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BIOMA
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
BIOMA (ISSN 1410-8801) adalah Majalah Ilmiah Biologi yang bertujuan mewadahi semua informasi hasil penelitian, telaah pustaka, makalah teknis, dan kajian buku, dari berbagai cabang ilmu Biologi. Diharapkan penerbitan ini dapat berkontribusi dalam penyampaian informasi ilmiah yang merupakan mata rantai proses kegiatan ilmiah. Terbit sejak tahun 1999.
Articles by issue : Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
12
Articles
Uji Aktivitas Inhibisi α-Glukosidase Isolat Bakteri Endofit Tanaman Duwet (Syzygium cumini L. Skeels) Sebagai Sumber Alternatif Antidiabetes

Fatin, Nuhaul, Pujiyanto, Sri, Raharjo, Budi

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease contributes to the health problem in Indonesia. The inhibition of α-glucosidase is one of the mechanisms of antidiabetic treatment. α-glucosidase inhibitor can be found in the duwet plants (Syzygium cumini L. Skeels)  that have been used traditionally in Indonesia as antidiabetic drug. However, due to the insufficient quantity and the long harvesting time, the forthcoming appliclation of duwet is consideraly not promising. The natural tendencies of endophytic microorganisms are identicl to the host plant. In this case the endophytic bacteria of the duwet plant is studied to determine its potential as an alternative to producing α-glucosidase inhibitors. A total of 14 isolates of endophytic duwet bacteria isolated tested the ability of α-glucosidase inhibitors using p-nitrophenyl-D-α-glucopyranoside. The result of  the absorbance based on breakdown of substrate that produce colored product and analyzed by spectrophotometric technique. All isolates had α-glucosidase inhibitor activity, the highest activity produced by isolates A21 and A22 with value of 69,18% and 69,22%. Keywords : inhibitor α-glucosidase, endophytic bacteria, Syzygium cumini

Glikogen Otot Rangka Ayam Broiler (Gallus gallus) setelah Pemberian Teh Kombucha dalam Air Minum

Fathoni, Nasrul, Djaelani, M Anwar, Isdadiyanto, Sri

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Kombucha tea beverage obtained by fermenting sweetened green tea for 12 days with Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces which produce various kinds of organic acids, vitamins, and acts as a probiotic. The role of kombucha tea as a growth promoter is to that improve the metabolic process in the digestion of broiler chickens, so that nutrients can and fulfilled optimally for growth and development. The aim of this research was to analyze the sceletal muscle glycogen glycogen (Gallus gallus) after treat with kombucha tea in drinking water. Kombucha tea used is the result of fermentation of green tea for 12 days. This research used DOC chickens (Day Old Chicken) as much as 20 randomly divided into 4 treatments with concentration ie 0%, 10%, 20%, and 40% kombucha tea in drinking water for 32 days. The variables measured were skeletal muscle glycogen levels, body weight, feed consumption and drink consumption. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Duncan Test with 95% confidence level using SPSS 17.0 software. The results of this study showed that kombucha tea on skeletal muscle glycogen and feed consumption showed no significant difference, while on body weight and drink consumption showed significantly different results. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that giving kombucha tea in drinking water to a concentration of 40% has not been able to affect the skeletal muscle glycogen in broiler chickens. Key words: Kombucha tea, broiler chicken, glycogen skeletal muscle

Pengaruh Perendaman Akar Bibit Bayam Merah (Alternanthera amoena Voss.) dalam Larutan Na2CuEDTA terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Kandungan Antosianin

