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SPRAY DRIED AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF LEMONGRASS (CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS) EXHIBITS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ANTI HYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITIES

Gunawan-Puteri, Maria Dewi Puspitasari Tirtaningtyas, Rustandi, Felicia, Hendra, Phebe

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 2 (2018): In Press
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Lemongrass was found to be a promising herb for anti-hyperglycemia treatment due to its activities to inhibit alpha glucosidase and alpha amylase in vitro activities and ability to improve blood glucose profile. Lemongrass potency through its anti-hyperglycemic ingredients requires evaluation of the functional stability during processing. In this study, the in vitro anti-hyperglycemic activities of spray-dried aqueous extract of lemongrass were determined by its inhibitory activity against rat intestinal glucosidase enzymatic hydrolysis of sucrose. In vivo activity was observed based on its ability to prevent blood glucose elevation in oral glucose, sucrose and maltose tolerance tests (OGTT, OSTT and OMTT). The in vitro evaluation showed that aqueous extraction, which involved stirring at 70 °C for 40 min, successfully increased the glucosidase inhibitory activity of lemongrass extract, while spray drying with inlet 130 °C had no significant impact to the activity tested in vitro. Spray-dried lemongrass powder was found to be effective for lowering blood glucose level in OGTT, OSTT and OMTT. This study provides support for further development of lemongrass extracts as functional ingredients for hyperglycemia treatment.

COMPOUNDING STERILE PREPARATIONS FOR INTENSIVE CARE UNIT PATIENTS (ICU) IN ONE OF THE PRIVATE HOSPITALS IN SEMARANG

Widayani, Sara Septi, Yuliani, Sri Hartati, Ayuning Putri, Dina Christin

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 2 (2018): In Press
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Sterile preparations for intravenous injection are probably caused greater risk of errors than other preparation treatment routes due to its complexity preparation steps. Errors in preparation and compounding stage will affect the quality and stability of the pharmaceutical product obtained. The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of compounding and assess both quality and stability of the parenteral preparations products resulted by the compounding process for ICU??s patient in one of the private hospital in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. This observational analytic research was performed using accidental sampling technique. The descriptive results showed that sterile preparation in ??X? hospitals has not been performed as well as the Guidelines for Drug Injection and Handling of Cytostatic Preparations. To compare the quality of compound preparations, three drugs were taken with the highest prevalence of use; ceftriaxone, meropenem and omeprazole. The pH of omeprazole injection was innapropriate with theoriticaly pH because the used non conform solvent. In order to evaluate the quality of the sterile preparations, three kind of drugs with the highest using prevalence namely ceftriaxone, meropenem and omeprazole were evaluated. It was found that pH value of omeprazole was not acceptable caused by inappropriate solvent used. Based on the sterility test, it was showed that the preparation products prepared by the nurse were free from microorganism.

THE EFFECT OF HEALTH INSURANCE ON ASTHMA CONTROL IN RESPONDENTS WITH ASTHMA IN YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

Suhadi, Rita, Fenty, Fenty, Virginia, Dita Maria, Setiawan, Christianus Heru

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 2 (2018): In Press
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Asthma is a chronic disease with recurrent breath shortness. Until now, there is no particular therapy to cure the disease and long-term treatment is needed to control the disease. Health insurance has the benefit to support the asthma therapy. This study aimed to assess the effect of health insurance on the asthma control based on Asthma Control Test (ACT) score. The study was done with a cross-sectional design on respondents with asthma who agreed to sign informed consent forms in Yogyakarta. The asthma respondents (n=36) were selected non-randomly, consisting of 23 respondents with health insurance, including universal health coverage or UHC (n=15), UHC and private insurance (n=7), and private insurance only (n=1). The ratio and categorical data were analyzed with the independent T-test or Mann-Whitney test and chi-square statistics, respectively. The study demonstrated that the profiles and number of medicines were similar between groups, except for lower smoking proportion among health insurance groups; the respondents with and without health insurance had the median ACT score at 22 (partial control) and 15 (bad control) respectively, though the scores were not statistically different. Conclusion: the asthma respondents with and without health insurance were not statistically different in the asthma control.

THE EFFECT OF EDUCATIONAL SELF-MEDICATION FOR DYSMENORRHEA TREATMENT USING OVER THE COUNTER DRUGS

Kartikasari, Betti Dwi, Setyobudi, Yustina Emi

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 2 (2018): In Press
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Self-medication is an attempt to treat the disease that felt with the using of the over the counter drug (OTC) which is based on knowledge about the safe and rational treatment. The implementation of the self-medication drug use tends to be misuse. The ease in self-medication treatment in community shows the importance of education in the use of medications safely and rationally. Education is carried out appropriately with effective methods and media. This research used quasi experimental design approach with one group pretest ?? posttest design. The sample of this research was 34 female students from Frateran Senior High School Malang that selected by purposive sampling. The data was analyzed using Paired T-Test. Based on the results of comparison about self-medication treatment of using OTC drugs before (pre) and after (post) education, provided the significance value obtained 0.000 which is smaller than alpha 0.05, the null hypothesis (H0) can be rejected and concluded that there is a difference score about the self-medication treatment of using OTC drugs before (pre) and after (post) education. It can be concluded that the education can affect the improvement of knowledge of the students for effectiveness of lowering OTC drugs abuse. 

