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Articles by issue : Vol 5, No 3 (2011): September 2011
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Articles
Antibacterial Activity of Propolis Supplemented-Chewing Candy Against Streptococcus mutans

ARTIKA, I MADE ( 1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , SUSILO, HARYANTO ( Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Pakuan ) , SETYO, ADINDA VIRGINIA DWI ( Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Pakuan ) , HASAN, AHMAD ENDANG ZAINAL ( 1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Pertanian Bogor )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 3 (2011): September 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Streptococcus mutans is considered to play a major etiological role in development of human dental plaque believed to related to dental caries, the most prevalent disease of the human oral cavity.  The objectives of the present study were to formulate and produce propolis supplemented-chewing candy and to investigate its antibacterial activity against S. mutans.  Propolis is a natural resinous bee-hive product thought to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating activities.  Propolis was extracted from hives of bees of Trigona spp. using ethanol.   The extract was coated with maltodextrine and homogenized to generate propolis microparticles.  The particles were introduced into chewing candy preparations for the production of propolis supplemented-chewing candy.  The candy was then subjected to  in vitro antibacterial assays to test its activity against S. mutans isolated from human dental plaque.  Results showed that the ethanol extracted propolis of Trigona spp. bee-hives can be homogenized to form propolis microparticles.  The propolis microparticles could be used as a supplement in the formulation of chewing candy preparations.  The propolis supplemented-chewing candy showed antibacterial activity against S.  mutans. The candy, therefore, has the potential to be used as an antiplaque agent for prevention of dental caries.

Antimicrobial Activity of Melinjo Seed and Peel Extract (Gnetum gnemon) Against Selected Pathogenic Bacteria

PARHUSIP, ADOLF JAN NEXSON ( Department of Food Technology, Universitas Pelita Harapan ) , SITANGGANG, AZIS BOING ( Department of Food Science and Technology, Institut Pertanian Bogor )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 3 (2011): September 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) is an Indonesian native plant which has not been widely accepted due to its limited utilization. Mainly, melinjo is consumed as an ingredient to make a vegetable dish or as raw material of ‘emping’. The purpose of this research was to study the antimicrobial activity of the melinjo seed extract and melinjo peel extract. In this study, extraction from melinjo seed and peel was conducted by maceration using three kinds of solvent: ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane for 24 h at room temperature. The results showed that none of the melinjo extracts (concentration from 5% - 25% w/v) could inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus IPBCC 88.030; whereas for Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25953, and Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 there was efficient inhibition by 5% (w/v) of melinjo seed-ethanol extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of melinjo extract was ranged from 0.26 μg mL-1 to 1.46 μg mL-1, whilst the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was ranged from 1.02 μg mL-1 to 6.04 μg mL-1. The inhibitory capacity of extract had a similar level as compared to 10 ppm penicillin G on B. cereus ATCC 10876 as well as on S. aureus ATCC 25953. Furthermore, as compared to 10 ppm streptomycin, the inhibitory capacity of the extract was equal for the all tested bacteria. Cell wall deformation was observed using SEM, and confirmed by the presence of ions (Ca2+ and K+) outside of the cells, detected by means of AAS.

Polydnavirus Symbiont Detected from Calyx TissuesWasps of Three Lepidopteran Cabbage Pests

RATNA, ENDANG SRI ( Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University ) , BUCHORI, DAMAYANTI ( Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University ) , SANTOSO, TEGUH ( Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 3 (2011): September 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Parasitoid wasps are a potent biological control agent in the field. The successful of parasitism are determined by several factors, among them by the presence of polydnavirus (PDV) symbiont that could break down the immunity mechanism of its host.We explored the existence of PDV on wasps , Snellenius manilae, Cotesia sp., and  Diadegma semiclausum a group of parasitoid on cabbage pests in Indonesia. Morphological study of PDV was done by preparing ultrasectioned calyx tissues and negative stained of extracted calyx fluid of adult parasitoids. Virogenic stroma resulted from differentiated calyxepithelial cells appeared on all three wasps. Bracovirus and ichnovirus were detected from the calyx tissues of S. manila and D. semiclausum . The electron dense materials of PDV were distributed within nucleus and vacuolated cytoplasm of calyx cells, calyx lumen and on the surface of eggs wasps. PDVs particles were also shown in the extracted calyx fluid of Cotesia sp.

