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Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal)
Pelita Perkebunan, Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal (CCRJ): ISSN:0215-0212 Since its establishment in 1911, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) formerly Besoekisch Proefstation, had published its research findings through a journal call Mededelingen van het Besoekisch Proefstation. Between 1948-1981 the research institute was under the supervision of Bogor Research Institute for Estate Crops, and published its research findings through De Bergcultures which was later changed to Menara Perkebunan. Since the institute held the national mandate for coffee and cocoa commodities, and due to rapid increase in the research findings, ICCRI published its first issue of Pelita Perkebunanjournal in April 1985. Pelita Perkebunanis an international journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with coffee and cocoa commodities based on the aspects of agronomy, plant breeding, soil science, crop protection, postharvest technology and social economy. Papers dealing with result of original research on the above aspects are welcome, with no page charge. Pelita Perkebunan is managed by Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI), which publish the research findings not only for coffee and cocoa but also other commodities relevant with coffee and cocoa, i.e. shade trees, intercrops and wind breakers.
Articles by issue : Vol 21, No 2 (2005)
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Articles
Confirmation of Transgenic Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora) Transformed by Chitinase-encoding Gene and Its Propagation Through Somatic Embryogenesis

., Priyono ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia ) , Budiani, Asmini ( Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Perkebunan Indonesia ) , Mawardi, Surip ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia )

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 21, No 2 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Genetic engineering of Robusta coffee resistant to fungal diseases might be done by introducing a chitinase-encoding gene into genome of this plant. This research was aimed to confirm transgenic plant of BP 308 clone Robusta coffee transformed by chi gene and to evaluate its ability for the somatic embryogenesis. Confirmation of transgenic was carried out by analysis the presence of NPTII gene as a selectable marker for Canamysin resistant using PCR technique. The somatic embryo initiation and reproduction were evaluated in 11 plant accessions. Three kinds of sucrose concentration, 20%, 30% and 40% were applied in initiation stage of somatic embryo germination. The suitability of 4 medium, namely M1 (without addition by liquid medium), M2 (addition by liquid medium contained 0.25 mg/l kinetin), M3 (addition by liquid medium contained 0.25 mg/l IAA) and M4 (addition by liquid medium contained 0.25 mg/l GA3 ) was evaluated for somatic embryo maturation. The result showed that 8 out of 10 plant accessions tested were transgenic and they could be propagated through somatic embryogenesis. The ability of transgenic plant for somatic embryo initiation, reproduction and regeneration were similar with that of nontransgenic one. Germination of somatic embryo could be improved by using 40% sucrose. Maturation of somatic embryo could be improved by addition of fresh liquid medium on the ancient gelled medium that used for somatic embryos reproduction. The best result was obtained on addition of fresh medium contained 0.25 mg/l GA 3 in which 65% of the somatic embryos developed to pre-germinate somatic embryo. Key words: Coffea canephora, transgenic plant, somatic embryogenesis.

Effect of Storage Period on the Viability of Bare Root Cocoa Seedlings

Rahardjo, Pudji ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia )

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 21, No 2 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

An experiment to study the storage of bare root cocoa seedling may be used as an alternative technology to transport of cocoa seedling. The storage period were 2, 3 and 4 days using: Randomize Complete Design and 4 replications. Each replication was used 25 seedlings. The results showed that bare cacao seedling storage for 2, 3 and 4 days decreased wet weight 1—2 g, and leaf number 2—4. Seedling viability percentage for 2, 3 and 4 days storage was 90.00; 97.50 and 75.00% respectively.Key words :Bare root, cocoa seedling, storage, viability.

Soil Moisture and Turgidity of Selected Robusta Coffee Clones on Alluvial Plain with Seasonal Rainfall Pattern

Erwiyono, Rudy ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia )

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 21, No 2 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Observation on the seasonal variations of hydrological condition and turgidity of selected Robusta coffee clones has been carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember. The aim was to evaluate the effect of hydrological variation on the coffee plants and the degree of soil moisture effect on plant performance. Experimental site overlays on alluvial plain, + 45 m a.s.l., 8o 15’ South with D rainfall type. Observation was conducted by survey method at the experimental plots of organic fertilizer and nitogen treatments on selected Robusta coffee clones derived from rooted cuttings, i.e. BP 436, BP 42, BP 936 and BP 358. Observation was only conducted at the experimental blocks of organic matter trials of 20 l/tree/year at nitrogen (Urea) application of locally recommanded rate during the subsequent years of 1999 to 2001. Parameters observed included plant turgidity and soil moisture content of three different depths, i.e. 0—20, 20—40 and 40—60 cm and the weather. Observation was carried out in five replicates designed as blocks of barn manure treatment and N-fertilizer of recommended rate as basal fertilizer. The results showed that meteorological condition and soil moisture of experimental site through the years have seasonal patterns following the seasonal pattern of rainfall. Compared to other meteorological characteristics, relative humidity dominantly determined evaporation and plant turgidity. Plant turgi-dity was not only determined by soil moisture condition, but also atmospheric demand. When relative humidity (RH) was relatively high, plant turgidity was relatively stable although soil moisture of surface layers was very low, and the reversal when soil moisture content was high plant turgidity was controlled by atmospheric demand (relative humidity). With a 3—4 dry month period, relative turgidity of the coffee plants was relatively stable above 82%, except when soil moisture of 60 cm surface layer was below 25% (w/w) and or atmospheric demand was relatively high (RH 85%). Soil moisture contents of deeper soil layers seemed to have greater impact on the plant turgidity and the deeper the soil layers the narrower the seasonal variation of their soil moisture contents. Selected different clones originated from rooted cuttings showed different response to water stress and could be put in order from the most sensitive to water stress as follows BP 436, BP 42, BP 936 and BP 358. Barn manure application could significantly increase soil moisture content but its influence could not significantly increase plant turgidity.Key words : Seasonal variation, atmospheric condition, soil moisture, plant turgidity, Robusta coffee clones.

