cover
Filter by Year
Articles by issue : Vol 4, No 3 (2010): December 2010
8
Articles
The Life Cycle of Synchytrium pogostemonis on Pogostemon cablin

WAHYUNO, DONO ( Indonesia Medicinal and Aromatic Crops Research Institute, Departemen Pertanian Indonesia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 4, No 3 (2010): December 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (336.498 KB)

Abstract

Synchytrium pogostemonis became  a serious disease of patchouli cultivation in Indonesia, since it  spread  widely in many patchouli producing areas in Indonesia. The fungus caused warts on leaves, petioles and young stems of infected patchouli. The infected plant developed  rosette habit, lost its vigour, was susceptible to drought period and finally died. Few information regarding the eco-biology and  life cycle of the fungus were available The present research aimed at describing the life cycle of S. pogostemonis.  The diseased patchouli was obtained  through artificial inoculation.  Mass inoculation was  carried out by placing the healthy patchouli seedling close to diseased patchouli as source of inoculum and was watered regularly using the top head sprinkler . The infected leaves were observed both under disecting and light compound microscopes, and the existing fungal structure were recorded, described and measured.    It was observed  that S. pogostemonis is a long-cycle type fungus, the sexual reproduction was initiated by zoospores, followed subsequently by development of resting-structure spores, vesicles, sori, and sporangial formation. 

A Comparison of Serological and Bacteriological Methods for Detection of Mycloplasma gallisepticum in Experimentally-Infected Chickens

AFIFF, USAMAH ( Department of Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institut Pertanian Bogor )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 4, No 3 (2010): December 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (129.834 KB)

Abstract

An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Three antigens were used in this experiment. Antigen 1 was prepared from whole cell of M. gallisepticum, antigen 2 was a sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized preparation from whole cells, and antigen 3 was prepared by sonication of the whole cell antigen. The assay was then used to detect (anti)-M. gallisepticum antibodies in experimentally-infected chickens compared with serum-plate-agglutination (SPA), haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests, and tracheal culture. Data obtained in this experiment showed that there was a correlation between seropositivity and rate of isolation of M. gallisepticum. ELISA was found to be less sensitive, but more specific than SPA, and more sensitive than the HI test. The whole cell antigen gave the highest optical densities but was less specific than the other two antigens. The ELISA using all three antigens successfully identified the M. gallisepticum-infected chickens uniformly and positively through 14-35 days post infection, and correctly identified the control group as negative through the 35 day experimental period. The ELISA obviously has a place in the serodiagnosis of avian mycoplasma. Improved-specificity and -sensitivity of the M. gallisepticum antigen is desirable.

Genetic Diversity of Osmophilic Yeasts Isolated from Indonesian Foods with High Concentration of Sugar

RIDAWATI, . ( Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , JENIE, BETTY SRI LAKSMI ( Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , DJUWITA, ITA ( Department of Anatomy Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , SJAMSURIDZAL, WELLYZAR ( Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 4, No 3 (2010): December 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (932.958 KB)

Abstract

Isolation of osmophilic yeasts from a total of 70 samples consisting of jam, sweet condensed milk, honey, sweet soy sauce, and palm sugar was conducted. Sixty-eight osmophilic yeasts were isolated from strawberry jam, pineapple jam, and honey from South Sumatera. No yeast was obtained from condensed milk, honey from Sumbawa, sweet soy sauce, and palm sugar. Sequence analysis based on the ITS region showed that isolates were identified as five species belong to two genera, Candida and Sterigmatomyces. Those isolates were distributed in 5 species, C. metapsilosis, C. etchellsii, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and S. halophilus. C. etchellsii was the predominant species in South Sumatera honey, while C. parapsilosis group was predominant species in jams. Those species were reported as osmophilic yeasts. In both jams and honey we found C. parapsilosis and C. metapsilosis, whilst C. orthopsilosis was found only in pineapple jam. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence of ITS region showed that most of the osmophilic yeasts (67 out of 68 isolates) were located in the phylum Ascomycota and only one isolate Sterigmatomyces halophilus NN38 from pineapple jam was located in the phylum Basidiomycota.

