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Althea Medical Journal
Articles by issue : Vol 2, No 2 (2015)
30
Articles
Mothers’ Hand washing Practice and Diarrhea Cases in Children under Five in Baleendah, Bandung

Firdaus, M Syafril, Arya, Insi Farisa Desy, Somasetia, Dadang Hudaya

Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Diarrhea is a disease, especially in children, with high mortality and morbidity rate in developing countries, including Indonesia. Diarrhea can be prevented if people can apply clean and healthy behaviors, especially hand washing. Hand washing is the cheapest, simplest, and the most effective methods for prevention of diarrhea. The objective of this study is to identify the knowledge, attitude, and practice of mothers’ hand washing and diarrhea cases in children under five in Baleendah District, Bandung.Methods: A descriptive study was conducted during September−November 2012 to 210 mothers who had children (ages 12−59 months) in Baleendah using rapid survey technique. The time allocated for each village was adjusted to the population proportion for each region. The data were analyzed using computerand was represented using frequency distribution.Results: This study showed that the respondents had good level of knowledge and attitude of hand washing (83.8% and 61%, respectively), but only 21% of the respondents’ practices of hand washing was in good level. Most of the respondents did not wash their hands according to the 7 steps of correct hand washing. Moreover the percentage of children with diarrhea in Baleendah was 43.8% (92 cases) during the study.Conclusions: There should be dissemination of information about the benefit of washing hands with 7 steps of correct hands washing so that families can practice it and can prevent diarrhea in children under five. [AMJ.2015;2(1):191–8]

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Detection from the Hands of Jatinangor Community Health Center’s Health Care Providers

Patmanathan, Jeevanisha, Sudigdoadi, Sunarjati, Adriansjah, Ricky

Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that is resistance towards β-lactam antibiotics, and it seems to be one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Hands of the health care workers are said to be the main source for the nosocomial transmission. Thus, the study aims to determine methicillin-resistant S. aureus from the hands of Jatinangor Community Health Center’s health care workers.Methods: Samples were taken from the hands of 30 Jatinangor Community Health Center’s staffs, including medical and paramedical; from October 2012 to November 2012. Then, these samples underwent further laboratory examinations, starting from culture, identification and susceptibility test towards cefoxitin, in identifying methicillin-resistant S. aureus.Results: Out of the 30 samples taken, 6 samples (20%) were positive for S. aureus isolates. In which, 4 (13.33%) of the samples were positive for methicillin-resistant S. aureus.Conclusions: Since, health care workers are the main people in contact with patients and maintaining proper hand hygiene makes a huge difference; hand hygiene should be given adequate attention for the benefit of all. [AMJ.2015;2(1):217–20]

The Teratogenic Effect of The Mindi (Melia azedarach L) Leaves Ethanol Extract on Mice (Mus musculus) Fetus

Sutomo, Adisti Erlina, Sitorus, Trully D., Pribadi, Adhi

Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Mindi leaves (Melia azeradach L.) were used by Indonesians as a traditional medicine for pregnant women because it was considered to be safe. Mindi leaves contain several active compounds and one of them is suspected as a teratogen and can disrupt fetus growth in gestation. This research aims to know about the teratogenic effect of ethanol extract of Mindi leaves by using mice.Methods: This was a laboratory experimental study using 27 pregnant female mice (Mus musculus) of Swiss Webster strain which were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=9) controlled (Carboxymethyl cellulose 1% for day 1–18 of pregnancy), group I (mindi leaves ethanol extract 3.22 mg+Carboxymethyl cellulose 1% day 1–5 of pregnancy), and group II (mindi leaves ethanol extract 3.22 mg+Carboxymethyl cellulose 1% day 6–18 of pregnancy). Observation was done to see total amount of fetus, live normal fetus count, length and weight of fetus, abnormal fetus count consisting of dead fetus count with normal and abnormal external morphology, and resorbed fetus count. This research was done from October to November 2012 in Pharmacological laboratory of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjajdjaran. Data analysis utilized unpaired t-test.Results: The result showed a significant difference (p<0.05), seen from live normal fetus count and abnormal fetus count consisting of dead fetus count with normal and abnormal external morphology, and resorpted fetus count. Conclusions: Administration of Mindi leaves extract during pregnancy of mices can cause teratogenic effect.[AMJ.2015;2(1):221–25]

Propolis as an Anti-allergy Based on Decrease in Total Eosinophil Count in Rat Models

