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Althea Medical Journal
Articles by issue : Vol 3, No 3 (2016)
30
Articles
Comparison of Tissue Preservation using Formalin and Ethanol as Preservative Formula

Shian, See Woan, Soenggono, Arifin, Pramod, Sawkar Vijay

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Tissue preservation can be performed through embalming, by providing the chemical embalming fluid to the human remains. Formalin’s preservative formula is the foundation for modern methods of embalming. Unfortunately, this preservative formula has several disadvantages. While Ethanol’s preservative formula is a considerable agent to replace formalin’s preservative formula. The aim of this study was to compare the tissue preservation using formalin and ethanol as preservative formula.Methods: This study was carried out from September–October 2014 in the Laboratory of the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. The study used the laboratory experimental method with consecutive sampling of 16 Wistar Rats. Thirty two soleus muscles and thirty two colons were collected and divided into two groups. Each group consisted of 16 soleus muscles and 16 colons. Group 1 was preserved with formalin’s preservative formula and Group 2 was preserved with ethanol’s preservative formula. The two groups were preserved for six weeks. The tissue’s color, consistency, odor and the growth of bacteria were determined before and after treatment.Results: Tissues preserved with ethanol’s preservative formula had better tissue preservation in the aspect of color and odor, compared with formalin’s preservative formula. Both preservative formulas showed no growth of bacteria in tissues but failed to retain the consistency. All the data were analyzed with Chi-square test.Conclusions: Ethanol’s preservative formula preserves better quality of tissue compared to formalin’s preservative formula. [AMJ.2016;3(3):359–63] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n3.880 

Comparison of Maternal Health Service Satisfaction Level of National Health Coverage and Non National Health Coverage Patients in Bandung Mother and Child Hospital

Yuntiani, Rika, Achmad, Eppy Darmadi, Djuhaeni, Henni

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Healthcare is financially inaccessible to some people. This results in deterioration of patients’ condition or even death, which is proven by the high level of Maternal Death Rate in Indonesia. The government implemented the National Health Coverage (NHC) system to ensure the provision of quality health care for the entire community. This study aimed to examine the NHC and non-NHC patients’ perception to quality maternal healthcare services.Methods: This study was an analytic cross-sectional study conducted from August–October 2014. One hundred and twenty six respondents from Kota Bandung Mother and Child Hospital were included. The tool used in this study was a validity and reliability-tested questionnaire encompassing five dimensions of service quality: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test the hypothesis.Results: The study showed that the majority of NHC(75%) and non-NHC patients (89%) ware unsatisfied with the maternal healthcare services. Most patients felt unsatisfied towards the reliability dimension which involved complicated referral procedures and examination time that failed to comply with what was promised.Conclusions: There is no difference between NHC and non-NHC patients’ level of satisfaction of maternal health care service in Bandung Mother and Child Hospital. [AMJ.2016;3(3):425–29]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n3.869

Comparison of Hip Abductor and Adductor Muscle Strength in Taekwondo and Non-taekwondo Practitioners

Sheng, Seet Jia, Tandjung, Fachry Ambia, Prananta, Marietta Shanti

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Taekwondo is an empty hand combat that entails the use of the whole body. Spinning and turning kicks are the proper way of kicking in taekwondo which allow one to maximally perform the hip abductor and adductor muscles simultaneously. To measure the hip abductor and adductor muscles of Taekwondo and Non-taekwondo practitioners, Hand-Held Dynamometer (HHD) is used. This study aimed to compare the hip abductor and adductor muscles strength in Taekwondo and Non-taekwondo practitioners.Methods: This analytical study of paired continuous variable was conducted using cross-sectional method. Thirty-two subjects were examined from September−October 2014 at the skills laboratory of Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Sixteen of them were Taekwondo practitioner and the other sixteen of them were Non-Taekwondo practitioner. Gender, weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI) and maximum strength of hip abductor and adductor muscles were examined by using Hand-Held Dynamometer (HHD).Results: Off all physical characteristics being examined, it showed that the p-values were above 0.5. The independent t-test showed that the average strength of hip abductors and adductors muscle in Taekwondo and Non-taekwondo practitioners were significantly different in which the both p-values were less than 0.05.Conclusions: The maximum strength of hip abductor and adductor muscles of Taekwondo and Non-taekwondo practitioners were significantly different. The strength of hip abductors and adductors muscles is greater in Taekwondo practitioners compared to Non-taekwondo practitioners. [AMJ.2016;3(3):392–5]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n3.886

