Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention
Articles by issue : Vol 2, No 2 (2011)
10
Articles
Antiproliferative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Ciplukan Herbs (Physalis angulata L.) on 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]nthracene-Induced Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis

Monikawati, Ameilinda ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Farida, Sofa ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Putri, Laras Widawaty ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Ikhtiarsyah, Yurista Gilang ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Meiyanto, Edy ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 2, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Physalis angulata  L.  is  an  annual  herb  widely  used  as  popular  medicine  for  the treatment of cancer. Physalis angulata L. ethanolic extract (PEE) has been demonstrated to have strong cytotoxic activity against breast cancer, inhibited cancer cell’s proliferation and induced  cell  cycle  arrest.  The  aim  of  our  study  is  to  investigate  the  effect  of  PEE  as  a cancer  chemopreventive  agent  on  7,12-dimethylbenz[a]nthracene  (DMBA)-induced  rats mammary. The antiproliferative activity was characterized by monitoring the histopatology representation  and  expression  of  cell  proliferation  on  DMBA-induced  mammary  rats  that were  treated  with  PEE  against  control  groups.  The  histopatology  representation  were analyzed  by  Haematoksilin  Eosin  (HE)  staining  method,  while  proliferative  activity  was detected by AgNOR method. The HE staining results showed significant differences in cells morphology  of  treatment  groups  compared  to  the  control  groups.  Thus  results  suggest that  PEE  was  able  to  repair  morphology  of  cells  undergoing  carcinogenesis.  AgNOR method  showed  decreasing  occurrence  of  black  dots  between  treatment  and  control groups. Thus, we conclude that PEE has an antiproliferative activity on DMBA-induced rat mammary.  Therefore,  the  ethanolic  extract  of  Physalis  angulata  herbs  is  a  potential chemopreventive agent on cancer. Further study on its molecular mechanism needs to be explored. Keywords:  Physalis  angulata,  breast  cancer, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]nthracene, carcinogenesis, antiproliferative

Activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum on Some Cell Lines.

Agustini, Kurnia ( Center for Pharmaceuticals and Medical Technology Laboratory for Development of Industrial Agro and Biomedical Technology Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology ( BPPT) ) , Sumaryono, Wahono ( Center for Pharmaceuticals and Medical Technology Laboratory for Development of Industrial Agro and Biomedical Technology Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology ( BPPT) ) , Widyanto, R Micho ( Center for Pharmaceuticals and Medical Technology Laboratory for Development of Industrial Agro and Biomedical Technology Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology ( BPPT) )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 2, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Trigonella  foenum-graecum  (TFG)  is  one  of  medicinal  plants  contains  some steroidal sapogenin  such as diosgenin, yamogenin, gitogenin, tigogenin and trigoneoside, also  alkaloid  trigonellin,  which  is  have  many  activity  as  antidiabetic,  estrogenic  and  also as  anti  cancer.    This  experiment  was  done  to  explore  the  activity  of  some  extract  of TFG on some cell lines such as MCF7 (Human Breast Cancer Cell-line), T47D (Human Breast  Cancer  Cell-line),  PC3  (Human  Prostate  Cell-line)  and  SKOV  (Human  Ovarian Carcinoma Cell-line).  This assay was done using MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium)  methods.    Results  showed  that  ethyl  acetate  fraction  gives  the lowest  IC50  than  another  extracts.  IC50  for  PC3  is  66.24  ppm,  IC50  for  MCF7  is  41.81 ppm,  IC50  for  T47D  is  58.63  ppm.    These  datas  can  be  used  for  further  research  to isolate the active compound from TFG. Keywords: Trigonella foenum-graecum, MCF-7, T47D, SKOV, PC3.

Synthesis Octyl p-Methoxycinnamate as Sunblock by Transesterification Reaction with the Starting Material Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate

Suzana, . ( Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya ) , Irawati, Nunuk ( Alumnus of Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya ) , Budiati, Tutuk ( Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 2, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Synthesis  octyl  p-methoxycinnamate  substance  as  sunblock,  has  been  done  by transesterification  reaction.  The  starting  material  of  the  reaction  was  ethyl  p-methoxycinnamate  isolated  from  Kaempferia  galanga  L.The  transesterification  reaction  was carried out by reacting  ethyl p-methoxycinnamate with octanol. The product was identified by UV-VIS,Infra Red and Mass Spectroscopy. The result of measurements on erythemic %T at various concentrations demonstrate that octyl p-methoxycinnamate is applicable as a sunblock compound. Key  words  :  octyl  p-methoxycinnamate,  transesterification,  ethyl  p-methoxycinnamate,  sunblock

