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Althea Medical Journal
Articles by issue : Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
30
Articles
Cyanosis as Mortality Risk among Children with Severe Pneumonia

Fadlinda, Herza, Utomo, Adi, Djuhaeni, Henni

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Pneumonia is the second leading cause of infant death in Indonesia. The mortality of pneumonia in children is associated with cyanosis, malnutrition, and age less than 4 months. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between cyanosis, malnutrition, and age less than 4 months with the mortality of infant patients with severe pneumonia at Dr Hasan Sadikin General hospital.Methods: A case-control study has been conducted using medical records of 80 patients with pneumonia at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, period January 2007 to December 2013. The inclusion criteria were medical records consisting of information about infants with severe pneumonia, without comorbid diagnoses, who died during hospitalization. While controls were infants who have been discharged from hospital. The independent variables of this study were cyanosis, malnutrition, and age less than 4 months, while the dependent variable was the mortality. Data were analyzed by using univariate and bivariate analysis.Results: The study reported that only cyanosis was associated with mortality. Malnutrition and age less than 4 months were not associated with mortality.Conclusions: Cyanosis is known to be the only factor that has affected the mortality of infants with pneumonia who are hospitalized at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. [AMJ.2016;3(2):186–9]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n2.799

Pattern of Bacteria and Its Susceptibility of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Patients in ICU at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung

Jundi, Achmad Faisal, KSS, Nurita Dian, Mulyana, Yanti

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Background: Incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common in intensive care unit (ICU). This pneumonia, becomes important due to its association to increased length of hospital stay, increased costs, and increased mortality. Irrational administration of antibiotics can lead to development of bacterial resistance. The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of bacteria and the susceptibility of VAP patients.Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to 10 medical records of VAP patients in the ICU at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in January–June 2014. Microbiological culture results and antibiotics susceptibility testing of patients’ sputum were identified and the collected data were analyzed in form of tables and percentages by using a computer program.Results: Out of 44 cultures taken from 10 patients with VAP, 43 cultures had microbiological findings. Gram negative bacteria were found in 90.6% cultures, the rests were Gram positive bacteria and fungi. The majority of findings were: Acinetobacter baumannii (41.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.6%), andKlebsiella pneumoniae (16.9%). The laboratory test result showed varied degrees of antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics.Conclusions: Bacteria found in sputum cultures of ICU patient with VAP are mostly of Gram negative. The result of susceptibility testing of bacteria shows many of the bacteria have resistance to antibiotics in ICU at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. [AMJ.2016;3(2):195–9]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n2.772

Dermatophytosis among Elementary School Students in Jatinangor West Java

Saskia, Dwi Bandang, Ramali, Lies Marlysa, Sadeli, Ramlan

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
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Background: Dermatophytosis is a common skin disease in tropical countries. In Indonesia, the incidence of dermatophytosis is quite high. Epidemiological studies showed that prevalence of dermatophytosis in children were higher than in adults. The aim of this study was to identify dermatophytosis cases among elementary school students in Jatinangor West Java.Methods: A descriptive study was carried out, involving 391 students aged 6–16 years from four elementary schools in Jatinangor West Java, who were selected by multi-stage sampling method. Six classes were chosen from each school. In every class, students were chosen to obtain the minimum number of samples. The inclusion criteria was elementary school students who were willing to participate in this study. The exclusion criteria were students who did not attend school at the time when the study wasperformed. The study’s procedure consisted of six steps i.e. preparation, interview, screening, physical examination, specimen collection and microscopic examination. The collected data was processed by calculating the frequency and percentage.Results: The study discovered that out of 391 students, 197 suffered from non specific skin lesions. After confirmed by a dermatologist, three students were suspected to have dematophytosis lesion. From microscopical examinations by a microbiologist, two students had positive dermatophyte hyphae. The number of dermatophytosis cases in elementary school students, in Jatinangor was 0.5% (2/391).Conclusions: The incidence of dermatophytosis cases in this study is relatively low compared with other studies. Clinical features are tinea corporis. Both patients with positive dermatophyte hyphae are ten -year -old females. [AMJ.2016;3(2):165–9]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n2.808

Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Pediculosis Capitis on Elementary School Students at Jatinangor

