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Althea Medical Journal
Articles by issue : Vol 4, No 4 (2017)
10
Articles
Effect of Anti-tuberculosis Drugs on Liver Damage Based on Alanine Aminotransferase Level in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

Dianwari, Vera, Dewi, Vycke Yunivita Kusumah, Kania, Nia

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 4 (2017)
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Abstract

Background: Antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs could cause serious effect such as hepatotoxicity signed by the increase of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) level. Anti-TB drugs are still needed by TB patients who have hepatotoxicity, although  clinicians who manage this condition have not recognize whether the advantage of anti-TB drugs is higher than its adverse effect, and there is no data describing about that issue. This study was conducted to discover the liver damage based on the ALT changes before and 12 days after initial anti-TB treatment. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with total sampling of medical records of pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients from 1st January 2013–31th December 2014 at the Department of Internal Medicine of Dr. Hasan Sadikin.General Hospital. From 141 data, only 14 medical records were eligible to be included in this study. The data used were ALT level before and after therapy. These data were analyzed using Wilcoxon test and considered as significant if p<0.05.Results: The median age of the subject study was 48(18-65) years. Among 14 patients, 8 were female and 6 were male. Five out of fourteen patients developed hepatotoxicity. Four out of five developed grade 1 hepatotoxicity and one out of five developed hepatotoxicity grade 4. The analysis of the data showed the differences of ALT level before anti-TB therapy (22(4-447)) and 12 days after initial therapy (18.5(4-1206)) was not significant (p=0.660).Conclusions: There is no liver damage based on ALT changes after anti-TB treatment so the treatment can be continued. 

Etiology of Allergic Contact Dermatitis based on Patch Test

Anggraini, Dita Maulida, Sutedja, Endang, Achadiyani, Achadiyani

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 4 (2017)
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Abstract

Background: Allergic contact dermatitis is a type of contact dermatitis, whose  prevalence tends to increase every year. Patch test is an important diagnostic test to confirm the disease. The result of patch test can help doctors to perform appropriate treatment.  The aim of the study was to identify  the most frequent allergen causing allergic contact dermatitis based on patch test results.Methods: This was a descriptive retrospective study among patients who underwent patch test at the Dermatology and Venereology Clinic in Dr.Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Indonesia from August 1st, 2014 to August 31st, 2015. The patch test result was obtained from the patient’s medical record and recapitulation data. The patient’s medical record would be collected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study also collected demographic data of the patients, including age, sex, and occupation.The collected data were presented using tables.Results: Out of 45 patient’s medical records, 19 patients were male (42.2%) and 26 patients were female (57.8%). Nickel sulphate was the most frequent allergen with 17 sensitization. Thirteen out of 17 patients who were sensitized by nickel sulphate were females. A great majority of the patients were in the age group of 15–44 years. Most of the patients were students (42.2%). Allergic contact dermatitis (64.4%) was the main clinical diagnosis among the patients.Conclusions: The most frequent allergen causes allergic contact dermatitis is nickel sulphate.

Level of Knowledge about Tuberculosis among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients at the Endocrine Clinic Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung

Febriani, Ulfah Dwi, Ruslami, Rovina, Alisjahbana, Bachti

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 4 (2017)
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Abstract

Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the risk factors for tuberculosis (TB). Knowledge of TB is essential in prevention control for the person at risk. This study aimed to describe the level of knowledge about TB among DM patients.Methods: A cross sectional study was performed involving 72 adult DM patients at the Endocrine Clinic, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. The subjects were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire including socio-demographic information and knowledge about TB: manifestation of TB, transmission, treatment, DM-TB co-infections, and status acquiring TB information in the last 12 months. Knowledge was categorized as high, moderate and low if total scores were >75, 56–75 and <56 respectively. Data were presented descriptively as percentage and mean (SD) after testing for the normality of distribution.Results: The mean of age of subjects was 56.6 years, and 55% were female. Most were unemployed (72.2%), had an education background lower than high school (75%), and lived in Bandung (91.7%).  The mean score of knowledge was 54.4. Proportion of subjects based on the level of knowledge which is high, moderate and low, were 29.2%, 26.4%, and 44.4% respectively.  Conclusions: The level of knowledge about TB among Type 2 DM patients at the Endocrine Clinic Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung was low. TB education program among DM patients needs to be improved.