Aini, Nabilah, Nurchayati, Yulita, Suedy, Sri Widodo Agung

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Red spinach is one of plants containing anthocyanin pigment which has various functions as food and beverage dye, and play a role in the field of health. Anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants is influenced by environmental factors, one of them are nutrients. One of the nutrients needed by plants and part of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway is copper (Cu). Cu can be added in the form of a fertilizer such as Na2CuEDTA. This research aims to study the effect of soaking the red spinach in Na2CuEDTA solution on growth and anthocyanin content, and knowing the optimal Na2CuEDTA concentration for growth and anthocyanin content of red spinach. This research conduct to Complete Random Design of single factor pattern with 5 treatments and 5 replications which are aquades, nutrient solution, nutrient solution+Na2CuEDTA 5 ppm, nutrient solution+Na2CuEDTA 10 ppm, nutrient solution+Na2CuEDTA 20 ppm. Sprouts red spinach that already has 4 leaves soaked in the treatment solution for 10 days, then the plants moved into a soil medium inside the pot for 20 days. The analyzing data which is used is ANOVA continuing with further testing of Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at the 95% significance level. The result of this research show that soaking of red spinach in Na2CuEDTA solution did not show any significant effect on growth. The growth of red spinach plant is more influenced by nutrient solution while the anthocyanin contents is influenced by nutrients in soil medium. Key words : Red Spinach, Copper, Anthocyanin, Na2CuEDTA

Kadar Kolesterol Daging Pada Keturunan F1 Dari Induk Puyuh Jepang (Coturnix coturnix japonica L.) Yang Diberi Suplemen Tepung Kunyit (Curcuma longa L.) Dalam Pakan

Andriani, Regita, Saraswati, Tyas Rini, Tana, Silvana

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Quail is one of poultry commodities that compliance the needed of animal protein like egg and meat. Good quality was breed from quail parent that has good physiological condition. This research aimed to quantified cholesterol of quail meat from F1 from quail parent that treatment using turmeric powder supplement on itsfed in order to obtained best quail chick with good physiological condition. This research use Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experimental method. Animal on this research was 15 Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica L.) hens that gave 3 treatments with 5 repetitions. K0 was F1 of quail parent without turmeric powder supplementation, K1 was F1 of quail parent with 54 mg/quail/day turmeric powder supplementation before its sex period, K2 was F1 of quail parent with 108 mg/quail/day turmeric powder supplementation before its sex period. The F1 quail was fed using standard quail feed. Data was obtained from daily fed consumption average, daily water consumption, and quail meat cholesterol rate on 60 day old chicken. Data was analyses using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). This research result showed that daily fed consumption, daily water consumption and meat cholesterol rate of F1 that treatment using turmeric powder supplementation wasn’t show significant difference, so conclusion of this research is physiological condition of F1 was normal. Key words: Quail Meat Cholesterol, F1 of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), Turmeric powder

Studi Populasi dan Habitat Owa Jawa (Hylobates moloch Audebert 1797) di Kawasan Wana Wisata Kali Paingan Linggo Asri, Pekalongan, Jawa Tengah

Putra, M. Fadhil Randa, Baskoro, Karyadi, Hadi, Mochamad

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch) is an Indonesian endemic primate found on Java, in the province of West Java and Central Java. It is an Endangered species by IUCN and protected by Ministry of Environment and Forestry regulation No. P20/2018. Wana Wisata Kali Paingan was known as Javan gibbon habitat in Central Java, although not much research have been done. This study aimed to find out the population data and habitat of Javan Gibbon. This study was conducted in Wana Wisata Kali Paingan during April until May 2018 and Line Transect method was used in two tracks, Kali Wadas and Jurang Jero, with 1 kilometer and 5 repetition each. Result showed that 12 individuals in 4 groups was found with the density was 13,75 individuals /km2 and 4,39 groups/km2. Then at 6,7 km2 representative area the estimation was obtained 92 individuals and 29 groups. Javan gibbons were distributed from 630-780 MASL with the different sizes of groups. There were 25 species in 21 families trees and 4 species in 4 family poles was found. The dominant species was bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) and terap tree (Artocarpus elasticus). Javan gibbon’s favorite food trees were Terap tree, Ficus (Urostigma glaberrium) and (Ficus sinuata). There were several families of food trees for Javan gibbons including Moraceae, Euphobiaceae, Meliaceae, Lauraceae, and Fagaceae..   Keywords : Javan gibbon, Population, Habitat, Wana Wisata Kali Paingan