Bioenergetic Analysis of FLAG Tagged-Subunit 8 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondrial ATP Synthase

ARTIKA, I MADE ( Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Pertanian Bogor )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 4, No 3 (2010): December 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (72.414 KB)

Abstract

The majority of cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is synthesized by the F1F0-ATP synthase.  The yeast mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase is a multisubunit complex that contains at least 17 different subunits grouped into F1 and F0 sectors.  Subunit 8 of yeast mitochondrial ATP synthase is a hydrophobic protein of 48 amino acids encoded by the mitochondrial ATP8 gene.  Subunit 8 has three distinct domains; an N-terminal domain, a central hydrophobic domain and a C-terminal domain.  FLAG tag addition to the C-terminus of subunit 8 and its variants has facilitated elucidation of subunit 8´s membrane topology.  In order to analyze its detailed structure and function, a set of strains expressing FLAG tagged-subunit 8 and its variants were subjected to bioenergetic analysis at cellular and mitochondrial levels.   Results obtained showed that the hydrophobic character of the central hydrophobic domain of subunit 8 is essential for functional coupling between F1 and F0 sectors, hence for mitochondrial ATP synthase function.

Chitinolytic Bacteria Isolated from Chili Rhizosphere: Chitinase Characterization and Application as Biocontrol for Aphis gossypii

NURDEBYANDARU, NICHO ( Department of Biology, Bogor Agricultural University ) , MUBARIK, NISA RACHMANIA ( Department of Biology, Bogor Agricultural University ) , PRAWASTI, TARUNI SRI ( Department of Biology, Bogor Agricultural University )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 4, No 3 (2010): December 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (139.909 KB)

Abstract

   Chitin, a common constituent of insect exoskeleton, could be hydrolyzed by chitinase. This research was conducted to select rhizobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of chili pepper that produced chitinase and to examine their chitinase activity in degrading chitin of the Aphis gossypii.  A total of 25 rhizobacteria isolates formed a clear zone when grown on chitin agar. Three of them had the highest chitinolytic index and were identified as Bacillus sp. strain I.5, I.21, and II.14. The II.14 was chosen for characterization of chitinase activity.   The isolate showed maximum chitinase activity at 48-h-incubation.  Maximum temperature and pH of the chitinase activity were 55°C and 7.0, respectively.  The cell culture and the enzyme crude extract of the above three isolates were tested against A. gossypii and the result was compared to the control through microscopic observation.  Hydrolytic analysis showed that the enzyme crude extract of these isolates were able to degrade chitin of insect exoskeleton since the first 3-h-incubation.  Meanwhile, the cell culture treatment on the chitin showed degrading activity after 12 h (Bacillus sp. strain I.21 and II.14), and 9 h (Bacillus sp. strain I.5).  Chitin degradation of A. gossypii exoskeleton by enzyme crude extract was better than the cell culture treatment.   Chitinases produced by Bacillus sp. strains I.5, I.21, and II.14 are potential as biocontrol agents for A. gossypii.

Isolation and Characterization of Simian Retrovirus Type D from Macaca fascicularis and M. nemestrina in Indonesia

ISKANDRIATI, DIAH ( Primate Research Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , SAEPULOH, UUS ( Primate Research Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , MARIYA, SILMI ( Primate Research Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , GRANT, RICHARD F ( Virology and Molecular Biology, Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories (SNBL) USA ) , SOLIHIN, DEDY DURYADI ( Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , SAJUTHI, DONDIN ( Primate Research Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor ) , PAMUNGKAS, JOKO ( Primate Research Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 4, No 3 (2010): December 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (206.493 KB)

Abstract

Simian type D retroviruses (SRVs) are one of the causative agents of simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Asian macaques.  In the past, SRV isolates from macaques had only been identified at the US primate centers, outside the country of origin and after the animals had been introduced into a new environment.  In this study, we report the first isolation, cultivation and molecular characterization of the type D simian retrovirus naturally infecting wild caught macaques in their natural habitats in the country of origin, in this case, Indonesia.  When peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Macaca fascicularis (Mf) and M. nemestrina (Mn) were co-cultured with Raji human B-cell line, syncytia were observed microscopically and confirmed by immunofluoresence assay using antibody to SRV-2.  Immunoblot analysis of purified Mf-ET1006 from cell culture supernatants demonstrated that the viral core and envelope proteins reacted with rabbit anti-SRV.  Sequence analysis of Mf isolates in the viral envelope region revealed high homology to SRV-2 (94-96%). On the other hand, the homologies in the envelope region of Mn isolates were less than 80% to SRV-1, SRV-2, SRV-3 and Mf isolates.   This study suggests that the isolate from Mn may be different from any other published SRV isolates.

