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Majalah Kedokteran Bandung
Articles by issue : Vol 47, No 1 (2015)
10
Articles
Prediktor Adekuasi Dialisis pada Pasien Haemodialisis di Rumah Sakit PKU Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Chayati, Nur ( Program Studi Ilmu Keperawatan, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta ) , Ibrahim, Kusman ( Fakultas Keperawatan, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung ) , komariah, Maria ( Fakultas Keperawatan, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 47, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Keadaan umum lemah, badan kurus, tekanan darah tinggi, anemia, gatal di kulit, warna kulit menjadi lebih gelap, mual adalah tanda tidak adekuatnya hemodialisis secara klinis. Berdasarkan telaah literatur didapatkan sembilan faktor yang berpengaruh langsung terhadap adekuasi dialisis yaitu body mass index (BMI), jenis akses vaskular, lama hemodialisis, frekuensi hemodialisis, kecepatan aliran darah, ultrafiltrasi rata-rata, luas permukaan dializer, jenis heparinisasi, dan hematokrit. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui prediktor dominan terhadap adekuasi dialisis pada pasien hemodialisis di Rumah Sakit PKU Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta berlangsung dari bulan Mei–Juni 2013. Studi potong lintang dilakukan pada 90 responden secara purposive sampling. Adekuasi dialisis dihitung dengan rumus Kt/V. Semua data diambil pada sesi kedua hemodialisis. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji regresi linier ganda. Diperoleh adekuasi dialisis rata-rata 1,36±0,377. Terdapat hubungan yang bermakna adekuasi dialisis dengan BMI dan jenis heparinisasi. Tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna jenis akses vaskular, kecepatan aliran darah, ultrafiltrasi rata-rata, hematokrit, lama hemodialisis, frekuensi hemodialisis, dan luas permukaan dializer dengan adekuasi dialisis. Simpulan, faktor dominan yang memengaruhi adekuasi dialisis pada pasien hemodialisis adalah BMI dan jenis heparinisasi. [MKB. 2015;47(1):29–34]Kata kunci: Adekuasi, body mass index, hemodialisis, prediktorPredictor of Dialysis Adequacy in Hemodialysis Patients in PKU Muhammadiyah Hospital YogyakartaWeakness, thin appearance, , high blood pressure, anemia, itches, darkened skin color and nausea are the clinical signs of inadequate hemodialysis. Based on literature reviews, there are 9 factors that directly influence the adequacy of hemodialysis; body mass index (BMI), vascular access, length and frequency of hemodialysis, blood flow rate, ultrafiltration rate, dialyzer surface area, heparinization, and hematocrit. This study aimed to study the dominant predictor of dialysis adequacy in hemodialysis patients in PKU Muhammadiyah Hospital Yogyakarta. Cross sectional study was done involving 90 respondents through purposive sampling method. The hemodialysis adequacy was assessed using the Kt/V formula. All data were collected during the second session of hemodialysis. Data were examined using double linier regression. The ,ean dialysis adequacy was 1.36±0.377. The statistic test result revealed a significant correlation between dialysis adequacy and BMI and the type of heparinization. There was no significant correlation with the type of vascular access, blood flow rate, ultrafiltration rate, hematocrit, length and frequency of hemodialysis, and dialyzer surface area with dialysis adequacy. In conclusion, the dominant factors influencing dialysis adequacy on hemodialysis patients are  BMI and type of heparinization. [MKB. 2015;47(1):29–34]Key words: Adequacy, body mass index, hemodialysis, predictors DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v47n1.410   

Profil Fenotipik Plasmodium falciparum Galur Papua 2300 Akibat Paparan Antimalaria Artemisinin in Vitro