THE EFFECT OF NaOH CONCENTRATION IN DELIGNIFICATION PROCESS ON MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE FROM GREEN ALGAE (CLADOPHORA SP.) AS THE RENEWABLE MARINE PRODUCT

Prasetia, I Gusti Ngurah Jemmy Anton, Deviana, Shelia, Damayanti, Trisna, Cahyadi, Angga, Wirasuta, I Made Agus Gelgel

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 2 (2018): In Press
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Research on marine natural resources as an excipient material of pharmaceutical product is still rare. One of the marine products is the green algae, Cladophora sp. High cellulose content causes Cladophora sp. which can be used as an alternative material of microcrystalline cellulose (SM). There are two stages to produce SM, namely delignification and hydrolysis. Delignification is the process of removing the lignin of complex compounds. The delignification process is carried out chemically in alkaline situation using a NaOH solution which dissolves lignin, carbohydrates, organic acids, and resins so that cellulose is released from its bonds. This is important because the presence of lignin may inhibit acid penetration prior to hydrolysis. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of delignification by using NaOH solution at various concentrations (2, 4, and 6%) to cellulose content and physical character of microcrystalline cellulose from Cladophora sp. (SMC). In the hydrolysis process, 5% HCl solution was used. SMCs of various concentrations of NaOH were observed and the cellulose levels included alpha, beta and gamma levels. While the physical character observation is done on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) test. Based on the cellulose content, the higher the concentration of NaOH used, the higher the alpha cellulose will increase. The opposite result occurs on the measurement of beta and gamma cellulose. Based on SEM test, it appears that there is no effect of increasing NaOH concentration on physical character of SMC.

STANDARDIZATION OF EXTRACT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EMULGEL FORMULA OF LENGKUAS (Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd) RHIZOME EXTRACT

Putranti, Widyasari, Dewi, Novia Ariani, Widiyastuti, Lina

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 2 (2018): In Press
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Lengkuas rhizome have an activity as antifungal. Lengkuas rhizome extract is necessary to do non-specific parameter standardization to obtain an extract that is guaranteed to be of consistent quality. The provision of topical preparations of lengkuas rhizome extract is a formulation that easily mixed with hydrophobic or hidrophilic active substances. This study aims to obtain the emulgel formulation of lengkuas rhizome extract which has good quality and good physical properties.Extraction of lengkuas rhizome obtained by use maceration method with ethanol 96% as a solvent. The extract were standardized with non-specific parameters. Then, the extract is formulated in emulgel preparation with 10% concentration of extract. Emulgel evaluated for physical properties. The results showed rendemen of extract (14.66±0.056)%; powder loss on drying (8.63±0.134)%; water content of extract (5±0)%; ash content of powder (3.24±0.017)%; and extract (1.30±0.035)%; acid-insoluble ash content powder (2.66±0.10)%; and extract (0.87±0,031)%; the mass of extract specification 1,01; and the physical properties test of emulgel preparations obtained homogeneous emulgel; semisolid phase, light brown color, smell of extract lengkuas rhizome, stable at 5oC and 25oC for 24 hours; pH 7; spreadability (2.45±0.03) g.cm.s-1; stickiness (8.80±0.72) seconds; type of emulsion o/w; and viscosity (1.37±0.22) Pa.s. This study was obtained lengkuas rhizome extract that fulfill the requirements of non-specific parameter standardization and emulgel formulation of lengkuas rhizome extract has good physical properties.

FORMULATION OF SUNSCREEN CREAM OF PARIJOTO FRUIT EXTRACT (Medinilla speciosa Blume) AND IN VITRO SPF VALUE TEST

Geraldine, Elsa Tamara, Hastuti, Ema Dwi

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 2 (2018): In Press
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Sunscreen preparations are cosmetic preparations used as a protection to reduce the impact of sun exposure of which are formulations contain active ingredients to absorb or diffuse sunlight, especially in areas of ultraviolet and infrared wave emissions. One of the natural ingredients which is potential as a sunscreen is parijoto fruit (Medinilla speciosa Blume). It contains flavonoid compounds that are able to prevent the harmful effects of UV rays. The objective of this research is to find out the formula of sunscreen cream of parijoto extract that meets the good physical quality of cream and to find out the result of SPF value test of parijoto fruit extract as sunscreen cream preparation in Vitro. The design of the study was experimental research conducted in the laboratory. The sample used in this research was parijoto made into thick extract by maceration method. Further, the viscous extract obtained was made to be a sunscreen cream and then tested either its physical evaluation or calculation of SPF value. The results of this study indicate that the preparation of sunscreen cream of parijoto fruit extract included in the extra protection category with the value is 6,66 and can be made into the good and stable preparations. The sunscreen cream of parijoto fruit extract has good physical properties and also has activity as UV protection in vitro.

