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Articles by issue : Vol 5, No 2 (2011): June 2011
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Articles
The Relation Between Levels of TNF Alpha, IL-1B, PGE2 and PLA with the Severity Degree of Dengue Hemorrhagic

PURWATI, . ( Infectious and Tropical Disease Division, Department of Internal Medicine - Dr. Soetomo Hospital, School of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga ) , NASRONUDIN, . ( Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga ) , KUSUMOWIDAGDO, ENDANG RETNOWATI ( Department of Clinical Pathology, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, School of Medicine,Universitas Airlangga ) , RANTAM, FEDIK ABDUL ( Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 2 (2011): June 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

The pathogenesis of dengue virus infection is still being debated.  Based on the existing data, there is a strong evidence that the immunopathological mechanism plays a role in dengue virus infection with various complications.  Some unknown immune responses play a role in the pathogenesis of dengue virus infection. Researchers are trying to establish the role of several inflammatory mediators such as PLA2, IL-1, TNF-, PGE2, PGI2, Thromboxane A2, Leucotrien and MPTP, in relation to the severity degree of the dengue virus infection.  The aim of this study is to recognize the relation between the severity degrees of DHF (Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever) patients and the immunological profile in the sub-cellular level, such as PLA2, IL-1, TNF-, PGE2 and PLA 2.  The collected data was processed and presented analytically. The relation between each parameter (TNFα, SPLA2, PGE2,IL-1β) and the degree of DHF was analyzes, using Spearman´s correlation analysis, ordinal regression, and using ANOVA.  It was shown that there was no relation between the levels of TNF-ά, PGE2, IL-1β, and SPLA2  in patients with various degrees of DHF, but there were significant differences between DHF grade 1 and 3, and also 2 and 3, on IL-1β.  There were increased levels of the four parameters in dengue grade 1 to 2, but decreased levels in grade 3. This can be caused by inflammatory processes, but the severity degree of DHF can also be influenced by complement, thromboxane, and leukotrien.

Optimization of Ethanol Production from Palmyra Sap by Zymomonas mobilis using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

CHRISNASARI, RUTH ( Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Surabaya ) , WARDANI, AGUSTIN KRISNA ( Departement of Food Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Brawijaya ) , MURDIYATMO, UNTUNG ( Departement of Food Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Brawijaya )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 2 (2011): June 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Ethanol is believed to be one of the best alternatives to replace gasoline, because ethanol is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly. The present study focuses on the optimization of palmyra sap as a source for ethanol production. Statistical experimental design using Box-Wilson central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the quantitative effects of sugar, urea, and inoculum concentration on ethanol production. It was found that palmyra sap could be used as a substrate for ethanol production using Zymomonas mobilis (NRRL B-14234). A maximum ethanol concentration of 58.97 g L-1 was obtained after optimizing the parameters of fermentation. The optimum values of sugar, urea, and inoculums concentration were 206.01 g L-1, 3.16 g L-1, and 23.05% (v v-1), respectively, with ethanol yield of 0.3039 g g-1. A high similarity was observed between the predicted and experimental results, which reflected the accuracy and applicability of RSM to optimize the process for ethanol production.

Characterization of Moderately Thermophilic Bacteria Isolated from Saline Hot Spring in Japan