Maslachah, Lilik ( Laboratorium Farmasi Veteriner Departemen Kedokteran Dasar Veteriner Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Universitas Airlangga ) , Dachlan, Yoes Prijatna ( Departemen Parasitologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Airlangga ) , Nidom, Chairul A. ( Laboratorium Biokimia Departemen Kedokteran Dasar Veteriner Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Universitas Airlangga ) , Fitri, Loeki Enggar ( Departemen Parasitologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 47, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Resistensi parasit P. falciparum dan penurunan efikasi terhadap artemisinin mengakibatkan masalah malaria menjadi semakin  kompleks. Hal ini menjadi salah satu permasalahan kesehatan di dunia  yang belum dapat diselesaikan sampai saat ini karena belum ada obat baru pengganti artemisinin. Penelitian ini untuk membuktikan bahwa paparan obat antimalaria artemisinin berulang in vitro dapat menyebabkan perubahan profil fenotipik P. falciparum galur Papua 2300. Waktu penelitian Februari sampai dengan November 2013. Tempat penelitian di Biomedik Universitas Brawijaya Malang dan Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Universitas Airlangga. Desain penelitian experimental design dengan post test only control group design. Kultur P. falciparum galur Papua 2300 dipapar artemisinin berulang dengan dosis IC50. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap viabilitas dan nilai IC50 dengan menggunakan analisis probit. Kelompok kontrol tidak menunjukkan perubahan nilai IC50 juga pada kelompok perlakuan PO1. Nilai IC50 terjadi peningkatan setelah perlakuan PO2. Paparan artemisinin berulang pada PO2, PO3, dan PO4 menyebabkan waktu viabilitas P. falciparum galur Papua 2300 lebih pendek daripada PO1. Viabilitas stabil setelah perlakuan PO3. Simpulan, paparan artemisinin berulang berpengaruh pada perubahan peningkatkan nilai IC50 dan waktu viabilitas P. falciparum galur Papua 2300.  [MKB. 2015;47(1):1–9]Kata kunci: Artemisinin, fenotipik, P. falciparum galur Papua 2300, resistensiPhenotypic Profile of  Plasmodium falciparum Papua 2300 Strain Exposed to in Vitro Antimalarial Artemisinin The presence of the P. falciparum resistance and decreased of efficacy against artemisinin and its derivatives result in increasingly complex malaria issues. Malaria has become one of the currently unresolved world’s health problems due to the lack of  new artemisinin replacement drugs. This study aimed to provide evidence that the repeated exposure of in vitro artemisinin may cause a change in P. falciparum Papua 2300 strain phenotypic. This study was conducted during the period of  February to November 2013 in Biomedics Brawijaya University and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Airlangga University. A post-test control only experimental design was used. In vitro cultures of  P. falciparum Papua 2300 strain were treated by repeated artemisin in IC50 concentration and were observed for their viability and IC50 using probit analysis. The control group did not show any changes after IC50value and PO1 treatment. An increase in IC50 value was occurred after PO2. Repeated exposures of artemisinin in PO2, PO3 and PO4 had shorter viability periods than PO1. The viability of was stable after PO3 in this group. In conclusion, repeated exposures of artemisinin influence changes in  IC50 value and viability period of  P. falciparum Papua 2300 strain. [MKB. 2015;47(1):1–9]Key words: Artemisinin, phenotypic, P. falciparum Papua 2300, resistance DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v47n1.390   

Perbandingan Akurasi Berbagai Formula untuk Mengestimasi Laju Filtrasi Glomerulus pada Penderita Karsinoma Nasofaring Stadium Lanjut Sebelum Mendapat Kemoterapi Cisplatin