Karimah, Arani, Hidayah, Risa Miliawati Nurul, Dahlan, Anisah

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Background: Pediculosis capitis is a lice infestation on scalp with high prevalence on the age of elementary school students. It is one of neglected diseases. Predisposing factors such as hair type and length, self higienities, and sosioeconomic can influence prevalence of pediculosis capitis. The aim of the study was to reveal pediculosis capitis prevalence and its predisposing factors on elementary school students at Jatinangor.Methods: This study used cross-sectional descriptive method which conducted in September 2014 at Jatinangor. The study subjects were elementary school students graded 1 to 6 taken from two elementary schools by multistage random sampling technique. Data was presented in a table.Results: The prevalence of pediculosis capitis from 123 study subjects was 55.3%. The prevalence found on girls (81.3%), students with long hair (76.9%), students with curly hair (52.9%), students of third grade (66.7%), students with washing hair three times or more in a week (59.3%), students with mothers only graduated from elementary school (60%), students parents with income less than one million rupiah (63.3%), students staying with four or more persons in the same house (56.3%), and students with having previous this disease (60.2%).Conclusions: Pediculosis capitis prevalence on elementary school students is quite high. The prevalence based on subject characteristics and sosioeconomic is suitable with previous studies. [AMJ.2016;3(2):254–8]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n2.787

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Food Safety among Senior High School Students in Jatinangor from August−November 2013

Binti Ahamad Naina, Hamizah Sabrina, Kuswardinah, Ine, Dewi, Sumartini

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Background: Food safety is defined as the confidence level that food will not cause sickness or harm to consumer when it is prepared, served, and eaten according to its intended use. This study was conducted to describe the pattern of knowledge, attitude, and practice on food safety among high school students in Jatinangor.Methods: One hundred and two respondents were involved in this study. The data were collected from the high school students in Jatinangor, West Java from August to November 2013 through the methods of questionnaire after the informed consent was obtained from the respondents. The questionnaire was translated from the Five Keys to Safer Food Manual by World Health Organization. The collected data were then presented in percentage.Results: Overall, 60.78% of respondents had moderate knowledge, 85.29% had good attitude, and 71.57% had good practice in food safety. Among the five main points on food safety in all aspects, most of the respondents were unaware of the safe temperature to store food; hence, they did not practice it.Conclusions: Even though most of the students have the knowledge, attitude, and practice on food safety, a need for relevant and motivating education should be performed for spesific indicators of food safety. [AMJ.2016;3(2):206–11]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n2.797

Handwashing among Schoolchildren in Jatinangor, West Java

Faye, Cheryl May Chong Sue, Chrysanti, Chrysanti, Gondodiputro, Sharon

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Background: Diarrhea and pneumonia accounts for an estimated 40% of all child deaths around the world each year. Handwashing with soap could protect about 1 out of every 3 young children who get sick with diarrhea and almost 1 out of 6 young children with respiratory infections like pneumonia. Although people around the world clean their hands with water, very few use soap to wash their hands. Washing hands with soap removes germs much more effectively. This study was undertaken to determine the level of knowledge and practice regarding proper handwashing among elementary school children.Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from August to October 2014 in Jatinangor using primary data from respondents who are 5th graders from four schools. A total of 49 males and 50 females were chosen using cluster random sampling. Schoolchildren who were present, able and well were given questionnaires after written informed consent was obtained from the schoolchildren and their guardians. Then, respondents demonstrated hand-washing techniques which were evaluated using a checklist.Results: Overall, 52% of the schoolchildren had moderate level of hand washing knowledge and 66% had bad handwashing practices.Conclusions: Despite having a moderate level of handwashing knowledge, the majority still had poor handwashing practices. Handwashing programs should be carried out extensively to improve knowledge and practice.[AMJ.2016;3(2):170–4]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n2.795

Overview of Dental Caries Severity and Nutritional Status in Preschool Children in Jatinangor in September 2014

Putri, Anggita Dwi, MA, Etty Sofia, Djais, Julistio T.B.

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Background: The prevalence of dental caries in Indonesia is still high. The pain caused by dental caries could interfere with children’s ability to eat and even their growth. This study aimed to discover the proportion of dental caries severity related to nutritional status in children aged 3–5 years.Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in 3 Pre-school Education Centers (Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, PAUD) in the sub-district of Jatinangor in September 2014. Sixty four children were selected through cluster random sampling as samples. The degree of caries was measured by def-t index. Nutritional status was determined by anthropometric measurements, i.e. body weight (BW)/body height (BH) or body mass index (BMI)/Age index.Results: There were 59 (92%) children suffered from dental caries out of which 48 (75%) children was severe, 6 (9%) children was moderate, and 10 (16%) children was mild. Furthermore, 18 (28%) children were mildly undernourished and 46 (72%) were well-nourished. Out of all the children with severe dental caries, 16 (34%) children had mild undernourishment while out of all the children with moderate-mild dental caries, 2 (12%) children had mild undernourishment.Conclusions: Children aged 3-5 years in the sub-district of Jatinangor have a relatively severe dental caries even though their nutritional status are generally good. Mildly undernourished children largely come from the group with severe dental caries. [AMJ.2016;3(2):314–8] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n2.464

