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Majalah Kedokteran Bandung
Articles by issue : Vol 45, No 2 (2013)
10
Articles
Efek Antihiperkolesterol Jus Buah Belimbing Wuluh (Averhoa bilimbi L.) terhadap Mencit Galur Swiss Webster Hiperkolesterolemia

Surialaga, Samsudin ( Bagian Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung- Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin ) , Dhianawaty, Diah ( Bagian Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung- Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin ) , Martiana, Anna ( Bagian Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung- Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin ) , A. S, Andreanus ( Sekolah Farmasi Institut Teknologi Bandung )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 45, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Kadar kolesterol darah yang melebihi batas normal merupakan pemicu bermacam penyakit. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui efek antihiperkolesterol jus buah belimbing wuluh, dilakukan pada bulan Maret–Juni 2011 di Sekolah Farmasi Institut Teknologi Bandung. Mencit galur Swiss Webster dibagi menjadi dua kelompok yaitu pencegahan dan pengobatan, tiap kelompok dibagi menjadi empat subkelompok: kontrol negatif hidup normal, tiga subkelompok lainnya kontrol positif, pembanding dan uji (belimbing) diberi pakan tinggi kolesterol dan propiltiourasil 0,26 mg/20 gBB/hari. Pada ketiga subkelompok pencegahan perlakuan di atas disertai pemberian berturut-turut 20 mg tragakan, simvastatin 0,026 mg/20 gBB/hari, dan 0,12 g jus belimbing/20 gBB/hari selama 30 hari. Untuk kelompok pengobatan setelah 30 hari ketiga subkelompoknya diberi tragakan, simvastatin, dan jus belimbing seperti subkelompok pencegahan selama 30 hari. Kadar kolesterol diukur dengan spektrofotometer dan diuji dengan analysis of variance (ANOVA) dilanjutkan dengan uji student-t. Pada kelompok pencegahan perbedaan kadar kolesterol subkelompok kontrol positif 158,5 mg/dL dan belimbing 129,7 mg/dL bermakna (p<0,01), pada kelompok pengobatan tidak bermakna. Simpulan, jus belimbing wuluh dapat mencegah peningkatan kadar kolesterol tetapi tidak dapat mengobati. [MKB. 2013;45(2):125–9]Kata kunci: Antihiperkolesterolemia, Averhoa bilimbi L., belimbing wuluhAnti-hypercholesterol Effect of Averhoa bilimbi L. Fruit Juice on Swiss Webster Strain Mice HypercholesterolemiaBlood cholesterol level which were higher than normal is a trigger of various diseases. The objective of the research was to know the anti-hypercholesterol effect of Averhoa bilimbi L. fruit juice, done in March–June 2011 at School of Pharmacy Institute Technology of Bandung. Webster strain mice were divided into two groups there were preventive and curative. Each group was divided into four subgroups: negative control was normal life, the three subgroups other positive control, reference and test (Averhoa) received high-cholesterol meal and 0.26 mg/20 gBW/day of prophylthiouracyl. At preventive group the treatment above was participated with 20 mg tragacanth, 0.026 mg/20 gBW/day simvastatin, and 0.12 g juice/20 gBW/day respectively during 30 days. For curative group 30 days later the three subgroups other received tragacanth, simvastatin, and juice as subgroups of preventive group during 30 days. The cholesterol levels were measured with spectrophotometer and were examined with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were continued with student-t test. At preventive group the different of cholesterol level between subgroup control positive 158.5 mg/dL and Averhoa 129.7 mg/dL was significant p<0.01, at curative group were not significant. In conclusion, Averhoa fruit juice can prevent increasing of cholesterol level, but cannot cure. [MKB. 2013;45(2):125–9]Key words: Anti-hypercholesterolemia, Averhoa bilimbi L., small carambola DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v45n2.113

Kadar Asam Urat Serum sebagai Biomarker Preeklamsi

Sumanti, Neli ( Laboratorium Patologi Klinik Rumah Sakit Paru Dr. M. Goenawan Partowidigdo, Cisarua Bogor ) , Noormartany, - ( Departemen Patologi Klinik Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran-Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung ) , Alamsyah, Muhammad ( Departemen Patologi Klinik Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran-Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung ) , Rostini, Tiene