Nissa, Camelia Khairun ( PBLUD RS Sekarwangi, Jl. Siliwangi Cibadak, Kabupaten Sukabumi, ) , Oehadian, Amaylia ( Divisi Hemato-onkologi Medik, Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam FK Unpad ) , Martakusumah, Abdul Hadi ( Divisi Ginjal Hipertensi, Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam FKUP ) , Dewi, Yussy Afriani ( Departemen Telinga Hidung Tenggorokan-Kepala Leher Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran/Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 47, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Cisplatin adalah obat sitotoksik dengan efektivitas tinggi dan digunakan secara luas, termasuk pada karsinoma nasofaring (KNF). Salah satu keterbatasan penggunaan cisplatin adalah nefrotoksisitas, terutama pada tubulus ginjal. Formula HARUS 15-30-60 dan HADI merupakan formula baru dalam menilai laju filtrasi glomerulus (LFG) dengan memperhitungkan  fungsi tubulus. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui perbandingan akurasi formula Cockroft-Gault (CG), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), HARUS 15-30-60, dan HADI dengan klirens kreatinin dalam menilai LFG pada penderita KNF stadium lanjut. Dilakukan penelitian analitik komparatif dengan rancangan potong lintang. Data diambil dari rekam medik penderita KNF yang akan mendapat kemoterapi cisplatin di Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung mulai Agustus 2012 sampai Agustus 2013. Data dianalisis menggunakan ANOVA dan uji concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Subjek penelitian terdiri atas 70 subjek, 28 perempuan (40%) dan 42 laki-laki (60%), dengan usia rata-rata 42±12,3 tahun. Estimasi LFG berdasarkan MDRD, CG, dan HADI berbeda dengan klirens kreatinin (p<0,05), sedangkan estimasi LFG berdasarkan HARUS 15-30-60 tidak berbeda (p>0,05). Formula HARUS 15-30-60 memiliki CCC 0,401, lebih besar daripada CG (CCC=0,387), HADI (CCC=0,258), dan MDRD (0,136). Simpulan, formula HARUS 15-30-60 lebih akurat dibanding dengan formula CG, HADI, dan MDRD dalam menilai LFG pada penderita KNF stadium lanjut. [MKB. 2015;47(1):42–8]Kata kunci: Cockroft-Gault, formula HADI dan HARUS 15-30-60, klirens kreatinin, laju filtrasi glomerulus,  modification of diet in renal diseaseAccuracy Comparison of Various Formulas for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients before Cisplatin AdministrationCisplatin is a widely used and highly effective cytotoxic agent, including for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). One of the side effects of cisplatin is nephrotoxicity, especially in tubulus. HARUS 15-30-60 and HADI are new formulas for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) which also calculate tubular function. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of Cockroft–Gault (CG), modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), HARUS 15-30-60 and HADI formula with creatinine clearance in assessing GFR. This was a cross-sectional study with comparative design in patients with advanced NPC before administration of cisplatin in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. Data were collected from August 2012 to August 2013 and analyzed using ANOVA and concordance correlation coefficient test (CCC). There were 70 patients, consisted of 28 (40%) females and 42 (60%) males with the mean age of 42±12.3 years. LFG estimations based on MDRD, CG, and HADI were different from the creatinine clearance  (p<0.05), whereas no difference was found between HARUS 15-30-60 and creatinine clearance (p>0.05). HARUS 15-30-60 with creatinine clearance had CCC 0.401 was greater than CG (CCC=0.387), HADI (CCC=0.258), and MDRD (CCC=0.136). In conclusion, HARUS 15-30-60 formula is more accurate than CG, HADI, and MDRD formula in assessing renal function (GFR) in patients with advanced NPC. [MKB. 2015;47(1):42–8]Key words: Cockroft-Gault, creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular filtration rate, HADI and HARUS 15-30-60 formula, modification of diet in renal disease DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v47n1.396   

Efek Kortikosteroid Dosis Rendah terhadap Kadar Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Mencit Balb/C Model Sepsis

Prasetyo, Diding Heri ( Laboratorium Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta ) , Subandono, Jarot ( Laboratorium Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta ) , Aisyah, Siti ( Divisi imunologi- Laboratorium Biomedik Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 47, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Penggunaan kortikosteroid dosis rendah pada penatalaksanaan sepsis tahap awal masih diperdebatkan. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) merupakan biomarker keparahan dan keluaran yang buruk pada sepsis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis efek penggunaan kortikosteroid dosis rendah terhadap kadar sRAGE serum pada mencit Balb/C model sepsis tahap awal. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental laboratoris dengan sampel 30 ekor mencit Balb/C jantan dibagi menjadi kelompok kontrol, sepsis, dan sepsis+kortikosteroid dosis rendah. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Histologi dan Biomedik Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta periode Juni-Desember 2013. Untuk membuat model sepsis, hewan coba diinokulasi lipopolisakarisa/LPS (E. coli) dosis 0,1 mg/mencit secara intraperitoneal (i.p.). Kelompok mencit kontrol tidak diinokulasi selama penelitian. Kortikosteroid dosis rendah yang digunakan adalah metil prednisolon dosis 0,05 mg/mencit/hari secara i.p. Mencit kontrol tidak diinokulasi selama penelitian. Kadar sRAGE kelompok kontrol 54,29±16,28 pg/mL, sepsis 78,12±13,38 pg/mL, dan kortikosteroid dosis rendah 63,39±11,07 pg/mL. Kortikosteroid dosis rendah secara bermakna menurunkan kadar sRAGE (p=0,044) dibanding dengan kelompok sepsis. Simpulan, penggunaan kortikosteroid dosis rendah menurunkan kadar sRAGE pada hewan coba model sepsis tahap awal. [MKB. 2015;47(1):10–5]Kata kunci: Kortikosteroid dosis rendah, sepsis, sRAGEEffects of Low-Dose Corticosteroid on Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products  in Balb/C Mice Sepsis Model The use of low-dose corticosteroids in the management of early sepsis is still under debate. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is a biomarker of severity and poor outcome of sepsis. This study aimed to analyze the effects of the use of low-dose corticosteroids on sRAGE serum levels in Balb/C mice model of early sepsis. This study was an experimental research laboratory study with 30 male Balb/C mice which divided into control, sepsis and sepsis+low-dose corticosteroids groups. The study was conducted at Histology and Biomedical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, from June to December 2013. Sepsis was induced in the male Balb/C mice by inoculation with an intraperitoneally (i.p.) injection of lipopoly-saccharide/LPS (E. coli) with a dose of 0.1 mg/mice/i.p.for sepsis mice model. Control mice were not inoculated during the study. Low-dose corticosteroids used was methyl prednisolone at a dose of 0.05 mg/mice/day/i.p. Levels of sRAGE  54.29±16.28 pg/mL in control group, 78.12±13.38 pg/mL in sepsis group, and 63.39±11.07 pg/mL in low-dose corticosteroids group. Low-dose corticosteroids significantly decreased sRAGE level (p=0.044) compared to the sepsis group. In conclusion, the use of low-dose corticosteroids reduces levels of sRAGE in early sepsis.   [MKB. 2015;47(1):10–5]Key words: Low-dose corticosteroids, sepsis, sRAGE DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v47n1.392   

