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Articles by issue : Vol 7, No 3 (2013): September 2013
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Articles
Production of Maltooligosaccharides from Black Potato (Coleus tuberosus) Starch by α-amylase from a Marine Bacterium (Brevibacterium sp.)

RAHMANI, NANIK ( Biocatalyst and Fermentation Laboratory, Research Center for Biotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Cibinong, Indonesia ) , ROHANA, ROHANA ( Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology,Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus Darmaga, Bogor 16820, Indonesia ) , SUKARNO, SUKARNO ( Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology,Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus Darmaga, Bogor 16820, Indonesia ) , ANDRIANI, ADE ( Biocatalyst and Fermentation Laboratory, Research Center for Biotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Cibinong, Indonesia ) , YOPI, YOPI ( Biocatalyst and Fermentation Laboratory, Research Center for Biotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Cibinong, Indonesia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 3 (2013): September 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

High quality maltooligosaccharides were produced from indigenous Indonesian black potato starch by making use of an amylase from Brevibacterium sp. Optimal production was achieved at 2.5% (w/v) substrate concentration, an enzyme-substrate ratio of 1:5 (w/v) and hydrolysis time of 4 h. Under such conditions the yield of reducing sugars was 14 240 ppm with a polymerization degree of 16. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the formation of glucose, maltose, and maltotriose with Rf values of 0.60, 0.52, and 0.37, respectively. HPLC analysis of freeze-dried samples disclosed Rf values of 0.60, 0.50, 0.37, and 0.12. Maltooligosaccharide profile analysis both using TLC and HPLC showed that the enzymatically hydrolyzed samples contained glucose, maltose, and maltotriose. Thus, black potato starch can be randomly converted into simple sugars and maltooligosaccharides applying by amylolytic enzymes from the marine microbe Brevibacterium sp.

Characterization of Micromonospora spp. with Activity Against E.coli ATCC 35218 Resistance β-Lactam Antibiotics

HIDAYATI, DYAH NOOR ( Biotechnology Center, The Agency for The Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) ) , LESTARI, YULIN ( Biotechnology Center, The Agency for The Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) Biopharmaca Research Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Taman Kencana Campus, Bogor 16151, Indonesia ) , MARWOTO, BAMBANG ( Center for Pharmaceutical and Medical Technology BPPT, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK-Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314, Indonesia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 3 (2013): September 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

The emerge of antibiotic resistance has been an important issue all over the world, on the other hand, infectious diseases have been one of the highest causes of death causes in the world. Therefore, the discovery of a new antimicrobial drug is very important, and the group of rare actinomycetes are really promising as the producer of new bioactive compounds, in this case antibiotics. In this study we screened and characterized the actinomycetes with antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 resistant beta-lactam antibiotics. A total of 96 strains collected in Biotechnology Microbial Culture Collection (BioMCC), BPPT, were screened for their antibacterial activities by the agar plug method. Three strains, at-HH-64, at-HH-78, and at-HH-259, showed antibacterial activity. The selected strains were cultured on four different media, both solid and liquid media, e.g. ISP2, ISP4, Micromonospora Starch Medium (MS), and Bennet’s Medium (BM), and we characterized their morphology and growth patterns. Morphological characterization showed that all strains belonged to the genera Micromonospora. The active strains were also identified based on 16S rRNA partial sequence. BLAST search of the 16S rRNA sequences of all tested strains with the sequences available in the NCBI data bank showed a maximum similarity 99% with Micromonospora chersina.

Screening of Rhizobacteria for Plant Growth Promotion and Their Tolerance to Drought Stress

PUTRIE, RAHAYU FITRIANI WANGSA ( Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jalan Agatis, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus Dramaga Bogor 16680, Indonesia ) , WAHYUDI, ARIS TRI ( Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jalan Agatis, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus Dramaga Bogor 16680, Indonesia ) , NAWANGSIH, ABDJAD ASIH ( Department of Plant Protections, Faculty of Agriculture, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Jalan Agatis Kampus Dramaga Bogor 16680, Indonesia ) , HUSEN, EDI ( Soil Research Institute, BBSDLP, Jalan Tentara Pelajar, Bogor 16114, Indonesia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 3 (2013): September 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Rhizobacteria have been known for their capability as plant growth promoter through some mechanisms, directly and indirectly. The purpose of this research to screen rhizobacteria of Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. for their drought tolerance as plant growth promoter of maize (Zea mays). Screening of rhizobacteria as growth promoter of 47 isolates of Bacillus CR and 34 isolates of  Pseudomonas CRB resulted 24 and 9 isolates were able to stimulate the growth of maize sprouts, respectively. Further screening of those growth promoter of the rhizobacterial isolates to drought tolerance resulted 7 isolates of Bacillus CR and 6 isolates of Pseudomonas CRB that were able to grow on medium with osmotic pressure -1 and -2 MPa, respectively. Potential rhizobacterial isolates of growth promoter and drought tolerance were tested for antagonist mechanisms which aims to determine ability to live together in one carrier medium if to be made formulation. Both non antagonist rhizobacterial isolates were evaluated for their potential in producing exopolysaccharide (EPS) revealing that CRB 19 and CR 90 exhibited the highest activity of EPS production up to 0.346 mg mL-1 on medium with -2.0 MPa and 0.107 mg mL-1 on medium with -0.73 MPa, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, it revealed CRB 19 and CR 90 had highest similarities to Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain B2 and Brevibacillus brevis B33, respectively. Those growth promoter and drought tolerant of Bacillus CR and Pseudomonas CRB had potency to be developed as inoculants in dry land agriculture.