Effects of Morinda citrifolia Leaf Extract on Glucose Absorption through Intestinal Epithelial Membrane in Wistar Rat Models

Shalim, Rikho Melga, Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A. A., Shahib, Muhammad Nurhalim

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 4 (2017)
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Abstract

Background: Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) has been used as herbal medicine by Indonesian people. However, the effect of noni leaves as an antihyperglycemic agent is still unknown. This study was conducted to find out the effect of Morinda citrifolia leaves on glucose absorption through intestinal epithelial membrane in wistar rat models.Methods: The study was conducted in November 2015 at the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. We used in situ perfusion and rats were divided into 2 groups. The first group used glucose solution as a control. The second group used glucose with extracts. Specimens were taken before and after perfusion to check the amount of glucose with spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis using t-test was conducted to compare the total absorbed concentration of glucose from each group. Results: From calculation we found the kinetic value (Km) of glucose absorption without extract (Km=17.24) and with extract (Km=16.67). Statistical test showed there was no significant in results (p>0.05).Conclusions: There is no effect of Morinda citrifolia leaf extract on glucose absorption. However, kinetics of glucose absorption suggested a non-competitive inhibition by Morinda citrifolia leaf extract. 

Perception of Men Who Have Sex with Men about the Test and Treat Strategy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Bandung City

Saifuddin, Ayesha Nadiatama, Arisanti, Nita, Lestari, Bony Wiem

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 4 (2017)
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Abstract

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Indonesia has shifted from injecting drug use to sexual transmission. One of the ways to prevent HIV transmission is by using early antiretroviral therapy (ART) or known as Test and Treat. Test and Treat is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2013. This study aimed to explore the perception of men who have sex with men (MSM) about HIV Test and Treat Strategy. Methods: This quantitative observational study used a cross-sectional design. Primary data were collected from questionnaires filled in by 58 MSM diagnosed as HIV positive at Mawar Clinic, Pasundan and Ibrahim Adjie public health centers in September–December 2016. Sampling was performed using total sampling method which was bounded by time period. The questionnaire contained data of respondents’ characteristics and perceptions of HIV Test and Treat Strategy. Data analysis was presented in tables. Result: Respondents  were mostly 20–24 years old (48%), 55% were Senior High School graduates, 98% were unmarried, 58% worked as employees, and 21% earned 2–2.5 million rupiahs per month. Forty eight percent of the respondents had negative perception of the test and treat strategy, and 52% of the respondents had positive perception of the strategy.Conclusions: Most of the MSM population have a negative perception of HIV test and treat strategy. It is important for the key populations especially the MSM to obtain education related to HIV treatments and strategy.

Effectiveness of Print and Audiovisual Media in Breast Cancer Education to High-School Students

Wardhani, Amanda Carissa, Sari, Sri Yusnita Irda, Badudu, Dharmayanti Francisca

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 4 (2017)
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Abstract

Background: Breast cancer education could be a non-formal education to achieve a proper understanding about early detection of breast cancer. Optimal results need right methods and instruments. Recently, technology development can be implemented to support the non-formal education process. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness between print and audiovisual media in health education on prevention and early detection of breast cancer.Methods: It was a quasi-experimental study, comparing two intervention and one control groups, which was carried out from August to November 2013. The population was senior high school students in Jatinangor subdistrict West Java, Indonesia. The sample was taken by cluster sampling method; each group consisted of 120 female students. Students from Sekolah Menengah Atas Negeri Jatinangor were given printed media, students from Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Padjadjaran were given audiovisual media and students from Pesantren Al Ma’soem as control group were not given any intervention. The knowledge of respondents was measured with pre-test and post-test questioner. Mean scores of knowledge were further analyzed by paired and independent t-test.Results: The average of pre-test between intervention and control groups were similar (8.125, 8.725 and 8.450, respectively). The result showed that the average scores of post-test increased compared to pre-test both in the print  and audiovisual media group (p=0.001).Conclusions: Print and audiovisual media can increase the knowledge of respondents on prevention and early detection of breast cancer. However, audiovisual media is more effective as a tool for health education especially among teenagers.

Application of Scoring System Components in Children Diagnosed with Tuberculosis in Jatinangor Primary Health Care, Sumedang

Nurwanti, Mutiara Azhara, Chrysanti, Chrysanti, Sudarwati, Sri

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 4 (2017)
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Abstract

Background: Diagnosis of tuberculosis in children is very difficult. Scoring system is used to diagnose tuberculosis in children in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to determine the application of scoring system components in children diagnosed with tuberculosis in the primary health care.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in  Jatinangor Primary Health Care, Sumedang in September–October 2013. Data were obtained from 59 medical records of pediatric patients diagnosed with tuberculosis in 2010–2012, and recorded on the application of scoring system components including tuberculosis contact history, tuberculin skin test, fever, cough, nutritional status, lymph node enlargement, swelling of bones or joints, and chest X-ray. Results: All scoring system components either with tuberculosis contact history, fever, cough, nutritional status, lymph node enlargement, swelling of bones or joints, and chest X-ray were performed on all of the children diagnosed with tuberculosis, except the tuberculin skin test was performed only on 38 (64%) children. Most frequent clinical symptoms were cough (97%), while fever and malnutrition occurred in 69% and 19% of children, respectively.Conclusions: The application of scoring system components in children diagnosed with tuberculosis in Jatinangor primary health care is not having problems, except for the tuberculosis skin test. Most frequent clinical symptoms of childhood tuberculosis in this study are cough.

