ulcers. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney. The median results in Total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio between Type-2 DM patients with diabetic ulcers and without diabetic ulcers were 6.025 and 3.680 respectively. The median of cholesterol total/HDL-C ratio Type-2 DM patients with diabetic ulcers was higher than those without diabetic ulcers. Mann-Whitney showed the value of  P = 0.000, so that this study found a significant difference. In conclusion, the ratio of total cholesterol/HDL-C in type-2 DM patients with diabetic ulcer was significantly higher than type-2 DM patients without diabetic ulcers in Bethesda Hospital, Yogyakarta.

THE EFFECT OF CANDESARTAN PRE-STROKE USE ON THE FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF POST ISCHEMIC STROKE PATIENTS IN BETHESDA HOSPITAL YOGYAKARTA

Gulo, Lise Insani, Pinzon, Rizaldy Taslim, Pramudita, Esdras Ardi

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, where the main risk factor is hypertension. Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB) is the most common drug for stroke prevention in high-risk hypertensive patients. The purpose of this study was to see whether the candesartan pre-stroke use can improve the functional outcomes of post ischemic stroke patients. The data were obtained from 191 retrospective observational studies. Data were collected from Stroke Registry and medical record at Bethesda Hospital Yogyakarta in 2014-2016, then analyzed univariate, followed by bivariate analysis using chi-square test, independent t-test and fisher exact test for the variable which has actual count (F0), and logistic regression for multivariate analysis. One hundred and ninety one samples were systematically reviewed to evaluate the effect of candesartan pre-stroke use on functional outcomes of post ischemic stroke patients in Bethesda hospital Yogyakarta whose range of ages was mostly between 61 and 70 years (30.9%) and were mostly male patients (56.5%). Patients with good functional outcomes (<2) were 79.6% and poor functional outcomes (≥2) were 20.4%. The results of bivariate analysis showed that candesartan did not affect the improvement of clinical outcome (OR: 1.806, 95% CI: 0.591-5.519, p: 0.294), and also not better than other angiotensin receptor blocker (p=0.505, OR=1.472, 95% CI= 0.470-4.611). The multivariate analysis showed that sex (OR: 0.366, 95% CI: 0.156-0.858, p: 0.021), loss of consciousness (OR: 0.107, 95% CI: 0.021-0.549, p: 0.007), limb weakness (OR: 0.236, 95% CI: 0.067-0.834, p: 0.025), dyslipidemia comorbidity (OR: 2.750, 95% CI: 1.177-6.427, p: 0.019) and aphasia (OR: 0.342, 95% CI: 0.107-1.100, p: 0.072) affected the functional outcome. The candesartan pre-stroke use did not improve the functional outcome of post ischemic stroke patient.

HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF FOREST HONEY ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED FEMALE WISTAR RATS

Linawati, Yunita

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Hepatoprotective effect study of forest honey had been conducted on a female rat induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The study aimed at obtaining the scientific data and the evidence of forest honey as hepatoprotective agent on the rat. The study was a true experimental study with a single factor completely randomized design. Thirty rats were randomly divided into six groups (n=5). Group I received carbon tetrachloride 2.0 mL/kgBW intraperitoneally, group II received olive oil 2.0 mL/kgBW intraperitoneally, group III received forest honey 8.1 mL/kgBW (6 days, peroral), groups IV, V, VI were given forest honey 3.6, 5.4, 8.1 mL/kgBW (6 days, peroral) and intraperitoneal induction of carbon tetrachloride 2 mL/kgBW on seventh day. The blood sample of all rats were taken for ALT-AST measurement and their liver were sampled for histological examination of the liver cell. Groups I and III on the seventh day, group II on the second day, groups IV,V,VI on the eighth day. The result showed that a forest honey can be used as a hepatoprotective agent on the female rat Wistar strain induced by carbon tetrachloride 2 mL/kgBW with doses 3.6, 5.4, 8.1 mL/kgBW.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND OBESITY BASED ON BODY FAT PERCENTAGE IN BANJAROYO VILLAGE, KALIBAWANG, KULON PROGO, D.I. YOGYAKARTA

Effendy, Sesilia, Gunawan, Maria Felicia, Adhi Argoputra, Daniel Lintang, Abraham, YB, Anggraeni, Patricia Dian, Fenty, Fenty