Perbedaan Ekspresi Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor dan Ekspresi Tissue Factor Berdasarkan Respons Terapi Kemoradiasi Cisplatin pada Penderita Karsinoma Nasofaring Stadium lanjut

Hendarsih, Een ( RSU Haji Surabaya Jl. Manyar Kertoadi Surabaya 60117 ) , Oehadian, Amaylia ( Divisi Hematologi Onkologi Medik Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung ) , Sumantri, Rachmat ( Divisi Hematologi Onkologi Medik Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung ) , Supandiman, Iman ( Divisi Hematologi Onkologi Medik Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung ) , Hernowo, Bethy S. ( Departemen Patologi Anatomi Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 47, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) merupakan faktor angiogenik yang berperan dalam angiogenesis tumor. Tissue factor (TF) merupakan inisiator utama pembekuan darah dan merangsang protein yang mengatur angiogenesis. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui perbedaan ekspresi VEGF dengan ekspresi TF pada penderita KNF stadium lanjut berdasarkan respons terapi kemoradiasi. Dilakukan penelitian kohort prospektif pada penderita KNF stadium III, IVa, dan IVb berdasarkan AJCC edisi ke-7 tahun 2010. Ekspresi TF dan VEGF diperiksa dengan imunohistokimia dan respons kemoradioterapi dievaluasi dengan memakai Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) revisi versi 1.1 tahun 2009. Analisis statistik yang digunakan adalah Uji eksak Fisher. Selama penelitian Oktober 2012–Oktober 2013 didapatkan 35 penderita KNF yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan 5 orang dikeluarkan dari penelitian. Pada kelompok respons didapatkan 17 dari 23 penderita ekspresi VEGF ≥ 25%; 6 dari 23 penderita ekspresi VEGF <25%; 16 dari 23 penderita ekspresi TF ≥ 33%; 7 dari 23 penderita ekspresi TF <33% (p=1,000) serta pada kelompok tidak respons 5 dari 27 penderita ekspresi VEGF ≥25%; 2 dari 7 penderita ekspresi VEGF <25%; 4 dari 7 penderita ekspresi TF ≥ 33%; 3 dari 7 penderita ekspresi TF <33% (p=0,657). Simpulan, tidak terdapat perbedaan ekspresi VEGF dengan ekspresi TF pada penderita KNF stadium lanjut berdasarkan respons terapi kemoradiasi. [MKB. 2015;47(1):49–54]Kata kunci: Karsinoma nasofaring, respons kemoradiasi, tissue factor, vascular endothelial growth factorDifferences between Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression and Tissue Factor Expression Based on Cisplatin Chemoradiation Therapy Response in Advanced Stage Nasopharyngeal CancerVascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a proangiogenic factor involved in the angiogenesis of NPC. Tissue factor (TF), the main initiator of blood coagulation, also signals protein that regulates angiogenesis. This study  analyzed the differences between VEGF expression and TF expression in tumor tissue based on chemoradiation therapy response. Prospective cohort study was performed in NPC patients stage III, IVa and IVb according to the AJCC VII staging system. TF expression and VEGF expression were measured by immunohistochemistry, and chemoradiotherapy responses was evaluated by RECIST version 1.1 2009. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher Exact test. From October 2012 to October 2013, 35 NPC patients were eligible for this study and 5 patients were excluded. In response group, there were 73.9% patients with VEGF expression ≥25%, 26.1% patients with VEGF expression <25%; 69.6% patients with TF expression ≥33%, 30.4% patients with TF expression <33% (p=1,000) and in no response group, there were 71,4% patients with VEGF expression ≥ 25%; 28.6% patients with VEGF expression <25%, 57.1% patients with TF expression  ≥33%, 42.9% patients with TF expression <33% (p=0.657). In conclusion, there are differences between VEGF expression and TF expression based on the chemoradiation therapy response, but they are not significantly different. [MKB. 2015;47(1):49–54]Key words: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, chemoradiation response, tissue factor, vascular endothelial growth factor DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v47n1.397   