Geminiviruses Associated with the Weed Species Ageratum conyzoides, Centipeda minima, Porophyllum ruderale, and Spilanthes iabadicensis from Java, Indonesia

MELIANSYAH, RIKA ( Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , HIDAYAT, SR HENDRASTUTI ( Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , MUTAQIN, KIKIN HAMZAH ( Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Institut Pertanian Bogor )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 3 (2011): September 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Geminivirus has a wide host range including cultivated plants and weeds. Infected weeds may play an important role in disease epidemic. Unfortunately, little is known about weeds species that may serve as alternative host for Geminivirus. This research was conducted to identify Geminivirus on weeds around chili pepper field to study their potential role as virus reservoir. Field surveys were conducted to chilli pepper growing area inWest and Central Java Provinces, and The Special Province of Yogyakarta during 2009 to collect symptomatic weed plants. Geminivirus infection was detected using PCR technique from 9 weed samples, i.e. 5 samples Ageratum conyzoides from Bogor (AgrBgr), Sukabumi (AgrSkm), Magelang (AgrMgl), Sleman (AgrJgy), and Garut (AgrGrt); Centipeda minima from Magelang (CtpMgl); A. boehmerioides from Sleman (AcpJgy); Porophyllum ruderale from Bogor (PrlBgr); Spilanthes iabadicensis from Magelang (SplMgl). Further genetic analysis showed that those geminiviruses can be differentiated into 2 clusters, showing the possible genetic differences among them. They neither have a close relationship with other geminiviruses published earlier in the GenBank, indicating weed infecting collected Geminivirus in this study is possibly a distinct Geminivirus.

Induction of Trichosanthes cucumerina anguina L. var (L. Haines) Hairy Roots Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834 for Production of Bioactive Protein

CHURIYAH, . ( Center for Pharmaceutical and Medical Technology, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT ) , WATTIMENA, GUSTAF ADOLF ( 2Department of Agriculture, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , PRIYOSOERYANTO, BAMBANG PONTJO ( Department of Veterinery, Institut Pertanian Bogor )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 3 (2011): September 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

In the recent years, hairy roots have become a useful model system for the study of bioactive secondary molecule production and protein expression. Hairy roots of Trichosanthes cucumerina var. anguina were obtained by direct inoculation of the plantlet with Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834 strain agropine. Six root clones of Trichosanthes cucumerina var. anguina hairy roots TH1, TH2, TH3, TH4, TH6, and TH8 were obtained from the induced hairy roots. The hairy root proteins were extracted with phosphate buffer saline, then fractionated by ammonium sulphate precipitation (80%), dialysis, and gel filtration. The toxicity of the proteins was analyzed using brine shrimp lethality test followed by cytotoxicity test (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay) using HeLa and K-562 cancer cell line. The TH2 root clone showed the highest protein yield (0.83%) and most toxic on BSLT with Lethal Concentration 50 was 5.76 μg mL-1. PCR analysis indicated the integration of rolB gene to the genome of TH2 root clone which was showed by a DNAband of 780 bp on the electrophoretic agarose gel. Protein fractionation of the TH2 root clone resulted in four fractions, one of which the-TH2-3 protein fraction revealed the highest yield (0.29%) and toxicity on BSLT with  LC50 up to 0.92 μg mL-1 . The Cytotoxicity test of the TH2 protein and TH2-3 protein fraction indicated that both of proteins inhibited the proliferation of Hela and K-562 cell withLC up to 49 μg mL-1.