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 45, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Preeklamsi masih merupakan masalah kesehatan yang menjadi salah satu penyebab kematian ibu selain akibat perdarahan dan infeksi. Etiologi dan patogenesis preeklamsi belum diketahui pasti. Peningkatan kadar asam urat serum timbul bersamaan dengan peningkatan tekanan darah dan terjadi sebelum timbul proteinuria sehingga dapat dipakai sebagai salah satu biomarker. Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis perbandingan kadar asam urat serum pada kehamilan in partu normal dengan in partu preeklamsi. Penelitian potong lintang dilakukan di Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung pada bulan Maret–Mei 2011. Subjek penelitian 45 wanita hamil in partu normal sebagai kelompok kontrol dan 44 wanita in partu dengan preeklamsi sesuai dengan kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi. Kadar asam urat serum pada wanita hamil normal adalah 3,43±0,14 mg/dL. Pada penelitian ini nilai titik potong kadar asam urat serum 4,8 mg/dL dengan nilai sensitivitas 93% dan spesifisitas 80%. Simpulan,kadar asam urat pada in partu preeklamsi lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kehamilan normal. Peningkatan kadar asam urat dapat dipertimbangkan sebagai salah satu biomarker preeklamsi, sebaiknya kadar asam urat serum digunakan sebagai pemeriksaan serial pada ibu hamil saat pelayanan antenatal. [MKB. 2013;45(2):98–104]Kata kunci: Biomarker, kadar asam urat, preeklamsiSerum Levels of Uric Acid as a Biomarker in PreeclampsiaPreeclampsia remains a health problem that becomes one of the causes of maternal deaths besides bleeding and infection. The etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia are unclear. Increased serum uric acid levels is seen simultaneously with the increase of blood pressure and occurred before the onset of proteinuria. Therefore, the uric acid can be used as a biomarker. The aim of this study was to analyze the serum uric acid levels between normal and preeclampsia pregnancies. The study was conducted in Dr.Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung between March and May 2011, using cross sectional study design. Subjects were 45 inpartu normal pregnant women as control and 44 in partu pregnant women with preeclampsia accordance with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Levels of uric acid in normal pregnancy are 3,43 ±0.14 mg/dL. In this study uric acid levels resulting in cut-off levels of 4,8 mg/dL with a sensitivity value of 93%, and specificity 80%. Conclusions: uric acid levels in at term preeclampsia are higher compared with normal pregnancies. Increased levels of uric acid can be considered as one of biomarkers of preeclampsia, hence the serum uric acid levels used as serial examinations in pregnant women during antenatal care. [MKB. 2013;45(2):98–104]Key words: Biomarker, preeclampsia, uric acid level DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v45n2.89

A Study of Cytomegalovirus Serology among HIV-Infected Patients in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era

Sufiawati, Irna ( Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry ) , Widyaputra, Sunardhi ( Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia ) , Djajakusumah, Tony S. ( Department of Dermatology & Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 45, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most common opportunistic viruses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The aim of this study was to determine the CMV seroprevalence among HIV-infected patients and investigate the correlation between the CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T-cell counts, as well as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use. Serum samples from 69 HIV-infected patients and 65 HIV-seronegative persons attending Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung in March–June 2012 were examined to detect CMV IgG antibody using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Data were analyzed using chi-square test, t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results show that there were no statistically significant differences in the seroprevalence of CMV between HIV-infected (97%) and HIV-seronegative persons (94%). The mean of CMV IgG antibodies titers in HIV-infected patients (335.39+174.87 U/mL) were significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative persons (240.59+192.76 U/mL). There was no significant correlation between CMV IgG antibody titers and CD4 T-cell counts (the mean was 393.58+209.22 cells/mm3). The titers of CMV IgG antibodies were significantly inversely associated with HAART use. The mean of CMV IgG antibody titers in HIV-infected patients on HAART (335.41+172.98 U/mL) were significantly higher than patients without HAART (204.8+213.91 U/mL). In conclusions, this study confirms a high seroprevalence of CMV among HIV-infected patients. High titers of CMV are inversely associated with HAART use while no correlation with CD4 T-cell counts was found. [MKB. 2013;45(2):112–7]Key words: CD4, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), HAART, HIV, IgGStudi Serologi Cytomegalovirus pada Pasien yang Terinfeksi HIV di Era Highly Active Antiretroviral TherapyCytomegalovirus (CMV) adalah salah satu virus oportunistik yang paling umum pada pasien yang terinfeksi human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui seroprevalensi CMV pada pasien HIV dan meneliti korelasi antara titer antibodi imunoglobulin G (IgG) CMV dan jumlah sel-T cluster diferensiasi 4 (CD4) serta penggunaan highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Sampel serum dari 69 pasien HIV dan 65 HIVseronegatif yang berkunjung ke Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung pada bulan Maret–Juni 2012 diperiksa untuk mendeteksi antibodi IgG CMV dengan immunoassay electro chemiluminescence (ECLIA). Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji chi-kuadrat, t, dan analysis of variance (ANOVA). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara seroprevalensi CMV pada pasien HIV (97%) dan HIV-seronegatif (94%). Titer antibodi rata-rata IgG CMV pasien HIV (335,39+174,87 U/mL) signifikan lebih tinggi daripada HIV-seronegatif (240,59+192,76 U/mL). Tidak ada hubungan yang signifikan antara titer antibodi IgG CMV dan jumlah sel-T CD4 (rata-rata 393,58+209,22 sel/mm3). Titer antibodi IgG CMV secara signifikan berhubungan terbalik dengan penggunaan HAART. Titer antibodi IgG CMV rata-rata pasien HIV dengan HAART (335,41+172,98 U/mL) signifikan lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan pasien tanpa HAART (204,8+213,91 U/mL). Simpulan, penelitian ini menegaskan seroprevalensi CMV pasien HIV dan titer antibodi IgG CMV yang tinggi berhubungan terbalik dengan penggunaan HAART tetapi tidak berkorelasi dengan sel-T CD4. [MKB. 2013;45(2):112–7]Kata kunci: CD4, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), HAART, HIV, IgG DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v45n2.114