Hesperidin Increases Cytotoxic Activity of Doxorubicin on Hela Cell Line Through Cell Cycle Modulation and Apoptotis Induction

Kusharyanti, Indri ( Program Studi Farmasi, Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan, Universitas Tanjungpura Pontianak ) , Larasati, . ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada,Yogyakarta ) , Susidarti, Ratna Asmah ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada,Yogyakarta ) , Meiyanto, Edy ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada,Yogyakarta )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 2, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Combination of chemotherapeutic agent and chemo preventiveagent is being a new approach in cancer treatment.This is aimed at enhancing the effectivity and also reducing drugresistance and adverse side effect of the chemo therapeuticagent.Hesperidin,acitrus flavonoid has reported to reduce theproliferation of many cancer cells.The objectives of this study were to investigate cytotoxic activities, cell cycle modulation and apoptosis induction of he speridinand its combination withdoxorubicinon Helacelllines.MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] assay was used tomeasure the growth inhibitory effect of he speridinanditscombination with doxorubicinon Helacells.Cellcycle profile was determined by flowcytometry and the dataobtained was analyzed by using Mod Fit LT3.0program.Apoptos is assay was done using double staining method usingethidium$bromideandacridine$orange.Hesperidin inhibited cellgrowth with IC5048M, while the IC50 of doxorubicin was 1000nM.Combination of 500n Mdoxorubicin and 6M hesperidin showed strongest inhibitory effect toward Hela cells. Hesperidin of 24 2M accumulated HeLacells at G1phase,butit scombinationwith 500nM Doxorubicin gave G1 and Sphase accumulation at 24h incubation.Both of Hesperidin and Doxorubicin were capable of inducing apoptosis.Inaccordance of the apoptoticeffect,hesperidin,doxorubicin and their combination decreasedthe expression Bcl$2 and increased the expression of Bax. Accordingtothisresult,hesperidinhasapotencytobedevelopedasco$chemotherapeutic agent forcervical cancer. Key    words:Cochemotherapy,Hesperidin,Doxorubicin,Hela,MTTassay

Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Soulatro Coumarin From Stem Bark of Calophyllum soulattri Burm F and In Vivo Antiplasmodial Activity by Using Mice Infected by Plasmodium berghei

Abbas, Jamilah ( Research Centre for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences PUSPIPTEK. Serpong. 15314. Indonesia ) , Darmawan, Achmad ( Research Centre for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences PUSPIPTEK. Serpong. 15314. Indonesia ) , Syafruddin, . ( Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Diponegoro street no 69, Jakarta 104310. Indonesia )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 2, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

The soulatro coumarin compound was isolated and elucidated from the stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri Burm F, the samples were collected from Jayapura Papua Irian Island in  Indonesia.  Isolation  process  was  done  by  maceration  at  room  temperature  in  methanol, than  partitioned  in  a  mixture  of  n  hexane-water  (1:1),  followed  by  dichloromethane-water (1:1)    and  ethyl  acetate-water  (1:1).  A  portion  of  ethyl  acetate  extract  was  subjected  to column chromatography over silica gel packed and eluted with n-hexane a gradient of ethyl acetate to 100% followed by CHCl3  in MeOH (20:1, 10 :1, 5:1, 1:1). Fraction  B (CHCl3 in MeOH 20:1) was subjected to column chromatography  over silica gel 300 mesh  and eluted with  EtOAc-MeOH  mixtures  of  increasing  polarity.  Faction  with  the  same  Rf  valeus  were combined  and  eluted  with  EtOAc-MeOH    (19:1)  showed  one  spot  on  TLC.  They  were combined  and  evaporated  to  yield  a  solid  than  was  recrystallized  in  mixture  of  CH2Cl2-methanol  to  give  soulatro  coumarin  compound.  The  structure  was  determinated  by spectroscopic analysis, in particular by 1D and 2D NMR techniques, from these spectra data conclution  that  compound  is  soulatro  coumarin.  Antimalarial  assay  was  tested  against Plasmodium berghei parasite as in vivo using 18 mices rodent wich was infected by  Plasmodium berghei  parasite.  The  soulatro  coumarin    showed  activity  against  P.  berghei  with  dosage 0.0005867  mM/1  kg  body  weight  ;  0.005867  mM/1  kg  bw;  0.05867  mM/1  kg  bw;  0.5867 mM/1  kg  bw  5.867  mM/1  kg  bw  and  58.67  mM/1  kg  bw  could  inhibite  growth  rate  of parasite = 57.32%; 63.37%; 43.02%; 53.49%; 47.67% respectively.   Keywords : Antiplasmodial activity, coumarin, Calophyllum soulattri Burm. F, in vivo,  Chloroquine, Plasmodium berghei.