Pengaruh Latihan Fisik Teratur terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah dan Hubungannya dengan Kadar Testosteron Total pada Tikus Model Diabetes

Zulkarnain, - ( Bagian Fisiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Syiah Kuala Banda Aceh ) , Satria, Darma ( Bagian Patologi Anatomi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Syiah Kuala ) , Yus, T. M. ( Bagian Ilmu Gizi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Syiah Kuala, 4Bagian Parasitologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Syiah Kuala ) , Rezeki, Soraya ( Bagian Parasitologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Syiah Kuala )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 47, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Kondisi hiperglikemia kronik pada diabetes melitus dapat mengganggu fungsi reproduksi, salah satunya adalah penurunan kadar testosteron total. Latihan fisik teratur merupakan salah satu pendekatan nonfarmakologi untuk menurunkan kadar glukosa darah dan memperbaiki kadar testosteron total pada diabetes melitus. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menentukan pengaruh latihan fisik teratur terhadap kadar glukosa darah puasa (GDP) dan hubungannya dengan kadar testosteron total pada tikus diabetes melitus. Penelitian eksperimental murni rancangan pre-postest with control group design dilakukan di Laboratorium Fisiologi, Fakultas Kedokteran dan Laboratorium Riset, Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, periode Juni–Oktober 2013. Lima belas tikus putih jantan Sprague-Dawley dibagi tiga kelompok: (I) kontrol, (II) kelompok diabetes melitus, dan (III) kelompok diabetes melitus yang diberi latihan fisik. Latihan fisik dilakukan pada intensitas ringan-sedang selama 9 minggu sesuai protokol Souza. Kadar GDP diukur setiap 3 minggu selama latihan fisik dan perubahannya dibandingkan antarkelompok. Kadar testosteron total diukur setelah 9 minggu menjalani latihan fisik. Kadar testosteron total rata-rata tikus diabetes melitus yang diberi latihan fisik berbeda dibanding dengan tanpa latihan fisik (p=0,032). Terdapat korelasi negatif antara perubahan kadar GDP dan kadar testosteron total (p=0,007; korelasi Pearson - 0,661). Simpulan, latihan fisik teratur dengan intensitas ringan-sedang dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah dan memperbaiki kadar testosteron total pada tikus diabetes. [MKB. 2015;47(1):16–21]Kata kunci: Hiperglikemia, kadar testosteron total, latihan fisik teratur Effects of Regular Physical Exercise on Blood Glucose Levels and Its Relationship to Total Testosterone Levels in Diabetic RatsA state of chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus may cause dysfunction of the reproductive system; one of these is the decrease in total testosterone level. A regular physical exercise is one of the non-pharmacological approaches to reduce blood glucose level and improve total testosterone level in diabetes mellitus. The study was aimed to determine the effects of regular physical exercise on fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and its relationship to total testosterone levels in diabetic rats. Pre-postest experimental study with control group design, was conducted during June–October 2013 at Physiology Laboratory of Medical Faculty and Research Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh. Fifteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: (I) control, (II) sedentary diabetic, and (III) exercise diabetic. The physical exercise was performed at low-moderate intensity for nine weeks according to Souza’s protocol. The levels of blood glucose were measured every three weeks during the regular physical exercise; the changes of blood glucose level were compared between groups, whereas the levels of total testosterone were measured after nine weeks of regular physical exercise. The mean of total testosterone level was different (p=0.032) between the group with physical exercise and without physical exercise. There was a negative correlation between changes in FBG levels and total testosterone levels (p=0.007, Pearson correlation -0.661). In conclusion, regular physical exercise with low-moderate intensity reduces blood glucose levels and improves total testosterone levels in diabetic rats. [MKB. 2015;47(1):16–21]Key words: Hyperglycemia, regular physical exercise, total testosterone level DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v47n1.393   

Kandungan Total Polifenol dan Aktivitas Antioksidan dari Ekstrak Metanol Akar Imperata cylindrica (L) Beauv. (Alang-alang)

