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Articles by issue : Vol 7, No 4 (2013): November 2013
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Articles
Isolation and Characterization of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria from Swiftlet Feces in Swiftlet Farm Houses in Sarawak, Malaysia

SIEN, LEONG SUI ( Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan 94300, Sarawak, Malaysia ) , LIHAN, SAMUEL ( Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan 94300, Sarawak, Malaysia ) , YEE, LING TECK ( Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan 94300, Sarawak, Malaysia ) , CHUAN, CHIA HWA ( Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan 94300, Sarawak, Malaysia ) , KOON, LIM CHAN ( Department of Zoology, Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan 94300, Sarawak, Malaysia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 4 (2013): November 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

There is a growing concern on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Development of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria has overtaken new drug development and threatened the patients with untreatable infections. This study was conducted to isolate and characterize the antibiotic resistant bacteria from swiftlet farm houses located in various places including Kota Samarahan, Semarang, Saratok, Betong, Sarikei, Sibu, Sepinang, Maludam, Miri, and Kuching in Sarawak, Malaysia. Five feces samples were collected randomly from each site. One gram of the feces sample was diluted in 9 mL of 0.85% normal saline solution. The diluted sample was plated on Trypticase Soy agar plates and incubated at 37±1 °C for 24 h. A total of 500 bacteria isolates were then identified using 16S rRNA analysis method. Disc diffusion method was then used to confirm the resistant phenotypes of these isolates. The results showed that the means of the bacterial colony count were significantly different (p<0.05) from one another, with the highest log CFU g-1 (9.22±0.72) found in Kota Samarahan and the log10 lowest log CFU g-1 (6.03±0.62) in Betong. Besides, the isolated bacteria were identified as 96% Gram positive log10 bacteria and 4% Gram negative bacteria. The isolated bacteria were highly resistant to penicillin G (36.80±23.87%), ampicillin (28.60±17.13%), and rifampicin (16.90±13.70%). Thus, swiftlet feces are good reservoir for a range of antibiotic resistant bacteria which may pose a potential health hazard to human.

The Lignocellulolytic Activity and Ability to Produce Indole Acetic Acid Hormone of Fungal Inoculant Isolated From Spent Mushroom (Agaricus sp.) Substrate

BIMO SETIARTO, RADEN HARYO ( Microbiology Division, Research Center for Biology LIPI Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km 46, Cibinong Science Center, Bogor 16911, Indonesia ) , SASKIAWAN, IWAN ( Microbiology Division, Research Center for Biology LIPI Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km 46, Cibinong Science Center, Bogor 16911, Indonesia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 4 (2013): November 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

The main problem in soil conservation is the lack of carbon source from organic material. Rice straw from spent mushroom substrate (SMS) can be used as organic fertilizer to supply organic carbon for soil. It can also improve soil structure and increase macro-elements and micro-elements required by plants. This research focused on analyzing lignocellulolytic activity and Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) concentration produced by 14 fungal strains isolated from rice straw that had previously been used as substrate for champignon (Agaricus sp.). Four fungal strains were isolated (JPF 2, JPF 5, JPF 13, and JPF 14) and then characterized. JPF 14 isolate had the highest laccase activity (1.767 U mL-1) and produced the highest concentration of indole acetic acid (IAA) hormone (6.78 mg mL-1). JPF 13 isolate had the highest amylase activity (0.746 U mL-1). JPF 2 isolate had the highest cellulose activity (0.502 U mL-1). JPF 5 isolate had the highest xylanase activity (0.560 U mL-1). Based on their ability to grow on certain pH and temperature, isolate JPF 2 was classified as mesophylic-acidophylic microbe, isolates JPF 5 and JPF 14 were psycrophylic-acidophylic microbes, and isolate JPF 13 was psycrophylic-alkalophylic microbe.