Pengaruh Pemberian Jeruk dengan Nanas pada Kadar Malondialdehid Plasma Subjek Terpapar Polusi Gas Buang Kendaraan Bermotor

Yusnita, - ( Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Tegal, Jawa Tengah ) , Nugraha, Gaga Irawan ( Departemen Ilmu Gizi Medik Fakultas Kedokteran-Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 45, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Faktor lingkungan seperti polusi udara akibat gas buang kendaraan bermotor dapat meningkatkan pembentukan radikal bebas di dalam tubuh. Hasil penelitian Departemen Teknik Lingkungan Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) pada Desember 2006 menunjukkan kecenderungan peninggian polusi udara antara lain terjadi di tempat yang menjadi pusat kemacetan khususnya di kawasan padat lalu lintas di Kota Bandung seperti di Jalan Merdeka. Kadar radikal bebas di dalam tubuh dapat diketahui dengan mengukur kadar malondialdehid (MDA) plasma. Antioksidan diperlukan untuk menangkal efek radikal bebas akibat polusi udara. Jeruk dan nanas merupakan sumber antioksidan. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui perbedaan pengaruh pemberian jeruk dengan nanas pada kadar MDA plasma subjek yang terpapar polusi gas buang kendaraan bermotor. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental terhadap 21 orang yang bekerja di Jalan Merdeka, berusia 20–40 tahun yang dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok yang dilakukan pada bulan Januari–Juli 2010. Kelompok pertama diberikan jeruk sebanyak 300 g selama 14 hari. Kelompok kedua diberikan nanas sebanyak 300 g selama 14 hari. Kelompok ketiga adalah kelompok kontrol. Kadar MDA plasma diukur sebelum dan setelah perlakuan. Data dianalisis dengan uji t berpasangan dan uji t tidak berpasangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penurunan kadar MDA plasma setelah pemberian jeruk (1,42±0,29 vs 0,68±0,29) (p<0,05) dan setelah pemberian nanas (0,73±0,20 vs 0,40±0,13) (p<0,05). Penurunan kadar MDA plasma setelah pemberian jeruk lebih besar daripada nanas (0,74 ± 0,33 vs 0,24 ± 0,24) (p<0,05). Simpulan, jeruk lebih besar dalam menurunkan kadar MDA plasma pada subjek yang terpapar polusi gas buang kendaraan bermotor daripada nanas. [MKB. 2013;45(2):91–7]Kata kunci: Antioksidan, jeruk, malondialdehid plasma, nanas, polusi udara, radikal bebas The Effects of Orange and Pineapple Supplementation on Plasma Malondialdehyde Concentration in Subject Exposed to Air PollutionEnvironmental insults such as air polution from vehicle emission could increase generation of free radicals inside human body. A study conducted in December 2006 by the Department of Environmental Engineering Bandung Institute of Technology, revealed an increased tendency of air pollution production in certain areas in Bandung such as Jl. Merdeka where busy traffic frequently occurs. The amount of free radicals inside the body can be detected by measuring concentrations of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA). Antioxidants are needed to counteract the damaging effects of increased free radical formation due to air pollution insult. Pineapples and orange are antioxidant food sources. This study aims to find out the differences between orange and pineapple supplementation effects on plasma MDA concentration in subjects exposed to air pollution. The study is an experimental research concerning 21 subjects whom were working on Jl. Merdeka, page between 20--40 years old in January–July 2010. They were divided into three groups. The first group was given 300 grams of orange for 14 days. The second group was given 300 grams of pineapple for 14 days. The third group was the control group. Plasma MDA concentration was measured prior to and after the treatment. The data were analyzed using paired and independent t-test. The study revealed a lower plasma MDA concentration in subjects receiving orange (1.42±0.29 vs 0.68±0.29) (p<0.05) and in subjects receiving pineapple (0.73±0.20 vs0.40±0.13) (p<0.05). Plasma MDA concentration lowering effect of orange supplementation is greater than that of the pineapple supplementation (0.74±0.33 vs 0.24±0.24) (p<0.05). In conclusion, plasma MDA concentrationlowering effect of orange is greater than pineapple in subjects exposed to air pollution. [MKB. 2013;45(2):91–7]Key words: Air pollution, antioxidant, free radicals, orange, pineapple, plasma malondialdehyde DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v45n2.90