Fusarium Species Associated with Corm Rot of Taro in Bogor

WIDODO, . ( Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , SUPRAMANA, . ( Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Institut Pertanian Bogor )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 3 (2011): September 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

In Bogor-West Java, corm rot disease of taro has devastated in many cropping areas and caused yield losses up to 70%. During preliminary studies, Fusarium species were constantly recovered when diseased materials, rotten corms and discolored petioles were incubated. The objectives of this study was to identify the Fusarium species associated with the corm rot disease in Bogor and determine their pathogenicity and hosts range. Samples were collected from 40 diseased corm samples taken in 9 sub-districts of Bogor. Two species, viz, Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum were identified based on the morphological characteristics. Among 40 Fusarium isolates recovered in this study, 70% were Fusarium solani and 30% were F. oxysporum.  F. solani could infect to all tested edible Araceae , while F. oxysporum was only pathogenic to Colocasia esculenta. Both species of Fusarium did not cause any symptoms when inoculated on selected ornamental and legume crops. These results gave the indication that F. solani was probably pathogenic only to edible Araceae, but further inoculation assay on living taro plants are necessary to carry out in order to clarify this result.

Characterization of a New Thermoalkalophilic Xylanase-Producing Bacterial Strain Isolated from Cimanggu Hot Spring,West Java, Indonesia

ULFAH, MARIA ( Center for Bioindustrial Technology, Laboratorium of Bioindustrial Technology, LAPTIAB BPPT Puspiptek -Serpong ) , HELIANTI, IS ( Center for Bioindustrial Technology, Laboratorium of Bioindustrial Technology, LAPTIAB BPPT Puspiptek -Serpong ) , WAHYUNTARI, BUDIASIH ( Center for Bioindustrial Technology, Laboratorium of Bioindustrial Technology, LAPTIAB BPPT Puspiptek -Serpong ) , NURHAYATI, NIKNIK ( Center for Bioindustrial Technology, Laboratorium of Bioindustrial Technology, LAPTIAB BPPT Puspiptek -Serpong )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 3 (2011): September 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Alkalophilic bacteria and their enzymes are important for industrial applications. Therefore, finding out new strains of alkalophilic bacteria from Indonesian microbial diversity is still required. In this study, a thermoalkalophilic bacterium was isolated from sediment of local hot spring, Cimanggu,West Java. The temperature of the spot was 60 °C and the pH was 8. The bacterium could live at pH 11 and temperature 55 °C, and produced xylanase that have optimal activity at alkaline pH 9 and high temperature 70 °C. Based on the analyses of 16S rRNA sequence similarity and biochemical characteristics, this strain was clustered into the same group of Bacillus halodurans species with 99% identity to Bacillus halodurans C-125. The isolate also showed other enzyme activities such as amylase, protease, and gelatinase, promising its potential use as an industrial enzymes producer.

Isolation and Characterization of Chitinolytic Bacteria and Their Potential to Inhibit Plant Pathogenic Fungi

SURYANTO, DWI ( Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara ) , IRAWATI, NETTI ( Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara ) , MUNIR, ERMAN ( Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 3 (2011): September 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

A study on the isolation and characterization of chitinolytic bacteria and their potential to inhibit plant pathogenic fungi has been done. The bacteria were isolated from the soil of Karo, Langkat, and Bangka, Sumatra. Ganoderma boninense, Fusarium oxysporum, and Penicillium citrinum of the stock cultures in Laboratory of Microbiology Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara were used for growth inhibition assay by the isolated bacteria. KR05 and LK08 shared similar morphological and physiological characters; like wise, KR07 shared property similarities with BK08. All bacterial isolates inhibited the growth of G. boninense F. oxysporum , and P. citrinum at a different extent. LK08 showed the highest inhibition rate followed by BK07 and BK09. However, P. citrinum was inhibited more by BK07 and BK09. The crude enzyme preparation of the latter isolate exhibited the highest chitinase activity. The result suggested that their swarming activity seemed to contributed to inhibition of fungal growth.