In Vitro Modulation of Human Intestinal Microbiota by Mannoligosaccharides Synthesized from Amorphophallus muelleri Glucomannan

DINOTO, ACHMAD ( Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor KM 46, Cibinong 16911, Jawa Barat, Indonesia ) , WATUMLAWAR, CORY CORAZON ( Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Industri dan Farmasi (STTIF), Jalan Kumbang 23, Bogor 16151, Jawa Barat, Indonesia ) , YOPI, YOPI ( Research Center for Biotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor KM 46, Cibinong 16911,Jawa Barat, Indonesia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 4 (2013): November 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

The corms of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume contain a large amount of glucomannan, a kind of polysaccharide that are commonly consumed by people as gelly foods. In order to improve the beneficial properties of glucomannan, we previously have established the enzymatic process to produce the mannoligosaccharides from flour of glucomannan using microbial mannanase. The effects of mannoligosaccharides on the growth modulation of human intestinal microbiota were investigated in this study. A set of in vitro single batch culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of mannooligosaccharides on human-origin Lactobacillus fermentum AA0014 and Lactobacillus plantarum FU0811. A modified MRS medium containing 10% (w/v) sucrose, glucomannan, and mannoligosaccharide was used instead of glucose as carbon source. The results showed the highest growth rate (0.13 h-1) with both L. fermentum AA0014 and L. plantarum FU0811 in the presence of mannooligosaccharides. We confirmed this result by a similar in vitro experiment using human fecal samples of six healthy adults as innocula and analyzed the microbial population by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Lactobacilli were proliferated higher in the presence of mannoligosaccharide than other carbon sources, yielding the microbial proportion as much of 10.9% of total microbiota. Overall, this study demonstrated the potential use of mannoligosaccharides synthesized from A. muelleri glucomannan as prebiotic candidate of modulating the beneficial human intestinal microbiota.

Morphology and Histology Identification of Fungal Endophytes from Oil Palm Roots in Ganoderma boninense Endemic Area

SITUMORANG, ELIZABETH CAROLINE ( Microbiome Technology Laboratory, Plant Production and Biotechnology Division, PT Smart Tbk, Sinarmas Land Plaza Tower 2, 28th Fl. Jalan MH Thamrin No. 51, Kav 22, Gondangdia, Jakarta Pusat,10350, Indonesia ) , PRAMESWARA, ANDRIESSA ( Microbiome Technology Laboratory, Plant Production and Biotechnology Division, PT Smart Tbk, Sinarmas Land Plaza Tower 2, 28th Fl. Jalan MH Thamrin No. 51, Kav 22, Gondangdia, Jakarta Pusat,10350, Indonesia ) , SINTHYA, HANA CHRISTINE ( Microbiome Technology Laboratory, Plant Production and Biotechnology Division, PT Smart Tbk, Sinarmas Land Plaza Tower 2, 28th Fl. Jalan MH Thamrin No. 51, Kav 22, Gondangdia, Jakarta Pusat,10350, Indonesia ) , TORUAN-MATHIUS, NURITA ( Microbiome Technology Laboratory, Plant Production and Biotechnology Division, PT Smart Tbk, Sinarmas Land Plaza Tower 2, 28th Fl. Jalan MH Thamrin No. 51, Kav 22, Gondangdia, Jakarta Pusat,10350, Indonesia ) , LIWANG, TONY ( Microbiome Technology Laboratory, Plant Production and Biotechnology Division, PT Smart Tbk, Sinarmas Land Plaza Tower 2, 28th Fl. Jalan MH Thamrin No. 51, Kav 22, Gondangdia, Jakarta Pusat,10350, Indonesia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 4 (2013): November 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Endophytic fungi defined as fungi that colonize internal plant tissues without causing visible damage to their host plant. As they are internal colonisers, therefore more able to compete within the vascular systems with capacity to arrest the spread of pathogens such as Ganoderma boninense causal agent of Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease in oil palm. Endophytic microbes acted against plant pathogen by antibiosis mechanism, nutrient and space competition, and induce plant pathogen resistance by producing metabolites. The objective of the present study was to identify endophytic fungi from oil palm roots in G. boninense endemic area Padang Halaban Estate, North Sumatera, based on morphological and histological character. At each site, five random palms were sampled. Seventy five endophytic fungi had been isolated and selected from BSR symptomless palm root. Identification of fungal endophytes were carried out by observing the reproductive structures (sexual and asexual) under a light-field microscope with camera attachment. Seventy five isolates were classified to eight genera, consisting of Trichoderma (20), Fusarium (10), Aspergillus (5), Penicillium (5), Gliocladium (4), Phoma (4), Alternaria (4), and Curvularia (3). Twenty others were unidentified due to sterile mycelia.