Efek Kombinasi Ekstrak Anamirta cocculus dan Artemisin terhadap Penurunan Jumlah Sel Apoptosis Jaringan Paru Mencit Malaria

Fitri, Loeki Enggar ( Laboratorium Parasitologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya Malang ) , Syamsuri, Dara Dasawulansari ( Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya Malang ) , Simamora, Dorta ( Laboratorium Genetika Medik, Pusat Penelitian Biologi Molekuler Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Wijaya Kusuma Surabaya ) , Soemarko, Soemarko ( Laboratorium Ilmu Bedah Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya-RSSA Malang ) , Mintaroem, Karyono ( Laboratorium Patologi Anatomi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya-RSSA Malang )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 45, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Plasmodium dalam eritrosit akan menginduksi respons imun, berupa produksi radikal bebas yang dapat menyebabkan kerusakan jaringan paru. Kombinasi ekstrak Anamirta cocculus dan artemisin diharapkan dapat mencegah komplikasi akibat radikal bebas yang dihasilkan oleh sel imun maupun artemisin. Studi eksperimental dengan metode post test control group design only dilakukan di Laboratorium Parasitologi dan Biomedik Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya periode Juni–Oktober 2010 untuk membuktikan efek pemberian kombinasi ekstrak A. cocculus dan artemisin terhadap jumlah sel apoptosis jaringan paru mencit galur Balb/C yang diinfeksi Plasmodium berghei. Mencit dibagi dalam 6 kelompok, kelompok 1 terdiri atas 9 ekor mencit normal, kelompok 2 mencit yang diinfeksi P. berghei tanpa terapi, kelompok 3 mencit yang diinfeksi P. berghei dan diterapi artemisin dosis 0,04 mg/gBB, serta 3 kelompok perlakuan mencit diinfeksi P. berghei dan diterapi kombinasi artemisin 0,04 mg/gBB dengan ekstrak A. cocculus 0,01 mg/gBB; 0,1 mg/gBB; dan 1 mg/gBB. Sel apoptosis dihitung dari ekspresi caspase-3 pada pewarnaan imunohistokimia. Pemberian ekstrak A. cocculus dosis 0,01 mg/gBB; 0,1 mg/gBB; dan 1 mg/gBB serta artemisin selama 3 hari menurunkan jumlah sel apoptosis secara signifikan dibandingkan dengan kelompok artemisin monoterapi (p=0,00; 0,026; 0,000). Hubungan lama terapi dengan ekspresi caspase-3 menunjukkan pada kelompok terapi kombinasi ekstrak A. cocculus 0,01 mg/gBB dan artemisin 0,04 mg/gBB memiliki korelasi positif yang signifikan (p=0,013). Simpulan, terapi jangka pendek kombinasi ekstrak A. cocculus dan artemisin mempunyai efek yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan pemberian artemisin monoterapi dalam hal penurunan jumlah sel apoptosis jaringan paru. [MKB. 2013;45(2):69–77]Kata kunci: Anamirta cocculus, apoptosis sel paru, artemisin,caspase-3, malariaThe Effect of Anamirta cocculus Extract and Artemisin Combination in Decreasing Number of Apoptotic Lung Cells of Malaria Infected MiceThe presence of Plasmodium in erythrocytes will induce immune responses, including the production of free radicals which can lead to lung tissue cells damage. Combination therapy of Anamirta cocculus extract and artemisin is expected to prevent complications caused by free radicals produced by immune cells and artemisin. This experimental study which using post test control group design only was done in Laboratory of Parasitology and Biomedic Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University on June–October 2010 to prove the effect of combination therapy of A. cocculus extract and artemisin towards the number of apoptotic lung tissue cells of Balb/C mice infected by Plasmodium berghei. Mice were divided into 6 groups, the first normal Balb/C mice, the second mice infected by P. berghei without treatment, the third mice infected by P. berghei and treated with artemisin 0.04 mg/g BW, and 3 combination contains mice infected by P. berghei and treated with a combination of artemisin 0.04 mg/ gBW and A.cocculus extract 0.01 mg/gBW, 0.1 mg/gBW, 1 mg/ gBW respectively. The apoptotic cells of lung tissue were counted from the expression of caspase-3 in immunohistochemical staining. In day 3 combination A. cocculus extract dose 0.01 mg/gBW, 0.1 mg/gBW, 1 mg/ gBW and artemisin reduced the number of apoptotic cells significantly compared to the artemisin monotherapy (p=0.00, 0.026, 0.000). There was a positive corelation between the length of treatment and the expression of caspase-3 (p=0.013) on group that treated with combination of A. cocculus extract 0.01 mg/gBW and artemisin 0,04 mg/gBB. In conclusion, the short treatment of combination A. cocculus extract and artemisin has a better effect than artemisin monotherapy in decreasing number of apoptotic lung tissue cells. [MKB. 2013;45(2):69–77]Key words: Anamirta cocculus, artemisinin, caspase 3, lung apoptotic cell, malaria DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v45n2.91

