Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention
Articles by issue : Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
10
Articles
Platinum Metal Complexes of Carbaboranylphophines: Potential Anti Cancer Agents

Maulana, Ilham ( Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh ) , Loennecke, Peter ( Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany ) , Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie ( Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Polyhedral  heteroboranes in particular dicarba-closo-dodecaboranes(12) and their organic derivatives have been the subject of intense research for over 40 years due to their unique chemical and physical properties. The initial attraction to dicarba-closo-dodecaboranes(12) In the medicinal chemistry research, was a result of their high boron content and stability to catabolism, which are important criteria for cancer therapy, such as BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) agents. The coordination compounds of the platinum group metals have also received large interest for their potential application as chemotherapeutic agents, since  cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), cisplatin, has been reported to have  capability as tumor inhibitor. Hence, applications can be envisioned for related  cis platinum complexes. Complex of  cis-rac-[PtCl2{1,2-(PRCl)2C2B10H10}] (R=Ph,  tBu, NEt2, NPh2) have been synthesized by employing known carbaborane based phosphine ligands of clorophoshino-closo-dodecaborane , with complex of  cis-[PtCl2(COD)] (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) in an N2-atmosphere. The obtained complexes possess expected structure configuration, namely  cis-rac.  The characterization of the complex has been carried out using 1H,  31P,  13C and  11B-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), X-ray of single crystals, elemental analysis, IR (infra red) and mass spectroscopy (MS). The  31P{1H} NMR spectra of all the platinum complexes distinctly show the typical platinum satellites which are attributed to 31P-195Pt-coupling, in which the 31P{1H} NMR spectrum exhibits three lines with an intensity ratio of ca. 1:4:1. The structure of the platinum complexes consists of a slightly distorted square-planar coordination sphere, in which the platinum  atom is bonded to two chlorides and two phosphorus atoms of the chelating carbaboranylphosphine. Thus the platinum atoms exhibit the coordination number four, which is preferred in platinum(II) complexes.

Structure Modification of Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate Isolated from Kaempferia galanga Linn. and Citotoxicity Assay of The Products on WiDr Cells

Ekowati, Juni ( Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Airlangga University, Jl. Dharmawangsa Dalam, Surabaya 60286, Indonesia ) , Rudyanto, Marcellino ( Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Airlangga University, Jl. Dharmawangsa Dalam, Surabaya 60286, Indonesia ) , Sasaki, Shigeru ( Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Ebara 2-4-41, Shinagawa, Tokyo 152-8501, Japan ) , Budiati, Tutuk ( Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Airlangga University, Jl. Dharmawangsa Dalam, Surabaya 60286, Indonesia ) , Sukardiman, . ( Department of Phytochemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Airlangga University, Jl. Dharmawangsa Dalam, Surabaya 60286, Indonesia ) , Hermawan, Adam ( CCRC, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Sekip Utara, Jogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia ) , Meiyanto, Edy ( CCRC, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Sekip Utara, Jogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate, major ingredient of Kaempferia galanga rhizome, have been reported not only has analgesic – anti inflammatory activities like NSAIDs which inhibited cyclooxygenase, but also inhibit tumor cell proliferation in specimen of mouse epidermis. Therefore, it will be interesting to carry out  synthetic studies on the derivates of ethyl  p-methoxycinnamate and searching their citotoxic activity on WiDr cell. We wish to report of structure modification on carboxyl moiety of  ethyl p-methoxycinnamate  and  evaluation on their citotoxic activity  on WiDr cell. Isolation of ethyl p-methoxycinnamate from Kaempferia galanga rhizome was carried out by percolation with ethanol 96% as solvent. Hydrolysis of ethyl p-methoxycinnamate in basic condition was performed to obtain p-methoxycinnamic acid. Preparation of some thiourea derivates of ethyl  p-methoxycinnamate was carried out  by microwave irradiation. Citotoxicity assay was carried out by MTT method for 48 h.   Modification  of  carboxyl  group  of  ethyl  p-methoxycinnamate to its thiourea form could be carried out by microwave irradiation gave; (E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(phenylcarba- mothioyl)acrylamide (50%); (E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methoxyphenylcarbamothi- oyl)acrylamide (26%) and (E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylphenylcarbamothioyl) acrylamide (54%), yield calculated for 2 step from the acid chloride. All compounds showed no citotoxic effect on WiDr cell at 48 h incubation.