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Obesity, a metabolic disorder characterized by the accumulation of excessive body fat, which is closely associated with metabolic derangement-related disease. Obesity can be caused by low physical activity that can be assessed using body fat percentage. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between physical activity and obesity based on body fat percentage in Banjaroyo village, Kalibawang, Kulon Progo, Special Region of Yogyakarta. This study was an­­ observational-analytical study with cross sectional design and conducted in January-June 2017. Total samples were 243 people (86 males and 157 females) with age range between 18-65 years old. Physical activity data were collected using a structured interview based on International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), while body fat percentage was taken using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). The data were analyzed using comparative Chi-square test with the level of significance of 95%. The prevalence of obesity based on body fat percentage was 78.2% and 21.8% in men and women, respectively. Results of the study showed that there is no significant relationship between physical activity and obesity based on body fat percentage (p=0.419; CI 95%: 0.66-2.689). In conclusion, there is no significant relationship between physical activity and incidence of obesity.

THE EFFECT OF PASAK BUMI ROOTS TOWARDS BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN GLUCOSE-LOADED MICE

Fransisca, Fransisca, Kalangi, Gracia Easter, Candrasari, Damiana Sapta, Hendra, Phebe

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of pasak bumi roots (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) towards the blood glucose level in glucose-loaded mice. The blood glucose-lowering effects were tested using Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) method. The mice were given with infusion of pasak bumi roots at the doses of 0.83; 1.67; 3.33 g/kgBW and methanol extract of pasak bumi roots at the doses of 102; 210; 420 mg/kgBW. All treatments were conducted orally, 30 minutes before the administration of glucose (2 g/kgBW). The blood glucose levels were measured at 0 minute before the administration of glucose and at 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after the administration of glucose. Blood samples were obtained through the mice tail’s vena lateralis using glucometer. The blood glucose levels result which were obtained at the 0 until 120 minutes were calculated to obtain AUC. AUV values of each treatment group were analyzed statistically. Based on the results of the research, it can be concluded that the methanol extract of pasak bumi roots has blood glucose-lowering effect at the doses of 210 and 420 mg/kgBW, but infusion of pasak bumi roots does not have effects on lowering the blood glucose level in the glucose-loaded mice.

A SURVEY OF ANTIBIOTICS PURCHASED WITHOUT PRESCRIPTION AMONG NON-HEALTH SCIENCE STUDENTS IN JEMBER, INDONESIA

Pratama, Antonius Nugraha Widhi, Rohmawati, Anis, Rachmawati, Ema

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Previous research showed that self-medication practice with antibiotics is widespread in developing countries and tertiary students are among these consumers. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the use of antibiotics without prescription among non-health science students in Jember and to identify the sources of non-prescription antibiotics. This cross-sectional survey was conducted between April and June 2016 in all non-health science faculties of Universitas Jember. A questionnaire containing four main short questions about antibiotics use and questions related to socio-demographic information was distributed to students who gave consent. A number of 130 (58.5%) respondents admitted to ever acquire antibiotics without the presence of a physician prescription. Self-medication with antibiotics tended to be done by students from rural areas (p=0.04) and without health insurance (p=0.04). The sources of non-prescription antibiotics vary, but pharmacy was the most frequently cited to be the source (n=82; 46.3%). This study showed that the use of antibiotics without prescription among non-health science students and the sale of antibiotics without prescription among pharmacies in Jember are prevalent. Real responses from the government, relevant health professional associations, and education institutions to intervene these problems are significantly needed.

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS METHOD OF DETECTION OF WAX CONTENT IN GORENGAN USING SMARTPHONE

Yulia, Yulia, Wasito, Hendri, Fatoni, Amin

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Wax is one of the compounds that can be misused to be added to Gorengan, Indonesian fritter, to keep them crispy. Gorengan containing wax is difficult to identify visually, so a quick and easy method of detecting wax content is required. The purpose of this research is to develop and evaluate the analytical performance of detecting wax content in gorengan using smartphone. Gorengan sample was dissolved with hexane and then added reagent that will give discoloration followed by analysis using smartphone. Some analysis performance parameters were evaluated in terms of linearity and detection limit, qualitative analysis capability, precision, and selectivity test. The developed method was also applied in some gorengan samples. The result shows that the detection of wax content in gorengan can be conducted by using reagent consisting of NaOH, Schift, and curcumin (1 : 2 : 2). Performance analysis shows that the linearity measurement at concentration between 10% and 25% has correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9537 with detection limit at concentration of 2% and precision (%RSD) less than 3%. The developed method can be applied for the detection of wax content in gorengan in the market.