Penurunan Aktivitas Tirosinase dan Jumlah Melanin oleh Fraksi Etil Asetat Buah Malaka (Phyllantus emblica) pada Mouse Melanoma B16 Cell-Line

Hindritiani, Reti ( Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Kulit dan Kelamin Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran-Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung ) , Dhianawaty, Diah ( Departemen Biokimia Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran ) , Sujatno, Muchtan ( Departemen Farmakologi dan Terapi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran ) , Sutedja, Endang ( Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Kulit dan Kelamin Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran-Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung ) , Setiawan, - ( Departemen Ilmu Faal Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 45, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Akumulasi melanin menyebabkan hiperpigmentasi dan bila terdapat pada wajah dapat menimbulkan masalah psikososial. Bahan depigmentasi dari tanaman semakin banyak digunakan. Bahan yang dikembangkan harus efektif menghambat sintesis melanin serta tidak toksik terhadap melanosit. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji efek fraksi etil asetat buah Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) atau buah malaka, terhadap sintesis melanin dengan mengukur jumlah melanin dan aktivitas tirosinase, yang merupakan enzim utama sintesis melanin, secara spektrofotometrik pada kultur sel melanosit mouse melanoma B16 cell-line. Sitotoksisitas diukur dengan metode 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Penelitian dilakukan pada November–Desember 2009 di Department of Biochemistry and Diabetes Research Centre, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Korea Selatan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan aktivitas tirosinase dan jumlah melanin menurun bergantung pada dosis perlakuan berbagai konsentrasi fraksi etil asetat buah P. emblica dengan inhibition concentration (IC) 50 berturutturut 95,63 dan 16,90 μg/mL, serta lethal dose (LD) 50 pada konsentrasi 106,64 μg/mL. Simpulan, fraksi etil asetat buah P. emblica mempunyai potensi sebagai bahan depigmentasi, karena mampu menurunkan sintesis melanin melalui inhibisi aktivitas tirosinase. [MKB. 2013;45(2):118–24]Kata kunci: Aktivitas tirosinase, etil asetat, melanin, Phyllanthus emblicaReduction of Tyrosinase Activity and Melanin Amount by Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Malaka (Phyllanthus emblica) Fruit in Mouse Melanoma B16 Cell-LineMelanin accumulation can lead to hyperpigmentation, and if it occurs on the face can cause psychosocial problem. Depigmenting agents derived from plants are increasingly utilized. Agents being developed have to be effective in inhibiting melanin synthesis and should not be toxic to melanocyte. This study aimed was to examine the effect of ethyl acetate fraction from Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) fruit, also known as malaka fruit, towards melanine synthesis, which was measured from the melanin amount and tyrosinase activity, the key regulatory enzyme in melanin synthesis, spectrophotometrically towards melanocytes of mouse melanoma B16 cell-line. The cytotoxic effect towards melanocytes was measured with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. This study was conducted on November−December 2009 in Department of Biochemistry and Diabetes Research Centre, Chonbuk National University Medical School, South Korea. The result of this study showed that tyrosinase activity and melanin amount decreased in a dose-dependent manner towards various concentrations of ethyl acetate fraction of P. emblica fruit with inhibition concentration (IC) 50=95.63 and 16.90 μg/mL, respectively and lethal dose (LD) 50 concentration 106.64 μg/mL. In conclusion, ethyl acetate fraction of P. emblica fruit is a potential depigmenting agent, since it can reduce melanin synthesis by inhibition of tyrosinase activity. [MKB. 2013;45(2):119–24]Key words: Ethyl acetate, melanin, Phyllanthus emblica, tyrosinase activity DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v45n2.115

Probiotik Indigenus Meningkatkan Profil Kesehatan Usus Halus Tikus yang Diinfeksi Enteropathogenic E. coli