Nambiar, Rashmika, Rohmawaty, Enny, Lismayanti, Leni

Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Propolis is a natural herb derived from plant resins by bees. Propolis contains flavonoids that act as anti-allergy. The composition of flavonoids in propolis varies according to each region like Brazilian, Chinese, Malaysian and Indonesian propolis due to differences in medicinal plants in that area. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of propolis as an anti-allergy and to determine which is the most effective among propolis of Brazilian, Malaysian and Indonesian origin.Methods: An experimental study was performed on 28 Wistar male rats divided into four groups, Brazilian, Malaysian, Indonesian propolis and a negative control group. The used parameter was decreased in total eosinophil count in ovalbumin induced allergy in rats. Propolis or aquadest as control were given orally 0.25ml once daily.Results: All three groups of propolis showed statistically significant results (p<0.05), in decreasing eosinophil count. However, Malaysian and Brazilian propolis showed much more significant effects compared to that of Indonesian propolis. This could be due to the difference in composition and concentration of flavonoids in Indonesian propolis compared to the Brazilian and Malaysian propolis.Conclusion: Propolis has a significant effect as an anti-allergy. Malaysian and Brazilian propolis are more effective as an anti-allergy compare to Indonesian propolis. Propolis can thus be used as an alternative treatment for allergy. [AMJ.2015;2(1):208–12]

Clinical Profile and Mortality in Children with Pneumonia

Manivel, Ashvinii, Sudarwati, Sri, Herdiningrat, RB. Soeherman

Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Pneumonia is the leading killer in under-five children. Therefore, by identifying the danger signs, we are able to predict children who are at higher risk of mortality. The objective of the study is to identify the relationship between the clinical profile and mortality in children with pneumonia at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung.Methods: This was an analytical study with a retrospective case control approach using medical records with patient’s age limitation of 1–60 month. The study period started on January 1st 2010 and ended on December 31st 2011. All types of pneumonia included whereas congenital anomalies, immunocompromised and Down’s syndrome patients were excluded in this study. Data were presented as frequency distribution.Results: During the study period, there were 653 children under age of 5 with pneumonia. Only 56 subjects met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty-eight patients with pneumonia were cured and 28 died. Based on the phi’s coefficient, tachycardia (α-value = 0.019) and hepatomegaly (α-value = 0.001) were significant predictors of death and based on the Mantel-Haenszel analysis, hepatomegaly (OR=9.62, CI 95% 2.349–39.35) was significant as a risk for mortality. Inability to drink, cyanosis, tachypnea, grunting, vomiting, convulsion, and unconsciousness were not related to mortality.Conclusion: Tachycardia and hepatomegaly have a significant relationship with mortality in under-five children with pneumonia. [AMJ.2015;2(1):235–40]

Factors Affecting Mortality in Adult Tetanus Patients

Khrisnan, Lohghinee, Ong, Anam, Panigoro, Ramdan

Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Tetanus is a devastating disease that is associated with high mortality. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic factors that were associated with high mortality in tetanus. Methods: This was an analytical study and the data was collected retrospectively from 1 January 2010–31October 2012 in the Department of Neurology, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital.Results: Out of hundred thirty two cases only 87 cases of tetanus patient have complete medical records. There were 54 male and 33 female. The age range was 35-49 years old. Mortality rate was high (32.18%). The most frequent wound site is extremities (85.07 %). The absence of post-injury tetanus vaccination was 75.86%, period of onset <48 hours was 67.82% and the use of mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy 36.07%. Mortality was significantly associated with an incubation period <7 days (p<0.05), presence of fever(p <0.05), co morbidity of autonomic storm (p<0.01), and the severity of the disease by grade 5 (p<0.05).Conclusions: Factors affecting the mortality in adult tetanus patients were significant for incubation period, fever, co morbidity and severity of the disease by grade. [AMJ.2015;2(1):157–61]

Enteropathogenic Bacteria from Padang Food in Jatinangor September–October 2012

Husain, Syed Anwar, Sudigdoadi, Sunarjati, Firmansyah W., Abdullah

Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Diarrhea is a food borne disease and still a major health problem in Indonesia. Padang foodis a popular cuisine and is exposed on an opened display, sometimes for many hours in room temperature,catering favorable conditions for bacterial growth. This study is undertaken to identify enteropathogenicbacteria on food in Padang restaurants located in Jatinangor, SumedangMethods: A laboratory study was conducted in the microbiology laboratory of the Department ofMicrobiology in the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, during September–October 2012. Sampleswere collected from 5 Padang restaurants located in Jatinangor using systematic random sampling. Fromeach restaurant, 4 wet samples were collected approximately 2–4 hours after being left open on the display shelves from sambal hijau, sambal merah, gulai babat and gulai nangka, cultured in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and incubated for 24 hours at 37 ºC, then inoculated in Mac Conkey agar and incubated for 24 hours at 37 ºC. Gram-staining was performed to identify gram-negative rods. The bacteria were put through biochemical tests.Results: Four species bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family were identified. The most frequent bacteria which was identified in the samples was Shigella sp (4 from 20), followed by Klebsiella pneumonia(3 from 20), Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp were less identified.Conclusions: Various Padang foods have potential risks of bacterial contamination due to the preparation,handling, and serving. It should be considered that the prepared food should be covered and placed in foodwarmers, ensuring warm food for hours. [AMJ.2015;2(1):241–44]