KAWASAKI, YOKO ( Department of Environmental Engineering for Symbiosis, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University ) , AOKI, MADOKA ( Department of Environmental Engineering for Symbiosis, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University ) , MAKINO, YORIYASU ( Department of Environmental Engineering for Symbiosis, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University ) , SAKAI, HIROYUKI ( Department of Environmental Engineering for Symbiosis, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University ) , TSUBOI, YUKI ( Department of Environmental Engineering for Symbiosis, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University ) , UEDA, JUNKO ( Department of Environmental Engineering for Symbiosis, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University ) , WATANABE, KEIKO ( Department of Environmental Engineering for Symbiosis, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University ) , YAMAMOTO, SHUICI ( Department of Environmental Engineering for Symbiosis, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University ) , KUROSAWA, NORIO ( Department of Environmental Engineering for Symbiosis, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 2 (2011): June 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Twelve strains of moderately thermophilic bacteria were isolated from saline hot springs (55°C, pH 8.3) located in Odaito, Hokkaido, Japan. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, all the strains were closely related phylogenetically each other, indicating that the strains belong to a single species. However, maximal growth temperature and enzymatic characteristics of individual strains were slightly different each other. Some of them grew well at 55°C but others did not. The β-galactosidase activity was also different among the strains. Therefore, the representative strains BEK6 and BEK11 were chosen from individual phenotype groups, and were used for further characterization. The nucleotide sequence of full-length 16S rRNA genes of the representative strains showed 96.6% similarity with Bacillus alveayuensis indicating that the strains belong to a novel species of the genus Bacillus. The cells were Gram positive, and showed both catalase and oxidase activities. The optimal growth temperature and pH of strain BEK6 and BEK11 were around 50°C and 7-8, respectively. They were able to grow in the medium containing 10% NaCl in contrast to B. alveayuensis which can grow in the medium with up to 4% NaCl. The strain BEK11 showed relatively strong protease and amylase activities implying the potential industrial uses of these enzymes under the saline condition.

The Genetic Drift of Indonesian Avian Influenza A H5N1 Viruses During 2003-2008

DHARMAYANTI, NI LUH PUTU INDI ( Indonesian Research Center for Veterinary Science, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Departemen Pertanian ) , SAMAAN, GINA ( National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University ) , IBRAHIM, FERA ( Microbiology Department, Medicine Faculty, Universitas Indonesia ) , INDRIANI, RISA ( Indonesian Research Center for Veterinary Science, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Departemen Pertanian ) , DARMINTO, . ( Indonesian Research Center for Veterinary Science, Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Departemen Pertanian ) , SOEBANDRIO, AMIN ( Microbiology Department, Medicine Faculty, Universitas Indonesia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 2 (2011): June 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

The avian influenza A H5N1 outbreaks started in 2003 and Indonesia introduced a vaccination campaign in 2004 to control the disease. In 2007, anecdotal reports about reduced vaccine effectiveness were received from commercial farmers. This paper describes the evolution of viruses in Indonesia up till 2008 and focus on viruses from vaccinating farms reporting vaccine failure were compared to viruses isolated from outbreak areas with no vaccination program. Result of the study revealed that viruses from vaccinated chickens had more extensive mutation at the HA molecule compared to chicken and other avian species without vaccination. Substitutions occurred at the HA gene level as well as at NA, M1 and NS1 genes. Viruses isolated and characterized form 2008 vaccinated flocks had substitutions that were unique and different with the old viruses. The recommendation arising from this study to the avian influenza disease control program in Indonesia is that continuous monitoring of genetic character of viruses and the vaccine seed strain should be updated periodically and matched with the virus circulated in the field.

Cyclo (Tyrosyl-Prolyl) Produced by Streptomyces sp.: Bioactivity and Molecular Structure Elucidation

SUNARYANTO, ROFIQ ( Department of Agro-Industrial Technology, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , MARWOTO, BAMBANG ( Center of Biotechnology, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi ) , HARTOTO, LIESBETINI ( Department of Agro-Industrial Technology, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , IRAWADI, TUN TEDJA ( Department of Chemistry, Institut Pertanian Bogor )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 2 (2011): June 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Determination of bioactivity by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods and molecular structure identification of antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp. have been carried out. The antibiotic was produced by liquid culture using Streptomyces sp. isolate. Purification of antibiotic was carried out by silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Molecular structure identification was carried out using ESI-MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and 13C DEPT NMR. Pure antibiotic showed inhibition activity to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. MIC to Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 , Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, and Bacillus subtilis ATCC66923 were 27.0, 68.7, 80.2, and 73.7 μg mL-1 , respectively. Identification using ESI-MS showed that the molecular weight of this antibiotic was 260 g mol-1 , and molecular formula was C14H16N2O3 . Elucidation of molecular structure using 1HNMR, 13C NMR, and 13C DEPT NMRshowed that antibiotic was cyclo(tyrosyl-prolyl).