Kaempferia galanga L. Rhizome As a Potential Dental Plaque Preventive Agent

Hertiani, Triana ( Faculty of Pharmacy, UGM, Yogyakarta, ) , Pratiwi, Sylvia Utami Tunjung ( Faculty of Pharmacy, UGM, Yogyakarta ) , Irianto, Iramie Duma Kencana ( Faculty of Pharmacy, UGM, Yogyakarta ) , Febriana , Aini ( Faculty of Pharmacy, UGM, Yogyakarta )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Dental plaque prevention can be achieved by inhibition of mouth cavity microbes to built biofilm.  Kaempferia galanga rhizome has been known as a potential antibacterial agent. This research aimed to reveal the potency of  Kaempferia galanga extract and essential oil as anti plaque active agents, based on their in vitro inhibitory activity against the planktonic growth and biofilm of  Streptococcus mutans  ATCC 21752.  Kaempferia galanga extract was obtained by defatting dried-pulverized samples in petroleum ether prior to immersion in 70% ethanol. The fresh rhizome was steam-hydro distilled for 6 h to yield the essential oil. Antibacterial and anti biofilm assays were measured by micro dilution technique on polystyrene 96-wells micro titer plates at 37°C. The percentage of inhibition was calculated by comparing the absorbance of samples to the vehicle (control) measured by micro plate reader at 595 nm. Biofilms formed were first stained by 1% crystal violet. The above assays were performed in triplicates. This study revealed that both K. galanga rhizome essential oil and ethanolic extract showed antibacterial and antibiofilm activity towards  S. mutans. The ethanol extract showed MIC90 value at 0.091% w/v and MBC at 2.724% w/v for antibacterial activity; IC50 at 0.048 % w/v for anti biofilm formation activity; and EC50 at 0.052%w/v for biofilm degradation activity. Until the highest concentration tested (0.6%w/v), the MIC90 and MBC values of the essential oil were not revealed, but higher biofilm inhibitory activity i.e. IC50 at 0.025 % w/v; and EC50 at 0.034 %w/v were observed.

SynergisticCombinationofCiplukan(Physalis angulata) HerbsEthanolicExtractandDoxorubicinonT47DBreast CancerCells

Armandari, Inna ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Palupi, Kartika Dyah ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Farida, Sofa ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Hermawan, Adam ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Susidarti, Ratna Asmah ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Meiyanto, Edy ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Doxorubicinisoneofchemotherapeuticagentwidelyusedinbreastcancertreatment,but in high dose doxorubicin gives negative side effect, including vomit, nausea, immune suppression, and cardiac toxicity. This toxicity hopefully could be reduced by combination chemotherapy using natural herbs such as ciplukan herb. This research was conducted to explorecytotoxicactivityofsingleciplukanherbsethanolicextractanditscombinationwith doxorubicinonT47Dbreastcancercells.Cytotoxicactivityofciplukanherbsethanolicextract only and its combination with doxorubicinwere tested on T47D cells using MTT assay toobtainIC50valueandcombinationindex(CI),respectively.Singleextractshowedcytotoxic activityonT47DcellswithIC50valueofwas160*g/ml.Thus,combinationtreatmentfrom ciplukanherbsethanolicextractanddoxorubicinshowedsynergisticeffect(CI<1,0).Thiseffect wasreachedatconcentrationofciplukanherbsethanolicextract-doxorubicin80μg/ml-2nM, 80 μg/ml-4 nM, and 80 μg/ml-8 nM. This research indicated that ciplukan herbs ethanolic extractispotentialtobeappliedasco-chemotherapeuticagentinbreastcancertherapy.

Leunca (Solanum nigrum L.) Herbs Ethanolic Extract Increase Cytotoxic Activity of Cisplatin on Hela Cervical Cancer Cells

Istiaji, Raditya Prima ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Fitria, Maya ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Larasati, . ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Tjondro, Fortunella ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Maruti, Astrid Ayu ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Setyowati, Erna Prawita ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta ) , Meiyanto, Edy ( Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Cervical cancer is one of leading causes of cancer death in women in the developing countries. The use of cisplatin as chemotherapy agent in cervical cancer is known to cause side effects and also resistance for long-term uses. One of the strategies to prevent cervical cancer based on combination agents is being developed. Leunca (Solanum nigrum L.) has been revealed to inhibit growth of human cancer cells. Therefore, it can be used in combination with cisplatin to reduce those side effects and prevent the occurrence of cell resistance. Ethanolic extract of Leunca Herb (ELH) and cisplatin were tested their cytotoxic effect on HeLa cervical cancer cell by using MTT assay to determine IC50 value. The combinationss of cisplatin-ELH were tested to determine the combination index (CI value).  The IC50 of ELH and cisplatin on HeLa cells were 227 µg/mL and 17 µM. rRespectively. Tthe study of combination resulted that almost all the index combinations were <0,9 showed  the effect of synergism combination. The Ooptimum concentration of combination was  1/8 IC50 cisplatin–1/8 IC50 ELH. The results indicated that ELH had a potency to be combination agent to enhance the activity of cisplatin on HeLa cervical cancer cells. Therefore, further study on its molecular mechanism needs to be explored.