Pengaruh Komposisi Azolla pinnata Pada Pakan Terhadap Pertumbuhan Ikan Bandeng (Chanos chanos Forsskal) di Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau (BBPBAP) Jepara

Wicaksono, Andy, Muhammad, Fuad, Hidayat, Jafron Wasiq, Suryanto, Damang

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Milkfish is one of the main commodities in the field of fishery and is known to be the most cultivated. One of the important’s factors to the success of milkfish cultivation is feed availability, both quality and quantity. Feed quality is an important aspect that must be fulfilled because of its relation to nutrients required for the fish growth. Azolla pinnata has a good potential that can be used as an additional ingredient for the fish growth because of its protein-rich content. This study is aimed to examine the effect of Azolla pinnata powder feed on growth of milkfish (length and body weight). This research was conducted in May – July 2017 at Aquatic Animal Health Management Laboratory, Center of Brackish Water Aquaculture of Jepara. The research design used is a Complete Randomized Design (CRD), using five treatments with different concentrations of Azolla pinnata powder, i.e. 0% as control, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%. Each treatments consist of three repeatitions. The parameters observed were milkfish growth (length and body weight) and dissolved oxygen (DO). Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method. If the data showing significant differences it will be continued with Least Significance Different (LSD) test. The results showed that the administration of Azolla pinnata powder on the feed significantly influenced the growth (lenght and body weight) of milkfish. The most optimal and efficient feed composition for milkfish growth is done by feeding 40% of Azolla pinnata powder. The overall dissolved oxygen (DO) is still in suitable condition for the cultivation of milkfish. Key Words :  Azolla pinnata, dissolved oxygen, feed nutrition, milkfish

Struktur Komunitas Plankton sebagai Indikator Kualitas Perairan Budidaya di Tambak Lorok Semarang

Makhfudhoh, Dzunnuroini Khanif, Hidayat, Jafron Wasiq, Muhammad, Fuad

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Plankton is organisms that had an important role in water as natural feed of fishes and as an indicator. This study aimed to identify water quality which was suitable for fish cultivation reviewed from physics-chemicals parameters of water and its saprobic status in Tambak Lorok Tanjung Mas Kota Semarang. Sampling were take based on 5 stations that could represented from plankton variety of condition water stability . Plankton samples were by using net plankton number 25, then preserved with alcohol 70% and formalin 4%. Variables of ponds water quality measured were temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, N concentration, and Pb content. Identification of planktons used SRC method under microscop. The result of plankton analysis in Tambak Lorok water showed 42 phytoplankton species, the commonly species found are Coscinodiscus centralis, Coscinodiscus granii, Gyrosigma sp., Navicula radiosa, Pandorina sp., and Melosira sp. Meanwhile, zooplankton found was 22 species with common species are Cyclops, Harpaticoida, Tricodesmium evythraeum, Brachinus plicatilis, and Lensia subtilis. Phytoplankton diversity index are 0.057-0.367 and equity index are 0.025-0.176. Zooplankton diversity index are 0.247-0.360 and equity index are 0.157-0.201. This indices showed that there were low level of species diversity and community stability, dominance since the species occurred. Measurement of water quality variables indicated that Tambak Lorok had been contaminated and needed a preliminary management before d be used as fish cultivation ponds, because the analysis result was not appropriate with Government water quality  regulation. Based on the measurement, soprobic index categories on α/β-Mesosaprobic to Oligosaprobic phase and the degree of pollution is very mild to moderate. Keywords :  Community Structure, plankton, Tambak Lorok, Tanjung Mas, Semarang   

Metode Monitoring Resistensi Populasi Aedes aegypti Dengan Penetapan Konsentrasi Diagnostik