Cultivation Process Optimization Of Recombinant Bacillus Subtilis Apoptin

SAHLAN, MUHAMAD ( Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia ) , DESIANDINI, YUKI ( Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia ) , IQBAL, MUHAMMAD ( Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia ) , WIDHYASTUTI, NUNUK ( Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Cibinong 16911, Indonesia ) , MALIK, AMARILA ( Facultry of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia ) , SETYAHADI, SISWA ( Center for Bioindustrial Technology, Agency for Assesment and Aplication of Technology (BPPT), Jalan MH Thamrin 8, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 4 (2013): November 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

The success of recombinan apoptin production in native form in the previous results open the way to develop this anticancer protein production to the larger scale. We optimized cultivation process of recombinant Bacillus subtilis 168 harbouring pOXGW12His8Arg with apoptin gene in a stirred tank fermentor and shake flasks. The parameters to optimize cultivation process are xylose-inducer concentration, agitation speed, and aeration rate. The xylose-inducer concentration variations are carried out in a shake flasks with 100 mL volume broth, while the agitation speed and aeration rate variation is carried out in a stirred tank fermentor with 3 L volume broth. The xylose concentration is varied between 0-5% w/v, while agitation speed and aeration rate are varied between 150-250 rpm and 0.5-1.5 NL min-1 respectively. The best condition in this cultivation is 1% w/v of xylose, 250 rpm of agitation speed and 1,5 NL min-1 of aeration rate giving the specific growth rate value for each parameter of 0.628 h-1; 0.630 h-1; and 0.747 h-1 respectively. The recombinant apoptin were purified by Ni-NTA column using AKTA system. However, the results showed that the optimum condition of producing recombinant apoptin was 1% w/v of xylose, 250 rpm of agitation speed, and 0.5 NL min-1 of aeration.

Potential Use of Mosquito’s Salivary Components as Novel Target for The Development of Transmission Blocking Vaccine (TBV)

SENJARINI, KARTIKA ( Biology Department-Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty, University of Jember, Jalan Kalimantan 37, Jember 68121, Indonesia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 4 (2013): November 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Mosquito-borne diseases are rampant in most tropical regions of the world, especially rural, forested, and coastal  areas  such  as  Indonesia.  Despite  long-standing  chemotherapeutic intercession  and  vector  control programs, mosquito-borne diseases exact a heavy burden on human health  in Indonesia. Two major public health problems  transmitted by mosquito  in Indonesia are malaria and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), causing millions of clinical episodes occurring annually. Malaria is now recognized as a serious re-emerging threat to public health. DHF cases were first observed in 1968; since then, the incidence has been constantly increasing and the disease is now one of the principal causes of child lethality. It has been widely observed that saliva of mosquito  that  transmits  the diseases contains several factors  that could enhance pathogen  infection. Therefore,  it should be possible  to control pathogen  transmission by vaccinating  the host against  the molecule(s)  in saliva  that potentiate  the  infection. However, specific component as a potential  target  for TBV  in mosquito vectors of malaria & dengue,  i.e. Anopheles and Aedes aegypti, has not been  identified so  far. This paper wanted  to elaborate the potential role of salivary component from mosquitoes, particularly from Indonesian vectors as molecular target  for developing TBV against  two major Mosquito borne-diseases  in  Indonesia  i.e. malaria and DHF.

Antibacterial Activity of Bisanthraquinone (+)-1,1’-Bislunatin

PRAPTIWI, PRAPTIWI ( Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jalan Raya Bogor 46, Cibinong, Indonesia ) , JAMAL, YULIASRI ( Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jalan Raya Bogor 46, Cibinong, Indonesia ) , FATHONI, AHMAD ( Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jalan Raya Bogor 46, Cibinong, Indonesia ) , NURKANTO, ARIF ( Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jalan Raya Bogor 46, Cibinong, Indonesia ) , AGUSTA, ANDRIA ( Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jalan Raya Bogor 46, Cibinong, Indonesia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 4 (2013): November 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Endophytic fungi has been known as a source of biologically active compunds with a broad sprectrum of activities. One of the endophytic fungi isolated from young stem of gambier plant (Uncaria gambier Roxb.:Rubiaceae), Diaporthe sp. GNBP-10, produced (+)-1,1’-bislunatin when cultivated on potato dextrose agar (PDA). (+)-1,1’-Bislunatin showed moderate antibacterial activity against 7 bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Shigella flexneri, Proteus vulgaris, and P. mirabilis) with MIC value in the range of 32-64 µg mL-1. The wall disruption and morphological changes in the cells affected by exposure of (+)-1,1’-bislunatin are also discussed in this article.

The Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (Gigaspora margarita) on Mercury and Nutrients Accumulation by Enterolobium cyclocarpum Seedlings

EKAMAWANTI, HANNA ARTUTI ( Tropical Silviculture Major, Post-graduate School of Bogor Agricultural University, Jalan Lingkar Akademik Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia Faculty of Forestry, Tanjungpura University, Jalan Imam Bonjol, Pontianak, Indonesia ) , SETIADI, YADI ( Laboratory of Forest Biotechnology, Research Center for Biological Resources and Biotechnology, Bogor Agricultural University, Jalan Lingkar Akademik Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16880, Indonesia ) , SOPANDIE, DIDY ( Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Bogor Agricultural University, Jalan Meranti, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia ) , SANTOSA, DWI ANDREAS ( Laboratory of Biotechnology Soil and Environment, Department of Soil and Land Resources, Bogor Agricultural University, Jalan Meranti, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 4 (2013): November 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

A river-sand culture experiment was conducted to investigate whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization influenced mercury (Hg) and nutrients accumulation, and whether AM fungus (AMF) Gigaspora margarita enhance host plant sengon buto (Enterolobium cyclocarpum) tolerance to Hg. Hg was applied as HgCl2 at different levels (375 and 750 µM) and added to the full strength of Hoaglands solution, then applied to seedlings in river-sands as growth media according to treatments.  The non-mycorrhizal and mycorhizal E. cyclocarpum roots took up Hg, but its translocation to the leaves was inhibited. AM inoculation decreased significantly Hg content of roots seedlings by 70.5% from non-AM inoculation seedlings. Mycorrhizae enhanced significantly Ca and Mg uptake in shoot by 1.29- and 1.27-fold higher than non-mycorrhizal seedlings, but not enhanced significantly P uptake. Based on the roots dry weight, the tolerance index of non-mycorrhizal or mycorrhizal seedlings treated with 750 µM Hg supply was > 50%. It indicated that the seedlings can tolerate up to 750 µM Hg added. Considering the possible differences in AMF response to Hg in polluted soil from the field, it is not yet clear if Gi. margarita could be applied for phytoremediation of Hg in contaminated sites. Therefore, more work needs to be done using AMF isolates to reveal the possible application in the management of Hg contaminated soils.

Growth Characteristic of Fungus strain MGS-2 in a Defined Medium Containing Organic Acids Derived from Peat Soil

NURANI, DIANA ( Laboratory of Industrial Technology Development for Agro and Biomedical Center for Bioindustrial Technology, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) BPPT Buiding II 15th floor, Jalan MH Thamrin No 8, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia ) , KOESNANDAR, KOESNANDAR ( Laboratory of Industrial Technology Development for Agro and Biomedical Center for Bioindustrial Technology, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) BPPT Buiding II 15th floor, Jalan MH Thamrin No 8, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 4 (2013): November 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Some organic acids derived from lignin degradation in peat soil have significant role in lowering pH of peat soil and have phytotoxic effect for plant. A series of experiments has been conducted to decrease the amount of organic acids in peat soil by microbial treatment. The aim of the study was to characterize the growth of selected fungi using organic acids extracted from peat soil as a sole carbon source.The fungus strain MGS-2 was grown in a liquid medium containing various concentrations of organic acids extracted from peat soil, nitrogen and salt at initial pH of 3.8. The cell growth, pH of medium and the content of organic acids were analyzed. The identification of fungus MGS-2 was based on the 28S rDNA.The ability of Hypocrea sp. to degrade toxic organic acid derived from peat soil has never been reported. The organic acid and nitrogen optimum for the growth were 33.1 mN-NaOH and 2 g NH2SO4 per liter medium, respectively. The interaction between carbon and nitrogen source was found to be significantly influenced by the increment of pH medium, however this interaction did not effect to the cell growth and reduction of organic acids. The carbon source affected significantly to the cell growth and acid metabolism by fungus strain MGS-2 The fungus could not grow well in the medium without yeast exract, but grew well in the limitation of NH2SO4 , suggested that yeast extract was metabolized as nitrogen source. The optimum degradation of organic acids extracted from peat soil by MGS-2 was obtained at pH 3.8. Theseresult suggested that the cell mass production of MGS-2 can be performed in optimal defined medium utilizing organic acid derived from peat soil. Molecular identification revealed that the MGS-2 was closed to Hypocrea sp.