Antioxidant Activity Test of 2,6-bis-(2’-furilidyn)-Cyclohexanone, ; 2,5-bis-(2’-furilidyn)-Cyclopentanone; 1,5-Difuryl-1,4-pentadien-3-one

Rahmawati, Ismi ( Faculty of Pharmacy, Setia Budi University   ) , Rejeki, Endang Sri ( Faculty of Pharmacy, Setia Budi University ) , Sardjiman, . ( Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University   )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Antioxidant is an essential compound to keep man’s health due to its function as radical scavenging. Curcumin analog  compounds can function as antioxidant (Sardjiman, 2000). The aim of the experiment was to find out the antioxidant activity of 2,.6-bis-(2’-furilidin)-cyclohexanone, 2,.5-bis-(2’furilidin)-cyclopentanone, and 1,.5-difuril-1.4-pentadien-3-one compounds, and the antioxidant activity of each compound against DPPH  radical with IC50 parameter as well as the correlation of compounds structure’s activities against antioxidant.  The antioxidant activity of curcumin analog compounds wereas tested against DPPH free  radical. The test was conducted in 5 series of concentrations by adding 4.0  ml test solutions with 1.0 ml DPPH. The antioxidant activity against free radical was measured usingwith spectrophotometer at 517 nm wavelength and determined for the IC50 value. The experiment employed rutin as positive control. The result of the experiment showed that curcumin analog compounds have antioxidant  activity with IC50 of rutin, 2,.6-bis-(2’-furilidin)-cyclohexanone, 2,.5-bis-(2’furilidin)-cyclopentanone, and 1,.5-difuril-1.4-pentadien-3-one as follows: 4.93 ppm, 22.73 ppm, 20.67 ppm, and 18.80 ppm  respectively. The highest antioxidant activity belonged to  1,.5-difuril-1.4-pentadien-3-one compound which is 18.80 ppm . Correlation of activity structure of the 3 compounds can be seen from the log p parameter and energy space of HOMO-LUMO. 

Curcumin and Extract of Plantago major, L Increased SPF Value of Cold Cream Base

Sugihartini, Nining ( Faculty of Pharmacy Ahmad Dahlan University )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Octyl methoxycinnamate as the active material of the sunscreen would be degradated after being exposed to the sunlight. Curcumin, rice flour and the  extract of  Plantago  major, L was the material that could function as the sunscreen. The aim of this research was to know the SPF value and the physical characteristics of cream of  the sunscreen with the active material octyl methoxycinnamate after the addition of the optimum composition of curcumin and the extract of Plantago major, L and the optimum composition of rice flour and the extract of Plantago major, L. In this research three formulas was examined, i.e. the  formula I with the active material octyl methoxycinnamate, the formula II with the active material octyl methoxycinnamate  and the optimum composition curcumin and the extract of  Plantago  major, L, Formula III with the active material octyl methoxycinnamate and the optimum composition rice flour and the extract of Plantago major, L. SPF value of each formula was determined by using the Petro method (1981) using UV spectrofotometric method at a  λ 290 nm-320 nm. The physical characteristics i.e. the power spread, the adhesiveness and the viscosity were also examined analysed with Anova one way at a confidence level  95%. Result of the research show that SPF value increased after the addition of the optimum composition of curcumin and the extract of Plantago major, L. The physical characteristics of cream of the sunscreen do not change after the addition of the optimum composition curcumin and the extract of  Plantago major, L and the optimum composition rice flour and the extract of Plantago major, L. 

