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BIOMA
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
BIOMA (ISSN 1410-8801) adalah Majalah Ilmiah Biologi yang bertujuan mewadahi semua informasi hasil penelitian, telaah pustaka, makalah teknis, dan kajian buku, dari berbagai cabang ilmu Biologi. Diharapkan penerbitan ini dapat berkontribusi dalam penyampaian informasi ilmiah yang merupakan mata rantai proses kegiatan ilmiah. Terbit sejak tahun 1999.
Articles by issue : Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
12
Articles
Produksi Enzim Selulase Dari Bakteri Serratia marcescens KE-B6 Dengan Penambahan Sumber Karbon, Nitrogen dan Kalsium Pada Medium Produksi

Septiani, Arom, Wijanarka, W, Rukmi, MG Isworo

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

The waste of cellulose in the agro-industry can be reduced by decomposing the cellulose polymer into glucose. This process was carried out by cellulase enzyme (EC 3.2.1.4) produced by cellulolytic bacteria. Bacteria required food as nutrition to survived their life, can be obtained through growth medium or enzyme production medium. Carbon, nitrogen and calcium belong to the essential nutrients contained in growth medium and enzyme production medium. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the addition of carbon, nitrogen and calcium source and the time of incubation on the production of cellulase enzyme from Seratia marcescens KE-B6 bacteria. This research used Completely Randomized Design (RAL) of Factorial Pattern with two factors. The first factor is the type of medium, the first medium is the standard medium (M1) and the second medium is enriched with carbon, nitrogen and calcium sources (M2), the second factor is the incubation time with 5 repetitions. The enzyme production is measured by the reducing sugar method. The data obtained were analyzed using Anova. The results showed that the addition of carbon, nitrogen, and calcium sources and incubation time did not affect the production of cellulase enzyme by Serratia marcescens KE-B6. Keywords: Cellulose, Cellulase enzyme, Serratia marcescens

Identification of water conservative tree species with high economic value around “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah”

Wiryani, Erry, Anggoro, Sutrisno, Mulyani, Sri

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Spring conservation require serious concern on the economic advantages for the society. Without economic advantages achieved from the conservation activities, the conservation programme should face intense conflict of land utilization. Plantation of economically valuable conservative plant species is one of the proposed solution to overcome the problem. This research aimed to identify the economic value of conservative plant species found in “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah” surrounding. Research was conducted through field observation involving 4 line transects and 4 square transects at each line with transect size of 20 m x 20 m. Plant identification was conducted for tree strata. Data analysis was including diversity, evenness and importance index of respective plants. Economic valuation was conducted through literature study. The result showed there were 28 plants species availabile in “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah” surrounding. Among the plant species 22 of the had been identified to provide conservative function, while 6 of them weren’t including Banana, Papaya, Melinjo, Pangi, Longan and Stink Bean. Instead of providing conservative function, most plants also provide economic advantages including wood, fruit, flower, bud, leaf, fibre, sugar, peel and bean products while only 3 of them were not identified including Banyan, Manila Tamarind and Amboyna Wood. Plantation of economically valuable conservative plant species is recommended to support the conservation of the spring as well as to provide economic advantage for the society. Keywords: conservation, economic, plant, “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah”, spring

Perbandingan Struktur Komunitas Mikroartropoda Tanah di Lahan Zona Aktif dan Pasif TPA Jatibarang Semarang

Amelinda, Elda Dheiva, Rahadian, Rully, Hadi, Mochamad

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Microarthropods is one of the important components of soil biology which is abundant and varied. The purpose of this research is to compare the structure of microartropod soil community and to examine the influence of physical-chemical factors of the environment based on the dynamics of abundance of soil microartropods in the active zone and the passive zone of Jatibarang Landfill Landfill Semarang. This research was conducted at Jatibarang Landfill Zone of active zone and passive zone by using purposive sampling method. The results showed that the number of species and the number of microartropods in the active zone was higher than the passive zone. In the active zone found 2240 individual / m2 soil microartropods consisting of 21 species and 17 families, whereas in the passive zone found 480 individual / m2 soil microartropods consisting of 10 species and 9 families. The dominating families in both the active and the passive zones are Sciaridae and Cicadellidae. Environmental factors that affect the diversity of soil microartropods are ground water content, soil porosity, heavy metal content such as Pb, Cu, and Zn; As well as the availability of organic matter in the soil. Keyword: Community structure, soil microarthropods, heavy metals, Jatibarang landfill

Talas-Talasan (Araceae) Sumber Pangan Lokal Di Kawasan Karst Kecamatan Pracimantoro Kabupaten Wonogiri