Dhianawaty, Diah ( Departemen Biokimia Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung, jalan Raya Bandung Sumedang km 21 ) , Ruslin, - ( Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Halu Oleo Kendar )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 47, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Hipertensi disebabkan oleh banyak faktor, di antaranya aktivitas enzim konversi angiotensin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), dan reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ekstrak metanol akar Imperata cylindrica (alang-alang) terbukti mempunyai aktivitas antihipertensi. Studi menunjukkan berbagai terapi antioksidan dapat menurunkan tekanan darah. Senyawa polifenol dari tumbuh-tumbuhan mempunyai banyak manfaat, di antaranya sebagai antioksidan, oleh karena itu dilakukan studi ekperimental untuk mengukur kandungan polifenol total menggunakan metode spektrofotometri sinar tampak pereaksi Folin-Ciocalteu, dan uji aktivitas antioksidan dengan metode 1,1-difenil-2-pikrilhidrazil (DPPH). Penelitian dilakukan periode Juli sampai Desember 2014. Hasilnya, ekstrak mempunyai kandungan total polifenol sebesar 1,53% ekivalen asam galat (EAG) dan aktivitas antioksidan IC50  sebesar 0,32 mg/mL. Senyawa fenol mempunyai kemampuan mendonorkan atom hidrogen pada radikal bebas DPPH yang menyebabkan DPPH tereduksi dan ditandai dengan perubahan warna DPPH dari ungu menjadi kuning. Dengan demikian, aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak metanol akar Imperata cylindrica didukung oleh senyawa polifenol. Simpulan, ekstrak mempunyai kandungan polifenol total 1,53% (EAG) dan aktivitas antioksidan IC50 0,32 mg/mL. Senyawa polifenol mendukung aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak. [MKB. 2015;47(1):60–4]Kata kunci: Aktivitas antioksidan, Imperata cylindrica, kandungan polifenol totalTotal Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of Methanol Extract of Imperata cylindrica (L) Beauv. (Alang-alang) RootHypertension is caused by many factors, including by the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methanol extract of Imperata cylindrica (alang-alang) root has been proven as having anti-hypertensive activities. Study shows various antioxidant therapies can decrease blood pressure. Polyphenol compounds of plants have many benefits, including as an antioxidant. Therefore, an experimental study was performed to measure the total polyphenol content using visible spectrophotometry method-Folin-Ciocalteu reagent as well as to test the antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-method 2-pikrilhidrazil (DPPH) from July to December 2014. The results showed that the extract had a total polyphenol content of 1.53% galad acid aquevalent (GAE) and antioxidant activity IC50 0.32 mg/mL. The polyphenol compounds have the ability to donate hydrogen atom to DPPH free radical, which leads to reduced DPPHmarked by the color change of DPPH from purple to yellow. Thus, antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Imperata cylindrica root was supported by the presence of polyphenol compounds. In conclusion, the extract has a total polyphenol content of 1.53% (GAE) and antioxidant activity IC50 0.32 of 0.32 mg/mL. The presence of polyphenol compounds supports the antioxidant activity of the extract. [MKB. 2015;47(1):60–4]Key words: Antioxidant activity, Imperata cylindrica, total polyphenol content DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v47n1.398   

Senyawa Brusein-A dari Buah Makasar (Brucea javanica (L.) Merr.) sebagai Antiproliferasi terhadap Sel Kanker Payudara T47D