Identification and Selection of Entomopathogenic Fungi as Biocontrol Agents for Aphis gossypii from South Sumatra

HERLINDA, SITI ( Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sriwijaya ) , IRSAN, CHANDRA ( Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sriwijaya ) , MAYASARI, REKA ( Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sriwijaya ) , SEPTARIANI, SELLY ( Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sriwijaya )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 4, No 3 (2010): December 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (76.401 KB)

Abstract

Aphid, Aphis gossypii is a vector of curly virus disease. The damage of chili due to its feeding  is only 35% and it can achieved 100% if the damage caused by the aphid as a vector.  The objectives of this research were to explore, to isolate, to identify, and to select entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents for A. gossypii. The fungi were explored using insect bait in soil and collected infected insects from South Sumatra, Indonesia.  Then, the fungi were isolated and identified, and finally the bioefficacy tests were done using 1 x 106 conidia mL-1 against the third instar of A. gossypii. The explorations found 25 isolates of enthomopathogenic fungi consisting 10 isolates of Beauveria bassiana and 15 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae. Selection of the fungi isolates on the aphid nymphs showed that isolate BPM isolated from Pseudoplusia chalcites caused the highest mortality rate (80.80%), while the lowest (47.20%) was caused by the isolate BAgTb isolated from A. gossypii.  The shortest time needed to produce 50% mortality (Lethal Time 50) was 2.54 days (isolate of Chrysodeixis chalcites from Muarasiban). The longest time (3.66 days) was produced by isolate of Tenebrio molitor from Tanjung Raja.

Analyses of Precore and Core Promoter Mutations of Hepatitis B Virus in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B in Surabaya, Indonesia

JUNIASTUTI, . ( Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga ) , AKSONO, EDUARDUS BIMO ( Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga ) , UTSUMI, TAKAKO ( Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine ) , YANO, YOSHIHIKO ( Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine ) , SOETJIPTO, . ( Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga ) , HAYASHI, YOSHITAKE ( Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine ) , HOTTA, HAK ( Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine ) , RANTAM, FEDIK ABDUL ( Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine ) , KUSUMOBROTO, HERNOMO ONTOSENO ( Department of Internal Medicine, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital ) , LUSIDA, MARIA INGE ( Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga )

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 4, No 3 (2010): December 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1048.865 KB)

Abstract

Mutations of precore (A1896) and core promoter (T1762/A1764) of hepatitis B virus can reduce HBeAg production. These mutations are frequently found in the late HBeAg seroconversion. However, it has been a controversy about the role played by precore and core promoter mutations in determining outcome of chronic hepatitis B. In the present study, the variability of precore and core promoter of hepatitis B virus were analyzed using PCR amplification and sequencing, according to the outcome (viral load and HBeAg/anti-HBe) in chronic hepatitis B patients in Surabaya. The study groups included 5 patients with uncomplicated chronic hepatitis B and 10 patients with chronic hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis in Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. The control group included 6 blood donors obtained from Indonesia Red Cross, Surabaya. All groups were HBsAg positive. Precore mutation A1896 was predominant in all groups (60%-67% of each), together with precore variant T1858. As reported, precore variant T1858 is a prerequisite for precore A1896 and characteristic for viral genotype. Nevertheless, core promoter mutations T1762/A1764 were predominant only in LC patients (60%). All of these mutations were found mostly after HBeAg seroconversion (anti-HBe+). Of most samples with anti-HBe+, precore mutation was related with low viral load (<105 copies/mL), but core promoter mutations with high viral load (>105 copies/mL). Precore mutation A1896 was predominant in all groups, but core promoter mutations T1762/A1764 were only predominant in LC patients. The precore mutation alone is possible not critical to indicate a poor outcome, the core promoter mutations must be considered also.