Community Structure of Sporulating Fungi on Decaying Litters of Shorea spp.

HARAHAP, ISRAWATI ( Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Kampus Dramaga, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor 16680. Indonesia ) , RAHAYU, GAYUH ( Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Kampus Dramaga, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor 16680. Indonesia ) , HIDAYAT, IMAN ( Microbiology Division, Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institutes of Sciences, Cibinong 16911, Indonesia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 3 (2013): September 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

The community structure of sporulating fungi on decaying branch and leaf litters of Shorea spp. were studied to reveal the common saprobic fungi. The study was mainly based on morphological observation. Twenty-nine species of the sporulating fungi were found on Shorea spp. litters at Situ Gede and Bubulak forest area, Bogor, West Java. The fungi included seven species of Ascomycetes (Annulohypoxylon purpureonitens, Diatrype chlorosarca, Didymosphaeria epidermidis, Lophiostoma sp.,  Lophodermium sp., Pemphidium sp., and Valsa sp.) and 22 species of anamorphic taxa that consisted of 12 Coelomycetes (Coniella musaiaensis, Coryneum betulinum, Hendersoniopsis thelebola, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Lasmeniella guaranitica, Leptodothiorella sp., Massariothea themedae, Pestalotia guepinii, Pestalotiopsis sp., Pseudolachnea hispidula, Septoriella sp., and unidentified species of Coelomycetes) and 10 Hyphomycetes (Beltraniella portoricensis, Cryptophialoidea fasciculata, Hermatomyces spaerichus, Kiliophora ubiensis, Minimidochium setosum, Monodisma fragilis, Nodulisporium sp., Stilbella fimetaria, Virgatospora echinofibrosa, and unidentified Hyphomycetes). The  most common taxa occuring on decaying leaf litter were B. portoricensis and Pemphidium sp., while those on decaying branch material were L. theobromae and C. fasciculata. The fungal community was subtrate specific. The community on decaying branch litter was more diverse than that on leaf litter. The C/N ratio of the substrate was closely related to the structure  of the community.

Production of Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol as Bioenergy Source Materials by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564) using Different Substrates

AMBARSARI, HANIES ( Institute of Environmental Technology (BTL), Indonesian Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Building 412 PUSPIPTEK Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314, Indonesia ) , SONOMOTO, KENJI ( Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Division of Microbial Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Graduate School, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan Laborato )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 3 (2013): September 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

In the effort of developing bioenergy source materials, a laboratorium study was performed to investigate the effects of substrate types and concentrations on the production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from various substrates by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564) in defined TYA (Tryptone-Yeast extract-Acetate) media. The results demonstrated that the ABE ratios produced by the strain N1-4 were greatly influenced by the types of substrate and the concentrations being used. It was also shown that fermentation of disaccharides (cellobiose and dextrin) by the strain N1-4 could give relatively as high butanol and ABE yields as glucose fermentation after 24 h fermentation time. The strain N1-4 was also found to be able to ferment xylans from birchwood sources producing a relatively high ABE concentration, especially at a prolonged incubation time (after 48 h incubation period). A subsequent experiment using several different concentrations of glucose or cellobiose revealed that the higher the concentration of the substrate being used, then the higher the total ABE concentration or productivity could be obtained but not necessarily in the same increasing ratio. To the best of our knowledge, there was no other previous study about the effect of substrate type and concentration on the ABE ratio by C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564) using various substrates in defined TYA media, specifically by using xylans and dextrin substrates.

Antimicrobial Activity of Aloe sinkatana

ALI, ABUBAKER ( University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Khartoum 12810, Sudan ) , SULEIMAN, ELHAM ABDELBASIT ( University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Khartoum 12810, Sudan ) , SAEED, AMIR ( Karolinska Institute, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden ) , SANDSTRÖM, GUNNAR ( Karolinska Institute, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 3 (2013): September 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Aloe sinkatana is a plant belonging to the family Xanthorrhoeaceae, subfamily Asphodeloideae, genus Aloe. It is cultivated in the Red Sea Mountainseastern of the Sudan. In the present study, the extract of A. sinkatana leaves was screened for its antibacterial and antifungal activity. The phytochemical screening of A. sinkatana extracts was carried out using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) technique. Four extracts of A. sinkatana were prepared using chloroform, ethanol, methanol, and water. Antibacterial activity of the extract was performed following the cup-plate agar diffusion method. Also, the antifungal activity of the extract was tested. The result showed that the extracts of A. sinkatana leaves revealed antimicrobial activities greater than the commercial antifungal (Nystatin) which can be used for treatment of Candidiasis and ketoconazole that is used for treatment of fungal infection. The antimicrobial activity might be due to specific plant compounds, which was found to be more effective than commercial antifungal compounds. However the commercial antibiotic used for treatment of bacterial infection, displayed better antimicrobial activity than the A. sinkatana extracts. In conclusion A. sinkatana extract can be a useful treatment against fungal infections.