Tinea Capitis among Elementary School Students in Jatinangor,Sumedang, West Java

Aprilia, Dilla, Ramali, Lies Marlysa, Sadeli, Ramlan

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Fungal infection is a common disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Warm and humid climates provide a favourable environment for organism causing superficial mycosis. One of the fungal infections that commonly occurred in children is tinea capitis. Tinea capitis is a superficial fungal infection of the hair and scalp caused by dermatophytes. The age predilection of this disease is children aged 3 until 14 years . The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of tinea capitis among elementary school students in Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study involved 391 students from thefirst until sixth grade at four elementary schools in Jatinangor, in the period of September until October 2013. Anamnesis, physical examination, Wood’s lamp examination and direct microscopic examination were conducted to diagnose the disease. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of frequency distribution and percentages shown in tables.Results: Out of 391 students participating in this study, 194 were boys and 197 were girls. The age range was 6 until 16 years. Based on the screening results, 74 students were known to have complaints about their hair and scalp and only 49 students could continue the study as they have no positive result of tinea capitis.Conclusions: There is no positive findings of tinea capitis according to anamnesis, physical examination, Wood’s lamp examination and direct microscopic examination. Further examination by culture with Sabouraud’s dextrose agar should be carried out. [AMJ.2016;3(3):340–4] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n3.876

Health Promotion Activities in Bandung Public Health Centre (Puskesmas)

Nadya, Siti Fairuz, Arya, Insi Farisa Desy, Alam, Anggraini

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Health promotion is one of Public Health Centre (Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat, Puskesmas) essential health effort able to increase community health status. The purpose of this study was to describe health promotion activities in Bandung Public Health Centre (Puskesmas).Methods: This study was a cross sectional descriptive study using questionnaire as data collection instrument. The questionnaires were distributed to 24 Puskesmas in Bandung that were selected randomly using simple random sampling method. The process of questionnaire filling was performed by health promotion officer after informed consent was done. The variables were basic health promotion strategies, health promotion supports, health promotion in health facility and health promotion in community.Results: Most of the Puskesmas showed that basic health promotion strategies, health promotion in health facility and health promotion in community were already done. Support media that was mostly used was printed media while lectures was the most used method. Human resources practitioner and coordinator of health promotion were dominated by mid level health workers consists of midwife and nurse. This study showed that the majority of health promotion coordinator had underwint training and certificate related to health promotion. The availability of funds were possessed by 13 out of 24 sample. While, health promotion guideline were possessed by less than half of the sample.Conclusions: Health promotion is done in almost all sample. There is lack of health promotion support in the form of the availability of funds and guideline of health promotion method. [AMJ.2016;3(3):459–67]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n3.864

Comparison of Age of Thelarche between Obese and Normal Girls

Yunitasari, Yunitasari, Fadil, R.M. Ryadi, Dwiyatnaningrum, Fenny

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Childhood obesity has become a major concern in recent years. The increasing childhood obesity prevalence may occur as the result of food consumption with high content of calories, fat, cholesterol and the lack of physical activity. Obesity in children will also affect their pubertal development. Puberty is a period in which maturation of the reproductive function is achieved.In girls, the initial sign of puberty is thelarche, defined as the appearance of breast bud underneath the areola.The onset of puberty depends on many factors, one of them is nutritional status especially obesity. This study was conducted to compare the age of thelarche between obese and normal girls.Methods: An analytical study using cross sectional method was conducted. This study was held in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, during the period of SeptemberOctober 2013. Data were obtained from 3 elementary schools, selected by multistage random sampling.The total subject was 46. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and chi-square test.Results: Thelarche occurred at age 9 years 4 months in the obese group compared to 11 years 2 months in the normal group. The analysis using Mann-Whitney test showed the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Based on age group, 42% obese girls attained thelarche between ages 89 years, while 63% girls in the normal group attained thelarche between ages 1112 years. The analysis using chi- square test showed that the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001).Conclusions: Thelarche occurs earlier in obese girls compared to normal girls. [AMJ.2016;3(3):411–5]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n3.906

Score of Fine Motor Skill in Children with Down Syndrome using Nintendo Wii

Sinaga, Puspasari, Prananta, Marietta Shanti, Fadlyana, Eddy

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Down syndrome occurs due to an extra chromosome 21, known as Trisomy 21. In addition to delayed cognitive and speech development, children with Down syndrome may also experience delayed gross and fine motor development. Virtual Reality Therapy, such as Nintendo Wii is a computer-based technology that allows users to interact with a virtual three-dimensional scenario and the most innovative physical rehabilitation method. High scores indicate that the player has a good motor skill. This study aimed to examine the difference between the score of fine motor skill in children with and without Down syndrome.Methods: An analytic cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2015 to 40 children aged between 9–12 years old who came from public primary schools and special needs schools in Bandung, West Java. They were divided into 2 groups using random gender and age pairing; one group was children with Down syndrome and another other group was normal children. The children’ scores of Nintendo Wii game were collected three times. The collected data were statistically analyzed by Chi-Square test.Results: The proportion of children with low-grade fine motor skill in Down syndrome group was larger than those with high-grade fine motor skill. In the other hand, in normal children group, the proportion was reversed compared to Down syndrome group. There was a significant difference in score of fine motor skill between children with Down syndrome and normal children (p=0.000).Conclusions: The fine motor skill of children with Down syndrome is poorer than normal children’s. [AMJ.2016;3(3):371–5] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n3.882 