Jayanti, Endah Dwi, Jumari, J, Wiryani, Erry

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Taros (Araceae) is a group of bulbous plants which are commonly found in Indonesia. Araceae have a high carbohydrate content, so it is potential to be used as a local food source for the community. The purpose of this research was to assess the types and cultivars, cultivation status, and the utilization of Araceae found in the karst area of Pracimantoro District, Wonogiri. The research was held in January to May 2016. Plant sample was taken in six villages, Sumberagung, Gedong, Gebangharjo, Glinggang, Wonodadi and Gambirmanis. The data were analyzed descriptively. The results is, 9 variants of Araceae which belong to 4 species was found in the karst area of Pracimantoro. Cultivation status of Araceae is semi-wild, that is not planted and given specific treatment. The utilization of Araceae in Pracimantoro District generally as food additives, other uses is for medicinal and ornamental plants Key word: Araceae, Local food resources, Karst area, Pracimantoro.

Keanekaragaman Tumbuhan yang Berpotensi sebagai Bahan Pangan di Hutan Lindung Pulau Panjang Jepara Jawa Tengah

Utami, Sri

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Panjang Isaland is small island in Jepara, Central Java province, with covers about 19,73 ha areas but information on plant biodiversity especially, which has potency as source of foodstuff is still limited. For that reason a plant exploration and inventory in this area has been done in forest protected Panjang Island. Nineteen species of edible plant have been recorded, and they consist of fruits (6 species), vegetables (7 species) and tuber (6 species). Of these species have not all used by local communities to fulfill their food needs. Need to be introduced to local communities the potential  of edible plants  in Panjang Island in order to support the efforts of food independence in Indonesia.

Distribusi dan Keanekaragaman Zooplankton di Waduk Jatibarang Kodya Semarang

Hariyati, Riche

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Jatibarang Reservoir is a dam built in Talun Kacang village, Kandri, Gunung Pati, Semarang t with the aim of Water Resources Management and flood control in Semarang City. The presence of Zooplankton in a waters has a close relationship with water quality and its interaction in the environment.The research aimed to find out the distribution and diversity of Zooplankton species in Jatibarang reservoir waters. The method used is Purposive Random Sampling method by dividing the sampling point into 4 research stations, namely Dermaga zone, middle zone, inlet zone, and outlet zone. From the result of this research, we get the type of zooplankton Brachionus sp., Cylops sp., Collotecha sp., Conochilus sp., Daphnia sp., Harringia sp., Rotaria sp., Keratella sp. and species from the Asphlanchnidae (Asphlanchinii) and Trichotriidae Family. The species diversity in Jatibarang reservoirs in each zone is low with abundance between 30-80 ind / L and the equalization and dominance of each low species. The dominant species is Brachionus sp. and Cyclops sp.  Water quality measurement results show the waters of Jatibarang reservoir is good for the life of aquatic biota Keywords: Zooplankton, Jatibarang Reservoir, Diversity.

Struktur Komunitas Semut (Hymenoptera : Formicidae) di Lahan Pertanian Organik dan Anorganik Desa Batur, Kecamatan Getasan, Kabupaten Semarang

Putra, Ivan Mahadika, Hadi, Mochamad, Rahadian, Rully

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Ants play an important role in terrestrial ecosystems, including in organic and inorganic farmland, as predators, scavengers, and their interaction with other organism. The objectives of this study were to compare the community structure and the role of the ant in organic and inorganic farmland, and also to determine soil abiotic factors in both farmland. The study was conducted in organic and inorganic chili crop land at Batur village, Getasan, Semarang. The sampling of ants was performed using pitfall traps and bait traps, and then the ants were identified. Data analysis used is an abundance index, diversity index, evenness index, Hutchinson test and similarity index. The results showed that the number of species and the number of individual of ants in organic farm were higher (45 individuals, 8 species) than inorganic farm (35 individuals, 6 species). Diversity index of ant species in both farmlands were categorized moderate with the index value of 1.92 and 1.42. Statistically, there were no significant differences in species diversity of ants in organic and inorganic farmland. There were five dominant species in organic field and three dominant species in inorganic field. Ants that predominate in both farmlands were Iridomyrmexsp, Tetramorium sp, Solenopsisgeminata, Odontoponeradenticulata and Diacammasp. The similarity of ant communities between organic and inorganic farmland showed high value of similarity index (IS) which was 85.7%. Statistically, abiotic factors showed that there were significantly different of some abiotic factors in both farmlands, the content of carbon, phospor, organic matter and c / n ratio. Keywords: community structure of ants, agricultural ecosystems

Keanekaragaman dan Kelimpahan Semut sebagai Predator Hama Tanaman Padi di Lahan Sawah Organik dan Anorganik Kecamatan Karanganom Kabupaten Klaten