Hand hygiene, health care workers, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, nosocomial infection, Staphylococcus aureus

Gunadi, Julius, Sastramihardja, Herri S., Dewi, Nina Susana

Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Ear fungus (Auricularia auricula) contains soluble fiber (beta glucan) which is believed to have an effect of reducing cholesterol level. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fungus infusion in reducing blood cholesterol.Methods: This study used the laboratory experimental method conducted in the pharmacology laboratory of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. The subjects were 25 male Wistar rats which were randomly divided into 5 groups. The first group was given only distilled water as a negative control, the remaining groups were induced to be dyslipidemic and received fungus infusion with different doses of 18%, 36%, 72% and one group received no treatment.Results: The comparison of different doses showed all had the effect of reducing cholesterol levels compared to the positive control group (p<0.05). Each dose showed slight differences in their effectiveness, 18% (p=0.007; p<0.05), 36% (p=0.002; p<0.05), and 72% (p=0.014; p<0.05).Conclusions: ear fungus infusion had the effect of reducing cholesterol with the most effective concentration was 36%. [AMJ.2015;2(1):153–61]

Incidence of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Related to Annual Rainfall, Population Density, Larval Free Index and Prevention Program in Bandung 2008 to 2011

Karina, Anggia, Sari, Sri Yusnita Irda, Sumardi, Uun, Setiawati, Elsa Pudji

Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) remains one of health problems in all provinces in Indonesia including West Java. Bandung as the capital of West Java province has dengue prevalence that is above the average prevalence of all provinces. This study aimed to describe the pattern of dengue incidence rate, annual rainfall, population density, and larval free index as well as the implementation of prevention program in sub-districts with the highest incidence rate in Bandung between 2008 and 2011.Methods: A descriptive retrospective study was conducted in September 2012 using secondary data during the period of January 2008 to December 2011. The incidence rate was calculated based on DHF patients who live in Bandung. Data were analyzed using computer and Arc View 3.3. Pattern of incidence rate was characterized with red, yellow, and green region respectively. Results: The highest incidence rate of DHF occurred in 2009. Incidence increased in January to February and declined in the end of the year. Subdistricts with highest incidence had no highest annual rainfall and the population density below the average of population density in Bandung. The highest implementation of fogging program was not only performed in high incidence subdistricts but also in area with larval free index less than 95%. Larval free index in subdistricts with highest incidence were not all below 95%.Conclusions: Incidence of DHF increases after months of highly rainfall. The pattern of incidence rate in all subdistrict is dynamic and suspected do not related to annual rainfall, population density, high larva free index, and frequency of fogging. [AMJ.2015;2(1):262–7]

Isolation of Methicillin Resistant - Staphylococcus aureus in Midwifery Students Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran September–December 2012

Panirchelvam, Robinee, Megantara, Imam, Sudiro, Melati

Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Methicillin Resistant-Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant bacteria to certain types of beta-lactam antibiotics. Commonly, the MRSA infection is acquired in hospitals, long-term care facilities, or similar institutional settings. Mid-wives are one of the health professional that have a major risk to get MRSA infection and could lead the infection among patients. This research is aimed to identify MRSA among the midwifery studentsMethods: A descriptive study was conducted from September–December 2012 at the Microbiology laboratory to identify the proportion of MRSA among the mid-wife students from Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Twenty-five samples were chosen using simple random sampling based on their registration number. The inclusion criterias were healthy students, and 18 to 22 years old. Both nostrils were sampled with a sterile culture swab on both the subject’s nostrils. Gram staining was done in order to identify the gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus. The samples were inaculated in Mannitol salt agar (MSA), incubated for 24 hours and at 37 ̊ C. After 24 hours, catalase and coagulase tests were done. Moreover, for the susceptibility testing, the chosen media for this study was Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) and with 30μg Cefoxitin disk. After incubation, the zone of inhibition of the colony less than ≤ 21mm was considered resistant to methicillin.Results: Colonization of MRSA was about 3 out from 25 samplesConclusions: The MRSA colonization in the anterior nasal does exist in midwife students, a further study with more samples should be conducted. [AMJ.2015;2(1):204–7]