Antibacterial Effect of Pulsatilla chinensis towards Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, and Salmonella typhi

Fong, Sim Chee, Mulyana, Yanti, Girawan, Dolvy

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
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Background: Pulsatilla (P.) chinensis is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that has antibacterial effect. It is used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, and other diseases. The P. chinensis is composed of some potent antibacterial substances including protoanemonin, saponin, oleanolic acid. The study aimed to determine the antibacterial effect of P. chinensis towards staphlococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, and Salmonella typhi.Methods: This was an experimental descriptive study that was conducted in 2014 using two methods, diffusion and dilution method. In diffusion method, 5 holes were made on the agar that bacteria were growing and different concentrations of P. chinensis infusion were placed in different hole. The inhibitory effect was measured by the inhibition zone. In dilution method, 8 test tubes with decreasing concentration of P. chinensis infusion were mixed with the bacteria suspension and Mueller Hinton Solution. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was measured by the last clear test tube. The test tube with solution that showed absence of bacteria on culture indicated the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC).Results: In diffusion method, P. chinensis infusion showed inhibitory effect towards S. aureus and bacteriostatic effect towards S. dysenteriae and S. typhi. In dilution method, there was no antibacterial activity detected.Conclusions: P. chinensis infusion has inhibitory effect on S. aureus and bacteriostatic effect on S. dysenteriae and S. typhi. [AMJ.2016;3(2):292–5]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n2.467

Association between Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Pregnancy Hypertension

Febrina, Nada Ardilla Dwiayu, Primadi, Aris, Lestari, Bony Wiem

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Background: Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) certainly poses health problems that leads to increase mortality and can cause mental and physiological disturbances to the infants. Reduced organ perfusion is one of the etiologies of IUGR which is caused by placenta obstruction. This happens because of pregnancy hypertension as a risk factor. Furthermore, educational level, employment status, parity, and anemia are also its risk factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of IUGR and association between IUGR and pregnancy hypertension.Methods: A case control design was performed using medical records from Neonatology Department of Child Health at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung in 2012. Subjects were taken from 149 medical records of the mother who had IUGR and 149 normal birth weight infant information about the characteristics of the mothers and the infants. The data were collected and analyzed by calculating the Odds ratio (OR).Results: The prevalence of IUGR at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in 2012 was 149 cases (4.69%). There was association between pregnancy hypertension and IUGR with OR=1.72, 95% CI (1.044–2.836).Conclusions: Pregnancy hypertension is one of the risks that generates IUGR. [AMJ.2016;3(2):212–5] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n2.791

Detection of Enteropathogenic Bacteria under Fingernails of Canteen Workers at Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor

Nahenthran, Nalinie Nalammah, Megantara, Imam, Raksanagara, Ardini S

Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Background: Food poisoning is a major problem in Indonesia as most people do not clean under their fingernails to remove bacteria. This study was designed to detect enteropathogenic bacteria under the fingernails of canteen workers in Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October−November 2014 at the Faculty of Medicine’s Microbiology Laboratory to detect enteropathogenic bacteria under the fingernails of canteen workers in Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, 30 canteen workers were selected by random sampling from three canteens. Samples were collected from the fingernails of both the right and left hands by using a cotton swab. Sixty specimens were cultured for identification of the enteropathogenic bacteria by using gram staining method and biochemical tests.Results: The highest percentage of enteropathogenic bacteria found under the fingernails of canteen workers was Klebsiella pneumoniae with a percentage of 45% followed by Enterobacter aerogenes with a percentage of 25.7%, Salmonella paratyphii with a percentage of 9.7%, E. coli with a percentage of 6.4%, and Serratia sp, Proteus mirabillis, Klebsiella oxytoca and Shigella sp. with a percentage of 3.2%.Conclusions: The highest number of bacteria found under the fingernails of the canteen workers is Klebsiella pneumoniae, followed by Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella paratyphii and E. coli which has potential to cause gastroenteritis if cross-contamination occurs between the fingernails and the food.[AMJ.2016;3(2):309–13]DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n2.798