THE DIFFERENCE IN THE TOTAL CHOLESTEROL/HDL-C RATIO IN TYPE-2 DM PATIENTS WITH DIABETIC ULCERS AND WITHOUT DIABETIC ULCERS IN BETHESDA HOSPITAL YOGYAKARTA

Sagitania, Devina, Sujatno, Purwoadi, Fenty, Fenty

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the diseases that annually shows an increase. An increase of DM prevalence will follow the increasing diabetic ulcers complication. Cholesterol could influence to create ulcer through atherosclerosis process. Ratio of total cholesterol/HDL is an important predictor to detect early risk of vascular complication in type 2 DM patients that can manifest as diabetic ulcers. This study aims to know whether there is any difference in the Total Cholesterol/HDL-C Ratio in type-2 DM patients with diabetic ulcers and without diabetic ulcers. This study was an analytic observational with cross-sectional approach. Data collection was done using the purposive sampling with a sample size of 30 patients of diabetes mellitus with diabetic ulcers and 30 patients without diabetic ulcers. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney. The median results in Total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio between Type-2 DM patients with diabetic ulcers and without diabetic ulcers were 6.025 and 3.680 respectively. The median of cholesterol total/HDL-C ratio Type-2 DM patients with diabetic ulcers was higher than those without diabetic ulcers. Mann-Whitney showed the value of  P = 0.000, so that this study found a significant difference. In conclusion, the ratio of total cholesterol/HDL-C in type-2 DM patients with diabetic ulcer was significantly higher than type-2 DM patients without diabetic ulcers in Bethesda Hospital, Yogyakarta.

THE EFFECT OF CANDESARTAN PRE-STROKE USE ON THE FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF POST ISCHEMIC STROKE PATIENTS IN BETHESDA HOSPITAL YOGYAKARTA

Gulo, Lise Insani, Pinzon, Rizaldy Taslim, Pramudita, Esdras Ardi

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, where the main risk factor is hypertension. Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB) is the most common drug for stroke prevention in high-risk hypertensive patients. The purpose of this study was to see whether the candesartan pre-stroke use can improve the functional outcomes of post ischemic stroke patients. The data were obtained from 191 retrospective observational studies. Data were collected from Stroke Registry and medical record at Bethesda Hospital Yogyakarta in 2014-2016, then analyzed univariate, followed by bivariate analysis using chi-square test, independent t-test and fisher exact test for the variable which has actual count (F0), and logistic regression for multivariate analysis. One hundred and ninety one samples were systematically reviewed to evaluate the effect of candesartan pre-stroke use on functional outcomes of post ischemic stroke patients in Bethesda hospital Yogyakarta whose range of ages was mostly between 61 and 70 years (30.9%) and were mostly male patients (56.5%). Patients with good functional outcomes (<2) were 79.6% and poor functional outcomes (?2) were 20.4%. The results of bivariate analysis showed that candesartan did not affect the improvement of clinical outcome (OR: 1.806, 95% CI: 0.591-5.519, p: 0.294), and also not better than other angiotensin receptor blocker (p=0.505, OR=1.472, 95% CI= 0.470-4.611). The multivariate analysis showed that sex (OR: 0.366, 95% CI: 0.156-0.858, p: 0.021), loss of consciousness (OR: 0.107, 95% CI: 0.021-0.549, p: 0.007), limb weakness (OR: 0.236, 95% CI: 0.067-0.834, p: 0.025), dyslipidemia comorbidity (OR: 2.750, 95% CI: 1.177-6.427, p: 0.019) and aphasia (OR: 0.342, 95% CI: 0.107-1.100, p: 0.072) affected the functional outcome. The candesartan pre-stroke use did not improve the functional outcome of post ischemic stroke patient.

HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF FOREST HONEY ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED FEMALE WISTAR RATS

Linawati, Yunita

Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Komunitas (Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community) Vol 15, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Sanata Dharma University

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Abstract

Hepatoprotective effect study of forest honey had been conducted on a female rat induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The study aimed at obtaining the scientific data and the evidence of forest honey as hepatoprotective agent on the rat. The study was a true experimental study with a single factor completely randomized design. Thirty rats were randomly divided into six groups (n=5). Group I received carbon tetrachloride 2.0 mL/kgBW intraperitoneally, group II received olive oil 2.0 mL/kgBW intraperitoneally, group III received forest honey 8.1 mL/kgBW (6 days, peroral), groups IV, V, VI were given forest honey 3.6, 5.4, 8.1 mL/kgBW (6 days, peroral) and intraperitoneal induction of carbon tetrachloride 2 mL/kgBW on seventh day. The blood sample of all rats were taken for ALT-AST measurement and their liver were sampled for histological examination of the liver cell. Groups I and III on the seventh day, group II on the second day, groups IV,V,VI on the eighth day. The result showed that a forest honey can be used as a hepatoprotective agent on the female rat Wistar strain induced by carbon tetrachloride 2 mL/kgBW with doses 3.6, 5.4, 8.1 mL/kgBW.