Wresdiyati, Tutik ( Departemen Anatomi, Fisiologi, dan Farmakologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, IPB Jl. Agathis, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor ) , Laila, Sri Rahmatul ( Departemen Anatomi, Fisiologi, dan Farmakologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, IPB Jl. Agathis, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor ) , Setiorini, Yeni ( Departemen Anatomi, Fisiologi, dan Farmakologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, IPB Jl. Agathis, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor ) , Arief, Irma Isnafia ( Departemen Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Peternakan Fakultas Peternakan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, ) , Astawan, Made ( Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Institut Pertanian Bogor )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 45, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Telah dilaporkan bahwa probiotik dapat memelihara keseimbangan mikroflora usus dan meningkatkan sistem imun usus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh pemberian probiotik indigenous Lactobacillus fermentum dan Lactobacillus plantarum pada profil kesehatan usus halus tikus yang diinfeksi Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Agustus–November 2011 di Institut Pertanian Bogor. Sebanyak 90 ekor tikus jantan galur Sprague Dawley telah digunakan dan dibagi menjadi enam kelompok perlakuan, yaitu kelompok kontrol negatif (A), perlakuan Lactobacillus plantarum (B), perlakuan Lactobacillus fermentum (C), perlakuan Lactobacillus plantarum dan EPEC (D), perlakuan Lactobacillus fermentum dan EPEC (E), dan perlakuan EPEC (F). Perlakuan dilaksanakan selama 21 hari. Setelah tikus dikorbankan, usus halus diproses menggunakan metode embedding standar dengan parafin dan diwarnai memakai hematoksilin eosin. Data hasil penelitian dianalisis secara statistik dengan rancangan acak lengkap analysis of variance (ANOVA). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan L. fermentum dan L. plantarum dapat menurunkan persentase kerusakan vili usus halus 14–62% dan meningkatkan tebal mukosa usus halus 14–29%. Simpulan, perlakuan probiotik indigenous L. fermentum dan L. plantarum dapat meningkatkan kesehatan usus halus. L. fermentum lebih baik dalam menghambat kerusakan usus halus tikus yang diinfeksi EPEC. [MKB. 2013;45(2):78–85]Kata kunci: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), probiotik, usus halus Indigenous Probiotic Increased the Health Profile of Small Intestine in Enteropathogenic E. coli Infected RatsIt was reported that probiotics could maintain the balance of intestinal microfloral and increase intestinal immune system. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of indigenous probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum on the morphological profile of small intestine of Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)- infected rats. This study was done from August to November 2011 at Bogor Agricultural University. A total of 90 male rats Sprague Dawley were used in this study. They were devided into 6 groups; negative control (A), Lactobacillus plantarum treated (B), Lactobacillus fermentum treated (C), Lactobacillus plantarum and EPEC treated (D), Lactobacillus fermentum and EPEC treated (E), and EPEC infected group (F). The treatments were done for 21 days. Small intestine tissues were processed using paraffin embedding standard method and stained with haematoxylin eosin. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that L. fermentum and L. plantarum treatments decreased percentage of small intenstine villi damage (14 to 62%) and increased the thickness of small intestine mucosa (14 to 29%). In conclusions, treatment of indigenous probiotic L. fermentum and L. plantarum increase the health of small intestine. L. fermentum give better effect in inhibiting the damage of small intestine of rats, which under EPEC infection. [MKB. 2013;45(2):78–85]Key words: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), probiotic, small intestine DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v45n2.110

Kadar IgE Total pada Anak Obesitas Dengan atau Tanpa Riwayat Penyakit Atopik dalam Keluarga

Setiabudiawan, Budi ( Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran Rumah Sakit Hasan Sadikin, Bandung ) , Ghrahani, Reni ( Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran Rumah Sakit Hasan Sadikin, Bandu ) , Sapartini, Gartika ( Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran Rumah Sakit Hasan Sadikin, Bandu ) , Rayani, Putria ( Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran Rumah Sakit Hasan Sadikin, Bandu ) , Amelinda, Citra ( Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran Rumah Sakit Hasan Sadikin, Bandu )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 45, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Prevalensi obesitas dan penyakit atopik anak, khususnya usia sekolah meningkat pada dekade terakhir ini. Penyakit atopik diperantarai oleh IgE serta dipengaruhi faktor genetik dan lingkungan. Resistensi leptin pada obesitas berkaitan dengan stimulasi TH2 yang berpengaruh pada produksi IgE. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui hubungan kadar IgE total dengan obesitas pada anak dengan atau tanpa riwayat penyakit atopik dalam keluarga. Penelitian potong lintang ini dilaksanakan pada periode April–September 2010 yang melibatkan 160 anak usia 6–11 tahun pada beberapa sekolah dasar di Bandung. Terdapat 4 kelompok yaitu kelompok 1: obesitas dengan riwayat penyakit atopik dalam keluarga, 2: gizi normal dengan riwayat penyakit atopik dalam keluarga, 3: obesitas tanpa riwayat penyakit atopik dalam keluarga, 4: gizi normal tanpa riwayat penyakit atopik dalam keluarga. Pemeriksaan kadar IgE total dengan metode Electro-chemiluminescene Immunoassay (ECLIA). Kemaknaan data kategorik diuji dengan Uji chi-kuadrat, berdasarkan p<0,05. Kadar IgE total tinggi pada tiap kelompok masing-masing 30 (83%), 24 (60%), 21 (54%), dan 11 (28%) anak (p<0,001). Pada kelompok riwayat penyakit atopik dalam keluarga, kadar IgE total tinggi pada anak obesitas lebih banyak [30 anak (83%)] dibandingkan dengan gizi normal [24 anak (60%)] (p=0,025). Pada kelompok tanpa riwayat penyakit atopik dalam keluarga, kadar IgE total tinggi pada anak obesitas [21 anak (54%)] lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan gizi normal [11 anak (28%)] (p=0,017). Disimpulkan kadar IgE total tinggi lebih banyak pada anak obesitas dibandingkan dengan gizi normal dengan dan tanpa riwayat penyakit atopik dalam keluarga. [MKB. 2013;45(2):130–34]Kata kunci: Anak, IgE total, obesitas, riwayat atopik keluargaTotal IgE Levels in Childhood Obesity With or Without Family Historyof Atopic DiseaseThe prevalence of obesity and atopic disease in children, especially at school age increased in the last decade. Diseases mediated by IgE and atopy were influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Leptin resistance in obesity is associated with stimulation of TH 2 which affects the production of IgE. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of total IgE levels with obesity in children with or without family history of atopic disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period April-September 2010, which involved 160 children aged 6–11 years at several elementary schools in Bandung. There are 4 groups: group 1: obese with family history of atopic disease, 2: normal nutrition with family history of atopic disease, 3: obese without family history of atopic disease, 4: normal nutrition without family history of atopic disease. Examination of total IgE levels were done by ECLIA method. Significance categorical data were tested by Chi-Square test, based on p <0.05. High total IgE levels in each group, respectively 30 (83%), 24 (60%), 21 (54%), and 11 (28%) children (p<0.001). In the group with family history of atopic disease, total IgE levels in obese children were higher [30 children (83%)] compared with normal nutrition [24 children (60%)] (p=0.025). In the group without family history of atopic disease, high total IgE levels in obese children [21 children (54%)] were higher than the normal nutrition [11 children (28%)] (p = 0.017). Inferred high total IgE levels more in obese children compared with normal nutrition with and without a history of atopic disease in the family. [MKB. 2013;45(2):130–34]Key words: Atopy, family history, obesity, total IgE level DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v45n2.87

