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Althea Medical Journal
Articles by issue : Vol 4, No 1 (2017)
30
Articles
Relationship between Drugs Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Senior High School Students

Herijanto, Yola Yuniaarti, Saputra, Lucky, Dhamayanti, Meita

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Drugs use and risky sexual behavior among teenager are some of crucial problems arising in Indonesia. Statistic showed that there is an increasing prevalence in drugs use and risky sexual behavior among teenagers. This study was conducted to analyze the relationship between drugs use and risky sexual behaviors among high school students. Methods: An analytic study involving 432 students in 5 state high schools located in Kerees region Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, was carried out in 2013. The region was chosen due the high prevalence of  substance abuse. The inclusion criteria were every high school students in the Karees region. The exclusion criteria were the students who refused to participate in the study, did not come when the sample was taken, and did not fill the questionnaire completely. The instruments used for the study were questionnaires with cross-sectional technique. Furthermore, the questionnaire used for analyzing drugs use was Addiction Severity Index-Lite Version (ASI-lite) questionnaire; with additional questionnaire to analyze risky sexual behaviors.Results: Out of 432 students, 23.8% students already engaged to one or more risky sexual behavior. Among all respondents, the prevalence of students who had already done kissing was 22.7%, necking 9.3%, petting 7.2% and sexual intercourse 1.2%. Illegal drugs had been used at least once by 21.8% students. According to Chi-square test, drugs use and risky sexual behavior were related.Conclusions:The prevalence of both drugs use and risky sexual behaviors are high and students who use drugs are more prone to do risky sexual behavior. [AMJ.2017;4(1):125–8] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n1.1032

Factors Related to Malnutrition in Children Under Five Years with Congenital Heart Disease

Augiani, Amani Sakinah, Rahayuningsih, Sri Endah, Herawati, Dewi Marhaeni Diah

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most frequent type of heart disease that occurs in children. Children with CHD are more vulnerable to suffer impaired nutritional status related to morbidity and mortality. The nutritional status, however, may not be influenced only by CHD, but also by other factors.. The study was conducted to identify factors related to malnutrition in children with CHDMethods: This cross-sectional study involved 86 children with CHD recruited from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung from October to November 2015. Data collected in this study were obtained by conducting anthropometric measurements, interviewed the parents (obstetric history, patient’s medical history and socioeonomic status) and from medical records (the type and time of CHD diagnosis, other diseases that accompanied the CHD). The collected data were presented by frequency distribution. Results: There were 46.5%  patients who had nutritional disturbance. Malnutrition in males and patients with Tetralogy of Fallot were higher than other groups. Almost half patients with maternal history of passive smoking during pregnancy had nutritional disturbance. The most common disease found was diarrhea followed by lower respiratory infection. Percentage of normal children in low-income parents group was lower than the high-income group. Conclusions: Nearly half of patients have nutritional disturbance. Percentage of nutritional disturbance in male was higher compared to female. Active and passive smokers, Tetralogi Fallot, diarrhea, lower respiratory infection and lower income  were factors contributed to malnutrition. [AMJ.2017;4(1):111–7]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n1.1031

Bacterial and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns in Patient with Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital

Muttaqin, Muhammad Ilham, Hilmanto, Dany, Syafei, Neneng Syarifah

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) should become attention due to high prevalence, severe complication, and high cost treatment. Bacterial pattern and its susceptibility are different in every region.The objective of this study was to discover pattern of bacteria causing UTI and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Methods: This study was an observational descriptive study. The data was obtained from medical records and susceptibility testing results of pediatric UTI in Department of Child Health at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in period of 2014. Data taken was presented in table.Results: There were 26 cultures which had microbiological findings among 79 cultures taken from 106 patients with UTI. The majority of findings were Escherichia coli (10 cases), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 cases), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (4 cases). Antibiotic classes with high susceptibility level were aminoglycoside, sulfonamide, and fluoroquinolone. Resistance level were higher in cephalosporin class than others.Conclusions: Most common bacterial found are Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiellapneumoniae. The result of susceptibility testing for cultures shows variance of susceptibility pattern to antibiotics in pediatric patients with UTI at Department of Child Health Dr. HasanSadikin General Hospital. [AMJ.2017;4(1):52–7] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n1.1021 

Association between Patient’s Basic Characteristic and Clark Level in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