THERAPY ADHERENCE OF 40-75 Y.O. HYPERTENSION RESPONDENTS USING MORISKY INSTRUMENT IN NGEMPLAK, SLEMAN, DIY (STUDY ON AGE, DEMOGRAPHY, SOCIAL, AND LIFE-STYLE FACTORS)

Jasmine, Millatina, Oktawati, Nurjati Dwi, Damasari, Puspa Raras, Suhadi, Rita

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 14, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Hypertension is systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140mmHg and/or diastolic blood pessure (DBP) ≥90mmHg. The risk factors of hypertension consist of age, life-style, demographic, and social factors. The risk factors have a significant association with antihypertension adherence. Adherence is the suitability of patient behavior to the prescriber’s recommendations. Morisky instrument can be used to measure the level of hypertension therapy adherence. The aims of this study were to assess respondent’s profile and therapy adherence based on age, life-style, demographic, social factors among the subjects in Ngemplak, Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY). Total respondents were 63 respondents. The observational study was done with cross-sectional design. Technique for determining the location used random sampling, data were collected by door to door in the villages of Morangan, Jimat, and Jelapan. Data analysis used chi square with 95% confidence level. There were 23.8% good adherent and 76.2% poor adherent subjects to antihypertensive medication. There was no significant difference between age, life-style, demographic, and social factors to the level of hypertension therapy adherence. However, it was found that controlled blood pressure (p-value<0.01) were significantly associated with therapy adherence. This study also found that SBP at age 60-75 years and 40-59 years was significantly different (p-value <0.05).

CORRELATION BETWEEN ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS AND RISK OF ANEMIA AMONG RURAL COMMUNITY IN CANGKRINGAN, SLEMAN

Virginia, Dita Maria, Fenty, Fenty

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 14, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Anemia has been detected on various age groups. Measurement of hemoglobin (Hb) levels is a standard for deciding anemia conditions. The measurement requires certain costs, medical professional, and is invasive. People in rural areas need an economical, easy and simple examination to identify the risk of anemia. Anthropometric measurement is expected to be an appropriate measurement model for rural communities. The objective of the study is to obtain the best anthropometric measurement predictors for detecting anemia in rural communities. This was an observational study using a cross-sectional design. The inclusion criteria of the subjects of the study were residents of Cangkringan, who were between 40 and 60 years old. The subjects were chosen using random sampling cluster technique. The sample size was 100 respondents and was taken based on cluster. Descriptive analysis was used to determine the prevalence of anemia. Analysis the difference in proportion was conducted using Mann-Whitney. Correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between Hb levels and anthropometric measurements by using Spearman. The results showed that only 5% of the subjects are in the status of anemia based on their Hb levels. There is a significant difference between Hb levels in the normal and obese groups based on the waist hip circumference ratios (WHR) (p = 0.002). The waist circumference has a weak correlation (r = 0.238, p = 0.017) and WR has a moderate correlation (r = 0.483, p = 0.000) with Hb levels. The results of this study are not appropriate in which central obese patients should be more at risk of anemia. This study concludes that there is a significant positive moderate correlation between anthropometry, which is the waist circumference parameters and WHR, to the Hb levels in rural communities.

OPTIMIZATION OF MIXING TEMPERATURE AND SONICATION DURATION IN LIPOSOME PREPARATION

Putri, Dina Christin Ayuning, Dwiastuti, Rini, Marchaban, Marchaban, Nugroho, Akhmad Kharis

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 14, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Liposomes are a delivery system used in pharmaceutical products and cosmetics. Liposomes have many advantages such as increase stability and efficacy, can be targeted to reduce toxicity and increase accumulation at the target site and are biocompatible.  Preparation of liposomes can be done by conventional or new methods which are still being developed. Conventional methods often require a long time and organic solvents which may be toxic. Heating (Mozafari method) is one of the new methods developed in the manufacture of liposomes without organic solvents. Mixing temperature can affect the physical properties of liposomes. The particle size has become one of the important physical properties because it affects the absorption of the drug. Sonication is an easy method of choice in reducing the size of liposomes. Optimization of mixing temperature and duration of sonication in liposomes’ preparation using new heating methods and sonication were performed by factorial design with 2 factors and 3-levels to obtain optimal liposome size. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA. The results showed that both mixing temperature and sonication duration significantly affect liposome size, but the interaction was not statistically significant. Data analysis also showed that mixing temperature, sonication, and their interaction do not affect the polydispersity index of liposome. Results showed the optimum mixing temperature and sonication duration that can produce liposomes with size below 100 nm is at 60°C for 30 minutes.