Diferensiasi Asma Atopik dengan Nonatopik pada Pasien Rawat Jalan di Klinik Paru-Asma

Santoso, Prayudi ( Subbagian Pulmonologi, Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran-Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin ) , Dahlan, Zul ( Subbagian Pulmonologi, Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran-Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin )

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 45, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Terdapat kesulitan penatalaksanaan asma karena mekanisme asma yang kurang jelas dan terdapat berbagai fenotipe asma yang bersifat individual memerlukan terapi pendekatan individual. Salah satu fenotipe asma adalah asma atopik dan nonatopik yang secara klinis susah dibedakan. Penelitian bersifat deskriptif analitik, rancangan potong lintang dilakukan untuk melihat perbedaan karakteristik asma atopik dengan nonatopik. Subjek penelitian penderita asma baru yang berobat jalan di klinik Paru Asma An-Nur Bandung tahun 2007–2008. Pada pasien tersebut dilakukan pemeriksaan nilai total IgE, spirometri, dan tes tusuk kulit. Terdapat 198 pasien asma terdiri atas 149 (75,3%) pasien atopik dan 49 (24,7%) nonatopik. Median usia pasien nonatopik adalah 39 tahun dan atopik 34 tahun (p=0,039). Terdapat perbedaan bermakna keluhan sesak napas kelompok atopik (68,5%) dan nonatopik (44,9%) (p=0,003), tidak bermakna pada pemeriksaan spirometri. Riwayat atopik pasien sendiri terdapat pada kelompok asma atopik (p=0,011), bermakna pada rinitis (81,2 vs 61,2 OR 2,7) dan urtikaria (14,8 vs 4,1 OR 4,0). Asma nonatopik tidak lebih berat dibandingkan dengan atopik yang diketahui dari pemeriksaan persentase forced expiratory volume first second (FEV1). Pada pasien rinitis dengan urtikaria, risiko mendapatkan asma atopik lebih besar. Simpulan, tidak ada perbedaan hasil tes tusuk kulit pada kedua kelompok. Gejala klinis kelompok atopik sesuai dengan positivitas hasil pemeriksaan IgE. Keadaan klinis rinitis dan urtikaria lebih menjuruskan diagnosis ke arah asma atopik dibandingkan dengan gambaran klinis lainnya atau hasil spirometri. [MKB. 2013;45(2):105–11]Kata kunci: Asma atopik, asma nonatopik, IgE, karakteristik klinisDifferentiation of Atopic and Non-Atopic Asthma in Out-Patient Pulmo-Asthma ClinicThere is a difficulty in asthma management regarding to unclear mechanism of asthma, and a variety of asthma phenotypes that individually require individual therapy and approach. The asthmatic phenotype atopic and nonatopic was clinically difficult to distinguish. The study was analytical descriptive with cross-sectional design. The study aim was to explore the differences of atopic and non-atopic asthmatic characteristics. The study subjects were newly asthmatic patients who were out-patients of An-Nur Lung-Asthmatic Clinic, Bandung, in 2007–2008. In patients examined total IgE, spirometry and skin prick test. There were 198 asthmatic patients comprising 149 (75.3%) atopic and 40 (24.7%) non-atopic asthma. The median of the non-atopic age was 39 years, while the atopic was 34 years (p=0.039). There was a significant difference between atopic (68.5%) and non-atopic (44.9%) in complaint of short breath (p=0.003), but non significant in spirometric examination. The history of atopy were present in atopic asthma group (p=0.011), with significance in rhinitis (81.2 vs 61.2 OR=2.7) and urticaria (14.8 vs 4.1 OR=4.0). Non-atopic asthma was not more severe that atopic asthma was known from examination of forced expiratory volume first second (FEV1). Rhinitis patient, having urticaria, have greater risk for atopic asthma. There were no difference in skin prick test results between both groups. The clinical symptoms of atopic group were in line with the positivenes results of IgE examination. Clinical condition of rhinitis and urticaria direct to the diagnosed towards atopic asthma compared than other clinical features or spirometric result. [MKB. 2013;45(2):105–11]Key words: Atopic asthma, clinical characteristics, IgE, non-atopic asthma DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v45n2.112