16S rDNA-Based Identification of Novel Superoxide Dismutase Producing Bacteria Isolated from Indonesia

INDRAYATI, ANA ( University of Galuh ) , YURINA, VALENTINA ( School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknologi Bandung ) , PITAYU, LARAS AJENG ( School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknologi Bandung ) , RETNONINGRUM, DEBBIE SOEFIE ( School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknologi Bandung )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 2 (2011): June 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has therapeutic importance because of its antioxidant activity and protects cells from reactive oxygen species attack. This research was intended to screen bacteria isolated from Indonesia for producing novel SODs and to identify the producers using 16S rDNA approach. Intracellular proteins were each extracted and assayed for their inhibition reduction activity by colorimetric method and by zymography for the presence of SOD protein band(s). For species identification, each of 16S rDNAgenes was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from genomicDNAfollowed by sequencing, BLAST, multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses. All 16 intracellular proteins gave inhibition reduction percentage in the range of 15 to 70% and in zymography, their SOD profiles were quite diversed with at least one intenseSOD band present in most isolates. The SOD producers were assigned to three species, Flavobacterium okeanokoites, Escherichia fergunosii, and E. coli, and to four genera, Pantoea, Escherichia,  Bacillus, and Pectobacterium. The remaining five were grouped in gamma-proteobacterium cluster and two formed a cluster with Pseudomonas. Three marine and four soil isolates could be attractive candidates for novel SODs based on unique properties of SOD producers. In conclusion, 16s rDNA-based identification of bacteria isolated from Indonesia reveals that seven isolates might be attractive candidates for novel SOD producers to be applied in pharmaceutical fields in the future.

Dissemination in Pigtailed Macaques after Primary Infection of Dengue-3 Virus

PAMUNGKAS, JOKO ( Primate Research Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , ISKANDRIATI, DIAH ( Primate Research Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , SAEPULOH, UUS ( Primate Research Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , AFFANDI, MOSES ( Faculty of Biotechnology, Unika Atma Jaya, ) , ARIFIN, ESTHER ( Primate Research Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , PARAMASTRI, YASMINA ( Primate Research Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , DEWI, FITRIYA NUR ANISA ( PT. Bimana Indomedical ) , SAJUTHI, DONDIN ( Primate Research Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 5, No 2 (2011): June 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Nonhuman primates (NHPs) play as indispensable animal model in biomedical research for studying a variety of human health issues, diseases and disorders, therapies, and preventive strategies. Since the immunological and physiological responses of NHPs, at some extent, to experimental viral infections are similar to humans, it is possible that studies of dengue infection in NHPs may aid understanding of dengue infection in humans. In this study,we used pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) as the experimental animal to study dengue-3 (DEN-3) virus infection.We evaluated DEN-3 viral distribution and replication sites after a primary infection in all collected tissues. Sequential localization in tissue of DEN-3 virus was studied in pigtailed macaques euthanized three days post viral inoculation (10 pfu mL ). Pigtailed macaque that was inoculated subcutaneously or intravenously; showed the highest viremia (62.94 pfu mL and 58.62 pfu mL ) detected by one step reverse transcription real time PCR. The virus inoculated in pigtailed macaques by subcutaneous injection was rapidly disseminated from the inoculation site to the lymph nodes, adrenal glands, kidneys, heart, thyroid, liver, prostate gland, and seminal vesicles. Meanwhile, dissemination of dengue virus in pigtailed macaques inoculated intravenously was detected in lymph nodes, thymus, salivary glands, liver, and prostate gland. This study suggested that the above mentioned-tissue specimens are involved or affected by DEN-3 virus replication and the route of infection seemed to have influenced the virus dissemination.