Subeki, - ( Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Lampung, ) , Muhartono, - ( Bagian Patologi Anatomi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Lampung, jalan Soemantri Brojonegoro 1 Bandar Lampung )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 47, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Pada saat ini,insidensi kanker payudara telah menempati urutan teratas pada wanita penderita kanker di negara berkembang termasuk Indonesia, sehingga pencarian obat yang lebih tepat masih diperlukan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menentukan aktivitas antiproliferasi senyawa brusein-A terhadap sel kanker payudara T47D secara in vitro. Brusein-A diisolasi dari buah makasar (Brucea javanica (L.) Merr.) dan struktur senyawa yang diperoleh dielusi dengan spektroskopi data. Aktivitas antikanker diamati sebagai antiproliferasi terhadap sel kanker payudara T47D. Antiproliferasi diuji dengan penambahan sulfo rodamin B pada media kultur sel. Masing-masing sumur mengandung 30.000 sel yang diberikan brusein-A dengan variasi 10 konsentrasi antara lain 0,04 µg/mL, 0,08 µg/mL, 0,16 µg/mL, 0,31 µg/mL, 0,63 µg/mL, 1,25 µg/mL, 2,5 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL, 10 µg/mL, dan 20 µg/mL selama 72 jam. Percobaan diulang dua kali dan selanjutnya persentase viabilitas sel dihitung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai IC50 brusein-A terhadap sel T47D memberikan efek antiproliferasi sebesar 0,54 µg/mL dengan cisplatin 0,43 µg/mL sebagai kontrol positif. Simpulan, brusein-A mempunyai aktivitas antiproliferasi terhadap sel kanker payudara T47D. [MKB. 2015;47(1):22–8]Kata kunci:  Antiproliferasi, buah makasar, Brucea  javanica, brusein-A, sel kanker T47DBrucein-A Compound of Makasar Fruit (Brucea javanica (L.) Merr.) as Antiproliferative Agent against T47D Breast Cancer CellsBreast cancer is currenly the number one cancer of all cancers attacking women, especially those who live in developing countries including Indonesia. Therefore, the pursuit of  drugs for breast cancer is still needed. The aim of this study was to determine the anti proliferative activity of brucein-A against breast cancer T47D cells in vitro. Bruceine-A was isolated from “buah makasar” (Brucea javanica (L.) Merr) and the structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by spectral data. The activities of anticancer were evaluated from the antiproliferative effects on T47D breast cancer cell line . The antiproliferative effects were examined in cultured cells stained with sulforhodamin B. Each well contained 30,000 cells, which was treated with bruceine-A in 10 concentration variations of 0.04 µg/mL, 0.08 µg/mL, 0.16 µg/mL, 0.31 µg/mL, 0.63 µg/mL, 1.25 µg/mL, 2.5 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL, 10 µg/mL, and 20 µg/mL for 72 hours. The experiment was replicated twice and the inhibitory percentage of cells was then calculated. The results showed that the IC50 value of bruceine-A on T47D cells as anantiproliferative effect was0.54 µg/mL with cisplatin 0.43 µg/mL as the positive control. In conclusion, bruceine-A has an antiproliferative activity on T47D breast cancer cell line. [MKB. 2015;47(1):22–8]Key words: Antiproliferative, buah makasar, Brucea javanica, brucein-A, cancer T47D cell DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v47n1.394   

Korelasi Kadar Albumin Serum dengan Persentase Edema pada Anak Penderita Sindrom Nefrotik dalam Serangan

Novina, - ( Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung ) , Gurnida, Dida Akhmad ( Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung ) , Sekarwana, Nanan ( Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 47, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Sindrom nefrotik (SN) merupakan kelainan glomerulus yang ditandai proteinuria masif, hipoalbuminemia, edema, dan hiperlipidemia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kadar albumin serum dan persentase edema pada anak penderita SN dalam serangan. Suatu uji analitik korelasional rancangan cross-sectional dilakukan selama bulan Agustus 2009 sampai Januari 2010. Subjek penelitian adalah anak penderita SN dalam serangan, usia 1–14 tahun, berobat ke poliklinik atau dirawat di Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin dan RS Jejaring (RSU Cibabat dan RSU Ujung Berung). Persentase edema dihitung dengan mengurangi total body water (TBW) anak saat sakit dengan TBW ideal, kemudian hasilnya dipersentasekan dengan TBW ideal. Analisis statistik menggunakan Uji korelasi Spearman. Pada penelitian ini didapatkan 29 subjek terdiri atas 26 laki-laki dan 3 perempuan. Kadar albumin serum rata-rata 1,45 g/dL dan persentase edema 21,6%. Hasil Uji korelasi Spearman menunjukkan hubungan yang sangat bermakna (p=0,006) antara kadar albumin serum dan persentase edema (r=-0,501). Simpulan, terdapat hubungan negatif antara kadar albumin serum dan persentase edema pada anak penderita SN dalam serangan. [MKB. 2015;47(1):55–9]Kata kunci: Kadar albumin serum, persentase edema, sindrom nefrotik dalam seranganCorrelation Between Serum Albumin Levels and Percentage of Edema during Nephrotic Stage in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a glomerular disorder characterized by massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, edema, and hyperlipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between serum albumin levels and percentage of edema during nephrotic stage in children with NS. Cross-sectional design with correlational analytic was used in this study. The subjects of this study were outpatients and inpatients with NS during nephrotic stage, aged between 1 and 14 years old, admitted to Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Cibabat Hospital, and Ujung Berung Hospital from August 2009 to January 2010. Percentage of edema was calculated by substracting total body water (TBW) during illness to ideal TBW, then divided the result by ideal TBW. Subjects were 29 children, consisted of 26 boys and 3 girls. Mean serum albumin levels was 1.45 g/dL and percentage of edema was 21.6%. Analysis using Spearman correlation test showed a highly significant correlation (p=0.006) between serum albumin levels and percentage of edema in children with NS during nephrotic stage (r=-0.501). In conclusion, there is a negative correlation between serum albumin levels and percentage of edema during nephrotic stage in children with NS. [MKB. 2015;47(1):55–9]Key words: Nephrotic syndrome, nephrotic stage, percentage of edema serum albumin levels    DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v47n1.408