Sari, Vicka Kusuma, Tarwotjo, Udi, Hadi, Mochamad

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue fever disease. The most effective way to prevent dengue fever is cutting the spreading chain of dengue fever by controlling the vector with using conventional chemical insecticides. The used of insecticide intensively has became the main factor of resistance in Tembalang, then monitoring is needed to determine the change of A. aegypti susceptibility status against the insecticide. The aim of this research is to determine the sensitivity of A. aegypti population from five locations in Tembalang against pyrethroid synthetic insecticide, and to determine the validity of the diagnostic concentration as a method of monitoring resistance A. aegypti population in Tembalang. This research was conducted in Laboratory of Ecology and Biosystematics Department of Biology Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University Semarang. The procedure of this research were: larvae collection (A. aegypti), insect breeding test, sensitivity test including bioassay, determination of diagnostic concentration and validation. The result showed that the susceptibility level of five population was not significantly different since all populations are still susceptible, with the LC50 range between 0,0031-0,0043% and FR range between 1-1,39 (<4). The result of validation test of diagnostic concentration was 0,0038%, valid as a monitoring method of the resistance of A. aegypti population against pyrethroid synthetic insecticide in Tembalang because c2 value of the five population was lower than the c2 table (df = 1; α = 0,05) = 3,84. Keywords : A. aegypti, monitoring resistance, LC50, diagnostic concentration..

Pengaruh Waktu Fermentasi Teh Kombucha Kadar 50% Terhadap Tebal Dinding Dan Diameter Lumen Arteria Koronaria Tikus Putih

Isdadiyanto, Sri

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to analyze the influences of 50% kombucha tea level on wall thickness and lumen diameter of coronary artery in rats. Sixteen male Rattus norvegicus rats, 2 months of age were used as experimental animals, with treatment kombucha tea that has been fermented for 6, 9 and 12 days at the temperature of 25oC per oral. The research design used to a completely randomized with 4 treatment (for 4 weeks) and 4 replications, i.e., P0 = control, without of kombucha tea, P1 = water + 1,8 ml kombucha tea that has been fermented for 6 days in the morning and afternoon, P2 = water + 1,8 ml kombucha tea that has been fermented for 9 days in morning and afternoon, P3 = water + 1,8 ml kombucha tea that has been fermented for 12 days in morning and afternoon. Variables measured were wall thickness and lumen diameter of coronary artery. Data were analyzed with ANOVA followed by Duncan test at 95% confidence level were performed using SPSS version 10,0. The result showed that kombucha tea did not influences the wall thickness and lumen diameter of coronary artery in rats. Key words:   Rattus norvegicus, 50% kombucha tea level, wall thickness, lumen diameter, coronary artery

Keanekaragaman dan Kemelimpahan Jenis Tumbuhan Invasif di Hutan Wisata Penggaron Kabupaten Semarang Jawa Tengah

Utami, Sri, Murningsih, M

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 20, No 2, Tahun 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Forests are ecosystems that have very potential natural resources, including storing high genetic resources. One of the things that threatens the decline of genetic resources in the forest is the presence of invasive species. This study aims to determine the species of invasive plants and their abundance in the Penggaron tourism forest of Ungaran Regency, Central Java. The research method was carried out by exploring the entire forest area through the path. The results of the study showed that 13 species of invasive plants were included in 7 families. The most number of invasive plants from the Poaceae family include 5 species : Axonopus Compressus, Cynodon dactylon, Pennisetum purpureum, Paspalum conjugatum and Eleusine indica. The highest relative abundance was Eleusine indica and was followed by Synedrella nodiflora, Elephantopus scaber and Paspalum conjugatum. The species of invasive plants, especially the abundant ones, need to be controlled by the population so as not to threaten native plants and cause environmental degradation in Penggaron tourism forests. Key word : Invansive plant, Penggaron tourism forest, genetic resources.