The Effect of Addition of Antioxidant to The Stability of Green Tea Water Extract As Anti Acne

Saib , Nadya Fadila

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

There are so many potential effects that green tea, such as antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, that caused acne. In the previous study, green tea had been made in gel. In this study, formula  of green tea water extract gel is developed with addition of antioxidant  so that stability of the gel  would increase. Gel of green tea water extract were made using Carbopol 940 with glycerin as the solvent. The chosen antioxidant was sodium sulfite. It is also combined with chelating agent, EDTA (Edetic Acid). The activity of green tea water extract gel was determined and tetracycline HCl gel was used as the reference. The addition of sodium sulfite 1% w/w into gel with Carbopol 940 1% w/w as the base prevent the change of color in more than eight weeks. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of green tea water extract without either sodium sulfite or EDTA was 1.20 ± 0.11 cm against Propionibacterium acne. MIC of green tea water extract with addition of sodium sulfite 1% w/w was 1.19 ± 0.28 cm. MIC of green tea water extract with addition of sodium sulfite 1% w/w and EDTA 0.1% w/w was 1.25 ± 0.22 cm. The addition of sodium sulfite 1% w/w caused viscosity of gel decrease 42.1%. The addition of sodium sulfite 1% w/w increased the color stability of green tea water extract. The addition of sodium sulfite 1% w/w didn’t decrease its antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes.

Potency of Industrial Tea Waste: Comparison Between Green And Black Tea Industrial Wastes as UV Filter for Sunscreen

Martono, Yohanes ( Chemistry Department Faculty of Science and Math Satya Wacana Christian University )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Indonesia is one of ten biggest countries that produce tea for world. It makes Indonesia produce various tea products. Every tea production process produces the large quantity of industrial tea wastes every day. Our previous research showed that industrial tea wastes still have antioxidant activity. It means that industrial tea wastes contained of phenolic compounds which can be used as UV filter for sunscreen. This research compared antioxidant activity, total phenolic contents and UV filter effectiveness  between green and black industrial tea wastes. Antioxidant activity were analyzed by reducing power and DPPH  method, total phenolic contents of tea wastes extract were analyzed  using Folin-Ciocalteu assay, while UV filter effectiveness were assessed by UV spectra and absorbance of each tea wastes extract related to its concentration in order to yield maximum protection. The results showed that although green tea waste extract had higher antioxidant activity but adversely, black tea had higher total phenolic contents. UV filter effectiveness is affected by polyphenols content in substances, so it suggested that black tea waste extract is more potential than green tea waste extract as photoprotection substance.

The Influence of DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz-[a]anthracene) Regimen In The Development of Mammae Carcinogénesis on Sprague Dawley Female Rat

Wibowo, Agung Eru ( Center for Pharmaceutical and Medical Technology - BPPT ) , Sriningsih, . ( Center for Pharmaceutical and Medical Technology - BPPT ) , Wuyung, Puspita Eka ( Department of Pathology and Anatomy- Faculty of Medicine, Indonesia University ) , Ranasasmita, Raafqi ( Department of Pathology and Anatomy- Faculty of Medicine, Indonesia University )

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 1, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

There are many methods for development  of mammae cancer animal model, one of which is chemical induction using carcinogenic  agent, DMBA. This research aimed to explore the influence of dose and time regimens of DMBA on development of mammae carcinogenesis on Sprague dawley female rats. The first study was 50 rats treated with 20 mg/kg bw of DMBA orally for eleven times at twice a week. Morphological evaluations were conducted with mammae palpation for 15 weeks and then all of  rats were sacrificed for collecting mammae organs for histological analysis using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results showed that the first and the latest nodules appeared at the fourth-week and the fourteenth-week after ending DMBA induction, respectively, in which the  most often nodule appearances were at the seventh-week. The number of nodule incidence and multiplicity were by 74% and 2 noduls/rat, respectively. Histological analysis of mammae glands determined that they fell under in Ductal Carcinoma Invasive (DCIV) category. The second study was 25 rats gavaged orally with DMBA at dose 20 mg/kg bw for five times every three days. After palpating for 15 weeks, the results showed that no nodule was observed but the histological analysis demonstrated developing of mammae gland carcinogenesis reaching about 60%  Ductal Carcinoma Insitu (DCIS) and 40% Ductal Carcinoma Invasive (DCIV) stages. Based on the results of this study can be concluded that the dose and frequency of DMBA will affect the successful development of mammary gland carcinogenesis. In DMBA induction with low frequency, no data showed the incidence and multiplicity of tumor, but histopathologic level  carcinogenesis can be distinguished. In DMBA induction with high frequency, incidence and multiplicity of tumor data can be obtained but can not be distinguished histopathologically.