Determination of The Active Asiaticoside Content in Centella asiatica as Anti-Cellulite Agent

Sondari, Dewi ( Polymer Chemistry Group, Research Center for Chemistry Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 – Indonesia ) , Harmami, Sri Budi ( Polymer Chemistry Group, Research Center for Chemistry Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 – Indonesia ) , Ghozali, M ( Polymer Chemistry Group, Research Center for Chemistry Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 – Indonesia ) , Randy, Ahmad ( Polymer Chemistry Group, Research Center for Chemistry Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 – Indonesia ) , S, Athanasia Amanda ( Polymer Chemistry Group, Research Center for Chemistry Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 – Indonesia ) , Irawan, Yan ( Polymer Chemistry Group, Research Center for Chemistry Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 – Indonesia )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 2, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Centella  asiatica  accumulates  large  quantities  of  pentacyclic  triterpenoid saponins,  collectively  known  as  centelloids.  These  terpenoids  include  asiaticoside, centelloside,  madecassoside,  brahmoside,  brahminoside,  thankuniside,  sceffoleoside, centellose, asiatic-, brahmic-, centellic- and madecassic acids. Preparations of C. asiatica are  used  in  traditional  and  alternative  medicine  due  to  the  wide  spectrum  of pharmacological  activities  associated  with  these  secondary  metabolites,  such  as anticellulite agent. Asiaticoside was found in Centella asiatica. In this present study, the asiaticoside was extracted using methanolic and ethanolic solvent. Determination of the asiaticoside  content  in  the  extract  was  conducted  with  High Performance  Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR). Samples of C.  asiatica used in this study came from three different plantation  areas,  Bogor,  Lembang  and  Solo.  Asiaticoside  content  in  the  methanolic extract  from  Bogor,  Lembang,  and  Solo  samples  were  2.82%;  2.68%;  and  2.8% respectively. Asiaticoside in ethanolic extract from Bogor, Lembang, and Solo samples were 2.79%; 2.75%; and 2.91% respectively. Two way ANOVA study showed that there was  significant  difference  between  types  of  solvent  used  in  extraction  and  the asiaticoside  content  in  the  obtained  extract,  significant  difference  between  varied plantation area and obtained asiaticoside content, and significant difference between interactions of different solvent with different plantation area.     Key words: Centella asiatica, asiaticoside, anticellulite, medicine, metabolites  

Ficus septica burm. F. Leaves Ethanolic Extract Induces Apoptosis in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]nthracene-induced Rat Liver Cancer Quatitavely

Septhea, Dita Brenna ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Anindyajati, . ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Darma, Andita Pra ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Nurzijah, Ika ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Nugroho, Agung Endro ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 2, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

The chemopreventive effect of  Ficus septica Burm. f. leaves ethanolic extract (FLEE) was studied in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]nthracene (DMBA)-induced rat liver cancer. Rats were divided into 5 group, 5 rats (5 wk of age Sprague Dawley rat) in each group. Group 1 was control diet group, administered with 0,5% CMC-Na as vehicle. FLEE was administered 750 mg/kgBW and 1500 mg/kgBW starting 4 wk until 5 wk after DMBA administration at the first until fifth wk to group 2 and group 3. Group 4 was control extract group, administered  with 750 mg/kgBW and  group  5  was  DMBA  group.  DMBA  is  a  carcinogen  to  induce  liver  cancer  was  also administered in DMBA control group and all animals were necropsied at 6 wk after DMBA administration. Activity of inducing apoptosis was detected using Double Staining method in 750 mg/kgBW FLEE group compared to control group but no in 1500 mg/kgBW FLEE group resulted in 100% dead. Apoptotic cells would have orange flourescence but normal cells would have green flourescence detected by flourescence microscope. To investigate the protein that involved in apoptotic mechanism, we studied p53 expression using Imunohistochemistry (IHC). There was no difference expression of p53 in both tested and control groups. Based on the results, FLEE has a potency as chemoprentive agent because its activity on inducing apoptosis in liver  cancer  with  p53-independent  pathway.  The  mechanism  of  apoptosis  induction  of  this extract needs to be explored by observing the expression of related proteins. Key words: apoptosis, Ficus septica, liver cancer, p53 independent pathway

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Hemolytic Activities and Toxicity of Ethyl Acetate Extract From an Unidentified Coral-Associated Fungus, Aspergillus brevipes RK06