Rahmalaelani, Egie, Usman, Hermin Aminah, Agusni, Jono Hadi

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Malignant melanoma is  a cancer that begins in the melanocytes. Melanoma is commonly happened on older people, male and located on sun exposure body area, such as face, neck and lower limb. Melanoma cases occur less than 5% of skin cancer but cause a majority of skin cancer deaths because melanoma has an aggressive behavior. Age, sex, location of lesion, and type of melanoma influences the melanoma invasion. The cutaneous melanoma invasion could be assessed with the Clark level. This study is aimed to determine the association between patient’s basic characteristic and Clark level in cutaneous malignant melanoma.Methods: This study used cross sectional analytic design. The medical records and histopathology slide from the Department of Anatomic Pathology Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital from 2008−2012 took as a sample. Forty one data were meet the inclusion criteria.  Furthermore, those data were analyzed using chi-square test.Result: Overall, patient’s characteristic in this study, commonly occurred on female (66%), 50−59 years group age (35%), non-cephalic/acral location (71%), and the level V in Clark level (73%). Location of lesion showed an association with Clark level (p=0.023), whereas, age and sex was not significant (p=0.679 and p=0.389).Conclusions: There is an association between location of lesion and Clark level [AMJ.2017;4(1):25–9]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n1.1015 

Diagnostic Value of Narrow Band Imaging in Diagnosing Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Yuniserani, Debbi, Hernowo, Bethy S., Permana, Agung Dinasti

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Carcinoma is the most common tumor in nasopharynx. Endoscopy is used to determine the presence of lesions suspected of malignancy. Narrow Band Imaging is an endoscopic technique that uses narrow–band spectrum as a filter to determine any mucosal vascular changes in carcinoma. Narrow Band Imaging can early detect superficial mucosal lesions that are difficult to detect with conventional endoscopy, so that diagnosing is more accurate and occurrence of unnecessary biopsies can be reduced. This study aimed to determine diagnostic value of Narrow Band Imaging in diagnosing nasopharyngeal carcinoma.Methods: This diagnostic test study was conducted at Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung from September to October 2014. Twenty four patients with clinical signs and symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma that fulfilled the study criteria were assigned using consecutive sampling to examine with Narrow Band Imaging and histopathology examination. The data were then analyzed with 2x2 table to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy.Results: In this study, the results of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy in diagnosing nasopharyngeal carcinoma using Narrow Band Imaging were 93.75%, 62.5%, 83.3%, 83.3%, and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Sensitivity of Narrow Band Imaging is 93.75%. [AMJ.2017;4(1):133–7] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n1.1034

Five Years Facts of Bladder Cancer at West Java’s Top Referral Hospital, in Indonesia

Perix, Vivien Kate, Suryanti, Sri, Sihombing, Aaron Tigor

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary cancer and its incidence is rising 15% annually in Indonesia. Smoking is the leading risk factor of bladder cancer and two thirds of men in Indonesia smokes. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of bladder cancer based on sex, age and histopathology type in  West Java’s Top Referral Hospital, Indonesia. Methods: This study was a descriptive study conducted during theperiod of September to November 2015 using 372 histopathological medical records of patients who had primary and secondary bladder cancer at the Pathology Department, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung from January 2010 to December 2014. Data were collected using total sampling method based on the characteristics of age, sex histopathology type, and staging of bladder cancer.Results: Out of the 372 cases, 298 cases were male and 38 cases were female with a male to female ratio of 7.8:1. The age group with the highest incidence was the 50–59 years old group. Infiltrating urothelial carcinoma was the most common histopathology type (71.1%) in primary cancers, 66.1% of cases was muscle invasive while 33.9% was non muscle invasive. Staging pT1 had the most number of cases. The most common site of origin for secondary neoplasm was cervix with adenocarcinoma as the most common histopathology type. Conclusions: Bladder cancer is more common in male than female and peaks at the sixth decade of life. Infiltrating urothelial carcinoma is the most common histopathology type. [AMJ.2017;4(1):94–9] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n1.1028

Detecting the Presence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus on Acne Extractor used by Some Beauty Salons in Jatinangor