Influence of Storage of Wet Arabica Parchment Prior to Wet Hulling on Moulds Development, OchratoxinA Contamination, and Cup Quality of Mandheling Coffee

Ismayadi, Cahya ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia ) , Marsh, Anthony ( 12 Hight Street, Highfields, 4352, Queenland, Australia ) , Clarke, Renata ( FAO UN )

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 21, No 2 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Mandheling coffee has been a well known specialty coffees for decades and the demand for this coffee is currently increasing. This coffee is characterised by low acidity, heavy-complex body, spicy-little earthy and fruity flavor. Mandheling coffee is produced by smallholder farmers in the highland surrounding Lake TobaNorth Sumatra in an unique way i.e. following de-pulping and 1–2 days sundrying, wet parchment is stored for varying periods up to a few weeks, the parchments are then de-hulled when still wet (40–45% moisture content) then the beans sundried. The handling procedure presumably contributes to the unique cup character of Mandheling coffee. On the other hand the storage of wet pachments may cause mould growth and mycotoxin contamination. This trial was designed to study the influence of storage of wet parchments prior to wet hulling on mould development, OTA contamination and cup Mandheling characteristic of the coffee product. The normal wet process, drying of parchment thoroughly to 12% moisture content was used as the control. Parchment coffees (6 lots) used for this trial were drawn from farmers and collectors in the region. The wet parchments (41.74–53.96% moisture content) were stored for 1 (D1), 7 (D7) and 14 (D14) days in PE sacks in a warehouse in the region. During the storage period, when there was visible mould growth, the parchments were spread on a plastic sheet inside the warehouse, as per common practice to suppress the mould growth. Following storage, the wet parchment was de-hulled and then sun-dried to a moisture content of 12% (MC12%) or dried to a moisture content of 17%, and held in storage for 3 weeks prior to final drying to 12% mc. The ‘normal wet process’ i.e. fresh-non stored parchments dried thoroughly to 12%, were used as the control. Parameters measured were visual evaluation, mould infestation, a w, moisture content (MC) on the stored parchment; while for dried beans mould infestation, OTA content and the Mandheling cup character evaluation (done by 4 panelists who were familiar to the coffee) were determined. Some mould species grew during the storage course, with black Aspergillus was the dominant species found in the beans, while A. ochraceusan OTA producer, was found in some samples with low infection rate (0–15.3%). Spreading of coffee inside the warehouse during the day could suppress moulds growth. OTA was found in only 5 samples out of 42 samples with range of 0.17–2.24 ppb, very less than European Union limit. There was no clear trend of storage period on the mould infection rates, OTA content, and the Mandheling cup characters. The high variability of the outcome was likely due to the inhomogenity of parchments used for this trial. The best Mandheling was found in the sample of D1-MC12%-coffee source of lot 1. Key words: Mandheling coffee, storage, wet parchment, mould, ochratoxin A.

Response of Selected Clones of Cocoa Seedlings in the Nursery Against High Soil Water Content

Prawoto, Adi ( Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia ) , Zainunnuroni, Mohammad ( Universitas Islam Jember ) , ., Slameto ( Universitas Negeri Jember )

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 21, No 2 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Since 2001 to 2005, cocoa bean price is high, this condition accelerates farmers to plant and enlarger their cocoa areas. The impact of this euphoria is the possibility that the planting area will be more marginal, i.e. high water table or soil with continuously high water content. This study was to evaluate cocoa planting materials tolerant to those condition. The experiment was conducted in glass house of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using RCBD, replicated 3 times. The treatments were factorial 10 x 4. The propelegitimate seedlings of 10 clones were the first factor, i.e. KW 165, KW 162, DR 2, DRC 16, GC 7, ICS 13, ICS 60, KW 163, Sca 12, and TSH 858. The second factor were soil water content, that were 100% (field capacity = control), 125%, 150%, and 175%. Watering method was gravimetric, once a month the volume was corrected by wet weight of the seedlings. The study was terminated after 5 month old. The result showed that growth of stem diameter, root dry weight and leaf number still normal until soil water content 25% above field capacity. At that condition, seedling dry weight dropped 13% below control, whereas at 175% treatment the decreasing of seedling dry weight was 34% below control. According to seedling and root dry weights, and chlorophyll content, by using cluster analysis it could be obtained a group of seedlings tolerant to high soil water content, i.e. DRC 16, GC 7, and ICS 60. Meanwhile, a group of seedlings susceptible to high water content, i.e. KW 165, KW 163, and DR 2. Stem diameter and chlorophyl content was good indicator for water logging tolerance reaction for cocoa seedling, its correlation to seedling dry weight were positive and tight. Key words: Theobroma cacao, seedlings, waterlogging, growth, chlorophyll.