Nofiani, Risa ( Department of Chemistry, Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty, Tanjungpura University, Jl. A. Yani, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. ) , Kurniadi, Rio ( Department of Chemistry, Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty, Tanjungpura University, Jl. A. Yani, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. ) , Ardiningsih, Puji ( Department of Chemistry, Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty, Tanjungpura University, Jl. A. Yani, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 2, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Marine fungi are one of the potential  and prolific sources to produce unique and novel structure of bioactive compounds. The aim of this research was to explore the biological activities potency from ethyl acetate extract of Aspergillus brevipes  RK06. A. brevipes  RK06 was successfully isolated from an unidentified coral from Randayan Island, Kalimantan Barat. The  extract inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid (Ferric thiocyanate assay) with a lipid peroxidation inhibition value of 28.44%. The IC50 value of the extract for brine shrimp lethality test was 34.19ug/mL. The hemolytic percentage of the extract for hemolysis on cow erythrocytes was 5.21%. The extract showed a growth inhibition against  Klebsiella pneumonia,  Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the assays, the extract showed a potential citotoxity and both low antioxidant and hemolytic activities.   Key words: antioxidant, hemolytic activity, antimicrobial, toxicity,  Aspergillus brevipes RK06

The Enhancement Quality of Squalene As A Marine Chemopreventive Agent and Vitamin A Level in The Shark Liver Oil at The Territorial Ocean of Cilacap

Nurfauzi, Yuhansyah ( Pharmacy Diploma Study Program, Department of Pharmacy STIKES Al Irsyad Al Islamiyyah, Cilacap, Indonesia ) , Kurniawan, Wahyu ( Pharmacy Diploma Study Program, Department of Pharmacy STIKES Al Irsyad Al Islamiyyah, Cilacap, Indonesia ) , Tusrianto, . ( Pharmacy Diploma Study Program, Department of Pharmacy STIKES Al Irsyad Al Islamiyyah, Cilacap, Indonesia )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 2, No 2 (2011)
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Abstract

Recently, shark liver oil is developed as mainstay product for the Cilacap fishermen proceed to be traditional supplementalfoods and health product that contains squalene and Vitamin A. Squalen is one of marine natural products has demonstratedproliferative activity in animal cancer studies and may havesome radioprotective effects.This observation is aimed to enhance and improve squalene acquirement quality organolepthically.This observation usesexperimental observation design.Shark liver in thebottle will be proceedby thetool that specially designed to produce shark liver oil. Its result is analyzed quantitatively togainthesqualeneandvitaminAlevel.Thecomparisonofsqualene level that has been produced in this observation isapproximately from 141 to 191 higher than standard squalene product in the market. The vitamin A level in thisobservation is approximately 3,6 higher than shark liver oilproduct in the market without processing by the observation tool. The technology in the observation uses heatingprinciple from perfect black tool that causes it more constantlyhot and causes oil flow out from shark liver organ.The oil in thebowl ofthe tool was filtered by zeolit,so that the unpleasantorfishy smell of the oil will decrease if compared with traditionalproduction process. Key words:Squalene,vitaminA,Sharkliveroil,Cilacap

Translational Research in Cancer Drug Development

Meiyanto, Edy ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Hermawan, Adam ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Anindyajati, . ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 2, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

The development of cancer treatment were initiated by the existence of human’s effort to treat by applying certain materials which is mostly part(s) or extracts of plants, which are now adapted as traditional herbal medicine. The discovery of new drugs was based on intuition and empirical evidence. Thus, high luck factor was involved in a successful treatment with unguaranteed reproducibility. One example of drug being developed through conventional drug development is Taxol. Taxol is an extremely complex natural product and requires a bunch of hard work with high level of serendipity to be discovered as antitumor agent. Recently, rapid development in human biology and technology allow a change in drug discovery strategy by minimizing the luck factor. Targeted therapy has been a very promising strategy of drug development research, especially in cancer treatment. Although cancer has been known as a disease with very complex cellular and histo-pathophysiology, the abundance of studies on proteins, such as receptors and hormones, as the hallmarks of cancer allows us to explore carcinogenesis suppression further based on molecular targeted therapy. Kinases, one type of protein involved in signal transduction regulating cell growth and differentiation, could be the proteins that  are proposed to be inhibited in suppressing tumor growth. An interesting example of the drug being discovered based on molecular modeling is the discovery of lapatinib as anti-cancer with specific target on HER-2 and EGFR to overcome the resistance of cancer  to Herceptin caused by elevated level of EGFR expression.