Role of Kletik oil, Ginger and Garlic Extracts towards Soft Tissue Injury

Qing Nan, Benjamin Yong, Ismiarto, Yoyos Dias, Sugianli, Adhi Kristianto

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: There is an increased consumption of herbal medicines throughout the world as an alternative treatment for curing health problems. Several herbal medicines are believed to contain anti-inflammatory properties that could trigger healing process. But little is known about the combination effect of herbal medicines. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the effects of garlic, ginger and coconut oil (kletik oil) on soft tissue injury (swelling).Methods: The study was held in the research laboratory of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, from 24th September until 1st October 2014. This experimental study used 7 healthy rabbits (Lepus curpaeums, ±2.5kg) as animal models for each control and intervention group with induced soft tissue injury in the dorsal ear to mimic swelling (inflammation). The mixture of herbs was applied on the injured site in the trial group, while the healing process was denoted by the thickness of edema and time of observation. The data was analyzed using Wilcoxon test.Results: The study results showed that after observation time of 0.5 hour, 2 hours, and 5 hours, edema thickness was unvaried. Onset of action of the herbal mixture began 24 hours after induced injury, with significant difference of edema thickness on both groups; hence the p-value 0.019 (p<0.05).Conclusions: The herbal mixture of ginger, garlic, and coconut oil (kletik oil) contains anti-inflammatory properties to enhance the healing process of soft tissue injury. [AMJ.2016;3(3):421–4]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n3.870 

Pattern of Nutritional Intake among Obese Undergraduate in Faculty of Communication Studies Universitas Padjadjaran

Perianan, Nilavenmalar, Herawati, Dewi Marhaeni Diah, Wahyudi, Yudi

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Obesity has become the 5th leading cause of death worldwide in 2010. It is a combination of genetic susceptibility, increased availability of high energy food intake and decreased requirements for physical activity in modern society. The increase in calorie intake among obese people often leads to many chronic diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to observe calorie intake pattern among obese undergraduates.Methods: This study was conducted at Faculty of Communication Studies Universitas Padjadjaran, from September to November 2013. This cross-sectional study used anthropometric measurement based on Asian Body Mass cut-off points, which the screening was conducted on 512 undergraduate students, consisting of 103 undergraduates, overweight (50) and obese (53). From 53 undergraduates, 30 respondents were randomly selected. The respondents were then interviewed using 3x24 hours Food Recall questionnaire, conducted on two weekdays and one weekend to observe their pattern of nutritional intake. Total number of calories was categorized into few groups according to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) 2012.Results: From the thirty obese undergraduates, both male (11) and female (9) consumed more excess protein in daily life. Consumption of carbohydrate and energy was significantly normal. Common consumption of food as daily basis contained more carbohydrate then protein, fats or energy.Conclusions: Prevalence of obesity is still high. Frequent meal and high intake of carbohydrates has become factors to nutritional imbalance of obese undergraduates. Types of food most widely consumed are white rice, fried chicken, tofu, tempe (asian food made from fermenting soybeans) and sweetened tea. [AMJ.2016;3(3):486–92]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n3.860

Relationship between Physical Activity and Age on Flatfoot in Children

Jasrin, Carmellia Janice, Mayasari, Wulan, Rakhmilla, Lulu Eva

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Modern technology has decreased physical activities of most people, especially children. A low physical activity is one of the risk factors of flatfoot. Flatfoot is a flattening of medial longitudinal arch of the foot (MLA) affecting human’s body posture and gait. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between physical activity and age on flatfoot.Methods: This study selected 271 children from the elementary school of Cikeruh 1, Jatiroke 1, and Paripurna using cluster random sampling method. Data were collected from August to November 2015. The primary data were collected using questionnaire to determine the physical activity level and footprint method to measure MLA height which was counted using Arch Index (AI). If the AI>0.26, it was considered low arch/flatfoot. Statically, the collected data were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test.Results: From a total of 271, 151 (55.7%) children had a low activity level with 120 of them (44.3%) were flatfoot, whereas in 113 (41.7%) children with an intermediate activity level, 76 children (28.0%) were flatfoot; and from a total of 7 (2.6%) children with a high activity level, 4 children (1.5%) were flatfoot. There was a negative correlation between age and arch index, right foot (r=-1.67;p=0.006), left foot (r=-1.56;p=0.01). This study proved that there was a relationship between the level of physical activity and flatfoot (Fisher=6.125/p=0.040).Conclusions: The Arch Index of the foot becomes smaller with age with an inverse correlation and low physical activities have been proved to have contibution to flatfoot occurrence. [AMJ.2016;3(3):396–400] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n3.887