Daya Antibakteri Filtrat Asam Laktat dan Bakteriosin Lactobacillus bulgaricus KS1 dalam Menghambat Pertumbuhan Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain ATCC 700603, CT1538, dan S941

Fauziah, Prima Nanda ( Prodi DIII Analis Kesehatan STIKES Jenderal Ahmad Yani, Jalan Terusan Jenderal Sudirman, Cimahi ) , Nurhajati, Jetty ( Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Padjadjaran ) , Chrysanti, - ( Bagian Mikrobiologi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Padjadjaran )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 47, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Lactobacillus bulgaricus menghasilkan asam laktat dan bakteriosin yang memiliki efek farmakologik, di antaranya sebagai antibakteri. Klebsiella pneumoniae penyebab pneumonia masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat di negara tropis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui daya antibakteri asam laktat dan bakteriosin L. bulgaricus terhadap berbagai strain K. pneumoniae secara in vitro dengan menggunakan teknik agar tuang dan difusi cakram, selanjutnya data dianalisis dengan ANAVA yang dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT). Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi Rumah Sakit Pendidikan Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung pada bulan Agustus­–Oktober 2012. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi 30% filtrat asam laktat dan 20% filtrat bakteriosin L. bulgaricus bersifat bakterisidal terhadap berbagai strain K. pneumoniae. Semakin besar konsentrasi filtrat asam laktat dan bakteriosin L. bulgaricus menunjukkan pengaruh peningkatan daerah hambat berbagai strain K. pneumoniae. Analisis data dengan ANAVA yang dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) menunjukkan bahwa pengaruh konsentrasi filtrat terbesar terhadap daerah hambat K. pneumoniae diperoleh pada perlakuan konsentrasi 90% filtrat asam laktat L. bulgaricus, sedangkan daerah hambat terbesar diperoleh K. pneumoniae strain ATCC 700603 pada konsentrasi 90% filtrat bakteriosin sebesar 16,667 mm. Simpulan, filtrat asam laktat dan bakteriosin L. bulgaricus memiliki daya antibakteri terhadap pertumbuhan K. pneumoniae. Besar daya antibakteri L. bulgaricus  terhadap pertumbuhan K. pneumoniae dipengaruhi oleh jenis filtrat, konsentrasi filtrat L. bulgaricus, dan strain bakteri K. pneumoniae. [MKB. 2015;47(1):35–41]Kata kunci: Antibakteri, asam laktat, bakteriosin, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lactobacillus bulgaricusAntibacterial Effect of Lactic Acid Filtrate and Bacteriocins of Lactobacillus bulgaricus KS1 on Inhibiting the Growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603, CT1538, and S941 StrainsLactobacillus bulgaricus produces lactic acid and bacteriocin which have been reported to have various pharmacologic properties, including their role  an antibacterial agent. Klebsiella pneumoniae, as an agent of pneumonia, remains a public health problem in tropical countries. This study was aimed to observe the antibacterial activities of lactic acid filtrate and bacteriocins of L. bulgaricus toward againsts K. pneumoniae strains by in vitro experiment. The experiment took place in Microbiology Laboratory, Teaching Hospital, Padjadjaran University, Bandung, August–October 2012. In vitro laboratory analytic study has been conducted on lactic acid filtrate and bacteriocins of L. bulgaricus against the K. pneumoniae strains. The study used agar pour plate and agar disk diffusion method and analyzed by ANAVA followed by Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT). The 30% lactic acid filtrate and 20% bacteriocins filtrate concentrations of L. bulgaricus showed bactericidal characteristics againts the growth of K. pneumoniae strains. Greater concentration of lactic acid filtrate and bacteriocins of L. bulgaricus led toincreasing effect of growth inhibition zones of K. pneumoniae strains. Statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the greatest concentration effect of L. bulgaricus filtratefor inhibiting K. pneumoniae strains was achieved in 90% lactic acid filtrate concentration treatment, whereas the greatest inhibition zones for K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603 was obtaubed in 90% bacteriocins filtrate concentration, amounting 16.667 mm. In conclusion, lactic acid filtrate and bacteriocins L. bulgaricus have antibacterial effects on K. pneumoniae. The level of antibacterial effect of L. bulgaricus against the growth of K. pneumoniae strains depends on the type of  filtrate, L. bulgaricus filtrate concentration, and K. pneumoniae strain. [MKB. 2015;47(1):35–41]Key words: Antibacterial, bacteriocins, Klebsiella pneumoniae, lactic acid, Lactobacillus bulgaricus DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v47n1.395