Association between Age and Histopathological Grade of Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma

Alby, Dionisius, Hassan, Abdul Hadi, Sibarani, Jupiter

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 4 (2017)
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Abstract

Background: Bladder cancer, particularly urothelial carcinoma, is prevalent in male and ≥55 years old population. Grade of the bladder tumor affects clinical characteristics, management, and prognosis of the patient. This study aimed to analyze the association between age and histopathological grade of bladder urothelial carcinoma. Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was approved by the Ethical Clearance Committee of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, involving 241 medical records of bladder urothelial carcinoma patients in the Department of Anatomical Pathology at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital during 2009–2013. Chi-square test was applied to 45 patients with complete record of histopathological grade.Results: Most of the subjects were 65 years old. Male patients were the most frequent. The proportion of low-grade carcinoma in <65 years old age group was only 39.1%, while in ≥65 years old age group was 72.7%. The proportion of high-grade carcinoma in <65 years old age group reached 60.9%, which was 27.3% higher than in ≥65 years old age group. Chi-square test result showed a statistically significant difference between histopathological grade of urothelial carcinoma in <65 years and ≥65 years age groups (p=0.023).Conclusions: Proportion of high-grade and low-grade urothelial carcinoma between <65 years and ≥65 years age groups are statistically different; therefore, an association between age and histopathological grade of bladder urothelial carcinoma is shown. 

Correlations between COPD Assessment Test and Modified British Medical Research Council Scoring and Degree of Airflow Limitation

Nuryanda, Dian, Suryadinata, Hendarsyah, Purba, Ambrosius

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 4 (2017)
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Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Assessment Test (CAT) and Modified British Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea scale are tools used to assess health status in COPD patients, while Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) may represent the degree of airflow limitation. Assessment of COPD patients is rarely performed comprehensively. This study aimed to determine the relationships of CAT and MMRC dyspnea scale and the degree of airflow limitation in COPD patients. Methods: The study was conducted from September until October 2014 after obtaining approval from the Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Ethics Committee. This observational analytic study was performed on 77 medical records of COPD patients at Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Patients’ medical records included in this study were those with spirometry measurements results, CAT and MMRC dyspnea scale scoring. Data normality was analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test. Pearson’s Correlation was used for parametric variables. Spearman’s correlation was used for non-parametric variables.Results: Results showed Pearson’s correlation of CAT and FEV1 (p value=0.035 and r=0.240), and Spearman’s correlation of MMRC dyspnea scale and FEV1 (p value=0.198 and r=0.148).Conclusions: CAT scoring is significantly correlated with the degree of airway limitation. MMRC dyspnea scale is not significantly correlated with the degree of airway limitation.

Environmental Factors, Knowledge, and Hygiene Behaviour among Mothers: A Slum Area in Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia

Putri, Gusti Adintya, Sari, Sri Yusnita Irda, Syukriani, Yoni Fuadah

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 4 (2017)
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Background: The increased number of population living in urban areas causes the increase of requirement of basic life needs as well as the increase of household and human excreta waste. If these wastes were not well managed, this situation would contaminate the environment. This study aimed to analyze the relatioship between environmental factors, knowledge and hygiene behavior among mothers who lives in Bandung slum area.Methods: An analytic cross sectional study was carried out on 132 mothers who lived in Tamansari subdistrict in Bandung city (RW 06, 07, 15, and 16) from  May to October 2014. The primary data were collected using 2 sets of  questionnaire and an observation checklist. The environmental factors and knowledge variables were catagorized into good and poor, while hygiene behavior was catagorized into good, moderate, and poor. The collected data were statistically analyzed using Chi-Square test.Results: More than half of the participants had good environmental factors (60.6%), 59 participants (44.6%) had good knowledge about hygiene and 83 participants (62.9%) had good hygiene behavior, 43 participants (32.6%) had a moderate hygiene behavior, and 6 participants (4.5%) bad hygiene behavior. Environmental factors was related to hygiene behavior (p=0.002). However, knowledge was not related to hygiene behavior (p=0.539). Conclusions: Environment is a significant factor to hygiene behavior