Ng, Jo Sheng, Rukmana, Gita Indah Triyanti, Diana, Inne Arline

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Over the past few decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major cause of nosocomial infection and has recently emerged in the community. Community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) have grown drastically over the years and have mostly manifested as a form of skin infection. The MRSA infection usually occurs in individuals with skin lesions serving as a site of entry for the bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine if MRSA is presence on the acne extractor used by some beauty salons in Jatinangor.Methods: A total of 40 samples were taken from 14 beauty salons in Jatinangor from September to October 2013. The samples were then cultured on mannitol salt agar. The isolated colonies were then gram stained, followed by catalase and coagulase test. The colonies having positive for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were then tested for cefoxitin susceptibility.Results: Overall 3 of the isolates were positive for S. aureus and none were positive for MRSA.Conclusions: Only a small fraction of the isolates are positive for S. aureus and no MRSA is detected.. [AMJ.2017;4(1):64–8]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n1.163 

Validity of Immunoglobulin M Anti Salmonella typhi Serologic Test in Childhood Typhoid Fever

Marsela, Hilda, Setiabudi, Djatnika, Indrati, Agnes Rengga

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Typhoid fever, which mostly affects children, remains a major health problem in developing countries. Early diagnosis will help the management and thus, reduce morbidity and mortality. However, a rapid diagnostic test that detects the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) directed towards Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) antigen remains controversial despite its popularity. This study was aimed to assess the validity of IgM anti S. typhi serologic test in childhood typhoid fever. Methods: This retrospective diagnostic test, used blood culture as gold standard. Forty-one typhoid fever children with fever of 1–14 days admitted to Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung from 2013 to 2015 were recruited. Diagnosis of typhoid fever is made clinically. Data were analyzed by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve and diagnostic test.Results: Forty one children diagnosed with typhoid fever, 37 were positive for IgM anti S. typhi, but only 18 were positive for S. typhi in blood culture. IgM anti S. typhi (cut-off ≥4) test had an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 59%, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 17.39%. IgM anti S. typhi with cut-off >8 showed the highest AUC with sensitivity of 55.56% and specificity of 73.68%.Conclusions: IgM anti S. typhi test of cut-off >8 performs better than cut-off ≥4 in terms of AUC..[AMJ.2017;4(1):138–42] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n1.1035

Skull and Posterior Rib Fractures with Respiratory Failure caused by Child Abuse

Hakim, Dzulfikar Djalil Lukmanul, Noviani, Elza

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Presence of multiple fractures suggests child abuse. Skull fractures rarely occurred but posterior rib fractures are commonly found and have high specificity as a radiological finding in child abuse. A respiratory failure can occur as a result of the damage to the osseous structure of the thorax that destabilizes the rib cage and impairs spontaneous breathing mechanism.Methods: A case report of a 6-month-old boy who presented with respiratory failure, multiple bilateral parietal and occipital bone fractures, and also fractures of right rib 5–8. The patient required ventilatory support for 9 days in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Dr.HasanSadikin General Hospital.Results: The patient was on ventilatory support for 9 days, and was given antibiotics for 2 weeks. Next,   the patient was referred to the High Care Unit (HCU) after the condition was stabilized, and then referred to the ward, for treatment by the Social Pediatric Division. The patient was still having issues about his foster care. Conclusions: Recognition of presence of fractures is important in early diagnosis and treatment of  child abuse. [AMJ.2017;4(1):107–10] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n1.1030

Incidence of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung Period May to October 2013

Fahma, Aisyah Ummu, Fuadi, Iwan, Setiadinata, Jimmy

Althea Medical Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is common complication in patients undergoing surgery with anesthesia. The incidence of PONV is ranging between 20% and 30%. Despite many other studies about PONV in other regions, the descriptive data about PONV in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of PONV in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung.Methods: This descriptive study used a cross-sectional method. As many as 521 medical records in Departement of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung from May 5th to October 31st 2013 were reviewed. The subjects were taken by using total sampling technique.  Data collected were gender, age, type of surgery, type of anesthesia, duration of surgery, administration of nitrous oxide, and administration of neostigmine.Results: Of 521 patients,the incidence of PONV was 20.5%. Female had higher incidence of PONV than male. Postoperative nausea and vomiting was the most frequent in the age category 6−20 years old. The Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) surgery was revealed as surgery with the highest incidence. Regional anesthesia had a higher incidence than general anesthesia. Operation lasting 181−210 minutes was considered as category which PONV mostly occured. Patients receiving nitrous oxide were more likely to experience PONV, and patients who were given neostigmine as muscle relaxant had lower incidence of PONV compared to those who were not.Conclusions: The incidence of PONV was similar to the study presumed earlier and this may influenced by many factors including patients, surgical, and aenesthtical factor. [AMJ.2017;4(1):58–63]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n1.1022