Adhi, Siska Lesiana, Hadi, Mochamad, Tarwotjo, Udi

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Ants potentially as predators that become natural enemies of insect pests in rice fields with paddy cultivation. This study aims to know the diversity and abundance of ants, the role of ants, the population of ants, and the influence of physical and chemical factors in organic and inorganic rice fields. The ants were collected using pit fall trap method with insect bait, fish meat, and sugar solution. The results showed that the number of species and the number of individuals in organic rice fields was higher (429 individuals, 11 species) than inorganic rice fields (193 individuals, 10 species). In general, the index of diversity in organic rice fields was higher (ranging from 0.73 to 1.65) compared to inorganic rice fields (ranging from 0 to 1.28). The index of evenness in organic rice fields ranged from 0.63 to 0.99 (evenly distributed), whereas in inorganic rice fields ranged from 0 to 0.99 (uneven until evenly distributed). The dominant ants in organic rice fields were Camponotus sp, Solenopsis geminata, Anoplolepis gracilipes, and Paratrechina longicornis, whereas in the inorganic rice fields were Tapinoma sp, Solenopsis geminata, and Camponotus sp. The index of similarity between organic and inorganic rice fields showed a high and very high degree of similarity based on the type of feed. Physical factors of high soil and air humidity environment, high soil and air temperature increased the diversity and abundance of ants in the rice fields ecosystem. Factors soil pH in accordance with the growth of soil Arthropods were neutral or slightly acidic. Chemical factors of organic matter content, Nitrogen (N), the content of C organic, and a high P total content increased the diversity and abundance of ants. Keywords: diversity and abundance, ants, organic and inorganic rice fields

Efek Pemberian Virgin Coconut Oil Dan Olive Oil Dalam Pakan Terhadap Pertumbuhan Tulang Femur Tikus Putih Jantan (Rattus norvegicus)

Suhartatik, S, Yuniwarti, Enny Yusuf Wachidah, Djaelani, Muhammad Anwar

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

This research aimed to annalyse the effects of virgin coconut oil and olive oil on the length, diameter and weight of the femur bone in white male rat (Rattus norvegicus). This research used 25 white male rats and consists of 5 treatments with 5 replications. This research used the treatment P0: as a control, P1: feed with an addition of 5 ml virgin coconut oil / kg feed, P2: feed with an addition of 10 ml virgin coconut oil / kg of feed, P3: feed with an addition of 5 ml olive oil / kg feed and P4: feed with  an addition of 10 ml olive oil / kg feed. This research used a method called Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The variables measured in this research are the weight, length and diameter of white male rats. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 95% level. The results showed that the growth of femur bone in male rat does not have different response after giving virgin coconut oil and olive oil.  

Struktur Komunitas Fitoplankton sebagai Dasar Pengelolaan Kualitas Perairan Pantai Mangrove di Tapak Tugurejo Semarang

Lathifah, Nurul, Hidayat, Jafron Wasiq, Muhammad, Fuad

Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Phytoplankton has of important role in water as of base of the food chain this is also can service a bioindicator the pollution of waters. This study aims to assess the phytoplankton community structure in Tapak Semarang, assessing the level of fertility of inshore mangrove community, and to assess the water quality of inshore. Samples were take in is in the mangrove region of Tapak Semarang. This study was conducted in May 2016 (rain season) and in September 2016 (dry season). Selection of the stations were based on different environmental conditions in the research include the pond and public waters in the waters of coastal mangrove the soles of Semarang. Analysis of index diversity, index evennes and index saprobik. The results showed that the spesies of phytoplankton obtained during the study on mangrove coastal waters Tapak Tugurejo Semarang were 13 species (rainy season) and 25 species (dry season). The most common species of phytoplankton found in all stations wereCerataulina bergonii, Nitzhcia sp, Rhizosolenia spp, Synedra ulna, Netrium digitus, Gloeotrichia echinulata, and Oscillatoria Formosa. Index of species diversity (H’) that exist in mangrove coastal waters Tapak Tugurejo Semarang were in the range of 0.73 to 1.95 low to moderate with low to moderate quality of stabilities during the rainy season. Mean while in the dry season of high species diversity index in the range of 2.24 to 2.82 which indicated stability of the ecosystem was low to moderate. The value of evennes index (e) ranged from 0.66 to 0.97 during the rainy season, and 0.90 to 0.94 in the dry seasons these indices illustrated that each station has a moderate to high similaritas. In term of saprobitas level it was at Oligosaprobik state to β-Meso/Oligosaprobik describe very mild to light polluted. The quality of mangrove coastal waters based DO, temperature, salinity and pH are still good for fish farming. Keywords: community structure, phytoplankton, Tapak, Tugurejo, Semarang..