Interaksi Antibodi Monoklonal Nimotuzumab dengan Reseptor HER-1 yang Diekspresikan Glioma Serebri

Mashuri, - ( Bagian Radiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Lambung Mangkurat-RSUD Ulin Banjarmasin, ) , Soetikno, Rista D., Mutalib, A.

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 45, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Human epidermal receptor (HER-1) merupakan anggota famili epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) yang banyak diekspresikan glioma. Interaksi HER-1 dengan antibodi monoklonal (Mab) merupakan salah satu pendekatan untuk diagnosis dikaitkan dengan kespesifikan interaksinya yang lebih terarah dalam mencapai target molekul. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis interaksi antara antibodi monoklonal nimotuzumab dan reseptor HER-1 yang diekspresikan glioma serebri. Penelitian menggunakan metode studi analitik korelasional dengan rancangan eksperimental untuk menilai interaksi antibodi monoklonal nimotuzumab (Mab) dengan reseptor HER-1 yang diekspresikan cell-line glioma. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Pusat Radioisotop dan Radiofarmaka (PRR) Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional, Serpong Tangerang periode Januari−Juli 2012. Subjek penelitian cell-line glioma yang didapat dari American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), diinkubasi dengan sejumlah nimotuzumab dengan konsentrasi yang berbeda-beda secara berturut-turut 0,22; 0,11; 0,055; 0,0275; 0,01375 pM, selanjutnya dilakukan penentuan interaksi nimotuzumab dengan HER-1 secara in vitro menggunakan Formula Scatchard. Nilai interaksi ditunjukkan dengan nilai tetapan disosiasi dan kerapatan reseptor dengan nilai Bmax. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan korelasi kuat antara konsentrasi nimotuzumab dan HER-1 yang diekspresikan glioma serebri (r=0,922;p<0,001). Nilai Kd nimotuzumab didapatkan 6x10-7 M dan nilai Bmax sebesar 1,64x10-5 mol/mg protein. Simpulan, terdapat interaksi antara antibodi monoklonal nimotuzumab dan reseptor HER-1 yang diekspresikan cell-line glioma serebri. [MKB. 2013;45(2):86–90]Kata kunci: Afinitas pengikatan, antibodi monoklonal, glioma, HER-1, nimotuzumabInteraction of Nimotuzumab Monoclonal Antibody with Human Epidermal Receptor-1 Expressed by Cerebral GliomaHuman epidermal receptor (HER-1) is a family member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) which is widely expressed in glioma. Interaction of the monoclonal antibody with the HER-1 is a diagnosis approach which is associated with the specificities of a more targeted interactions in reaching the target molecule. This study aims to analyze the interaction between nimotuzumab monoclonal antibody and HER-1 receptor expressed by cerebral gliomas. This study is using correlational analytic studies with an experimental design to assess the interaction of nimotuzumab monoclonal antibody to HER-1 expressed by glioma cell line. This research was conducted in Center for Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Serpong, Tangerang in January–July 2012. Subjects were glioma cell lines obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)which were incubated with nimotuzumab in different concentrations, i.e. 0.22, 0.11, 0.055, 0.0275, 0.01375 pM, respectively. Furthermore, the determination of the in vitro interaction of nimotuzumab with HER-1 was conducted using Scatchard formula. The value of the interaction is shown by the value of the dissociation constant and receptor density indicated by the Bmax value. The results showed a strong correlation between the concentration of nimotuzumab with HER-1 expressed by cerebral gliomas (r=0.922, p<0.001). Thenimotuzumab Kd value obtained was 6x10-7 M while the Bmax value was 1.64 x10-5 mol/mg proteins. In conclusion, there is an interaction between monoclonal antibody nimotuzumab with HER-1 expressed by the cerebral glioma cell line. [MKB. 2013;45(2):86–90]Key words: Binding affinity, glioma, HER-1, monoclonal antibodies, nimotuzumab DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v45n2.88