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BIOMA
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
BIOMA (ISSN 1410-8801) adalah Majalah Ilmiah Biologi yang bertujuan mewadahi semua informasi hasil penelitian, telaah pustaka, makalah teknis, dan kajian buku, dari berbagai cabang ilmu Biologi. Diharapkan penerbitan ini dapat berkontribusi dalam penyampaian informasi ilmiah yang merupakan mata rantai proses kegiatan ilmiah. Terbit sejak tahun 1999.
Articles by issue : Vol. 18, No.1, Tahun 2016
12
Articles
Eksplorasi Mikroba Penghasil Enzim-enzim Hidrolitik Di Kawasan Taman Nasional Lore Lindu Sulawesi Tengah

-, Rahmiati, Pujianto, Sri, Kusdiyantini, Endang

Bioma Vol. 18, No.1, Tahun 2016
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Abstract

Lore Lindu National Park (TNLL) is an area that  flora, fauna and microbes, the diversity of microbes producing hydrolytic enzyme. explore the hydrolytic enzyme producing microbes in Indonesia. This study was aimed to obtain bacterial isolates were able to produce hydrolytic enzyme and characteristics. Isolation in the microbiology laboratory. Isolation  by a spread plate. Isolates in the selection hydrolytic enzyme producing selective media. Measurement of the activity of the enzyme with hydrolytic index. The results  were thirteen isolates clearing zone test , 2 protease enzyme bacterial isolates, 1 lipase enzyme bacterial isolates, 6 amylase enzyme bacterial isolates, while 4  cellulase enzyme bacterial isolates. Examination of Amylase enzyme activity was done using DNS method. L10T3 showed that the bacterial isolate optimum activity at pH 7 and at a temperature of 300C with an activity of 0.040 U / mL and 0.029 U / mL. Key word: Lore Lindu National Park, hydrolytic enzyme. isolation of bacteria

Perbandingan Kualitas Daging Itik Magelang, Itik Pengging Dan Itik Tegal

Hidayati, Nuke Nur, Yuniwarti, Enny Yusuf Wachidah, Isdadiyanto, Sri

Bioma Vol. 18, No.1, Tahun 2016
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Local ducks in Indonesia there was several kinds, for example Tegal ducks, Magelang ducks and Pengging duck each having morphology different of duck. Research on the quality meat of ducks that includes ash content, water content, carbohydrate content, fat content, protein content, and muscle cell diameter of femoral ducks important to know quality meat of each duck. This study aimed to analyzed the differences types of ducks on the chemical content of meat and femoral muscle histology of diameter cell at Tegal ducks, Magelang ducks and Pengging ducks. Ducks were used in this study maintained in the Central Breeding and Raising Ducks Work Unit Non Ruminant Livestock Banyubiru, Ambarawa. The duck six month old was analyzed chemical content of meat and measuring diameter of femoral muscle cells. Duck samples taken from three different types of ducks that Tegal duck,Pengging duck and Magelang duck, of each type of sample taken many ducks as 6 tails. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). If the data were analyzed contained a real difference, continued by the Least Significant Differences Test (LSDT) at 95% confidence level. The results showed that no significant difference in all variables, from the result has been concluded that differences type of ducks not affect the chemical contents of duck meat and diameter of femoral muscle cells. Keywords: Local Ducks in Central Java, Quality of Meat, Muscle Cell Diameter Femoral Ducks.

Jenis-Jenis Lichen Di Kampus Undip Semarang

-, Murningsih, Mafazaa, Husna

Bioma Vol. 18, No.1, Tahun 2016
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Lichen is a symbion organism which own huge positive effect over environment. Lichen is formed by a symbiosis between fungi (mikobiont) from Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes, and alga (fikobiont) from Cyanobacteria or Chlorophyceae. Corticolous lichens lives as an epiphyte in substrate of skin branches. It grows in Diponegoro University (Undip) campus area where a lot of shaded trees can be found as the substrate. The research aimed to define the names of lichen in Undip area by using purposive random sampling. The sampling was found in four locations: 1. Eastern of green boulevard, in front of Farm Faculty; 2. Western of green boulevard, in front of Medical Plants Biology building; 3. Northern of green boulevard, next to Economic and Business Faculty; 4. Green Boulevard as a main road, in front of Engineering Faculty. The research encountered 7 families of lichen which are Graphis scripta,  Graphis sp. (Family of Graphidaceae), Lepraria sp. (Family of Leprariaceae), Dirinaria applanata, Dirinaria picta, Dirinaria sp., (Family of Physciaceae), Caloplaca sp. (Family of Caloplacaceae), Parmelia sp., Parmelia sulcata (Family of Parmeliaceae), Lecanora sp. (Family of Lecanoraceae), Arthonia sp. (Family of Arthoniaceae). The lichens are in groups of talus types: foliose and crustose. Keywords: names of lichen, talus types, Undip

Spirulina platensis Geitler sebagai Fikoremediator Logam Berat Pb Skala Laboratorium

Prambodo, Muhammad Sindhunata, Hariyati, Riche, Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih

Bioma Vol. 18, No.1, Tahun 2016
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Industrial waste contributes the heavy metals pollution in the environment, especially in the water. One of the heavy metals that pollute the environment is lead (Pb). Lead is a substance that is harmful to organisms, especially humans, both adults and children. Solutions to tackle Pb pollution isby remediation process. Physical and chemical remediation methods usually costly and ineffective. One of the alternative methods which is used is the bioremediation uses microalgae or called as phycoremediation. One of microalgae which is used as agents of  phycoremediation is Spirulina platensis Geitler because it’s easily cultured and it’s abundant in nature. This study aims to assess the population growth and the percentage reduction of Pb after inoculated with the use of Spirulina platensis Geitler. The method which is to cultivate S. platensis Geitler in brackish watermedia with a salinity of 15 ppt which have been added Pb with a concentration of 1 mg, 3 mg, and 5 mg for 8 days and observed the population and the percentage reduction of Pb heavy metals. Environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, pH, light intensity are conditioned to remain stable. After 8 days of research, study was able to reduce Pb. Each treatment has different concentrations decrease. Treatment Pb 1 mg of 0.949 into 0.603 mg / L; Pb 3 mg of 2.894 to 2.46 mg / L; and Pb 5 mg of 4.88 to 4.31 mg / L, with each percentage decline of 36%, 15% and 12%. The Pb 3 mg treatment has higher cell population (129.367 cell / ml) than control (106.600 cell/ml) while 1 mg and 5 mg treatment has 93.700 cell / ml and 93.500 cell / ml. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, phycoremediation, waste, lead.

Karakterisasi Dan Identifikasi Molekuler Fusan Hasil Fusi Protoplas Interspesies Chlorella pyrenoidosa dan Chlorella vulgaris Menggunakan 18SrDNA

Rismiarti, Asih, Kusumaningrum, Hermin Pancasakti, Zainuri, Muhammad

Bioma Vol. 18, No.1, Tahun 2016
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Chlorella pyrenoidosa is a unicellular green algae that grows in fresh water with carotenoids consisting of             β-carotene, α-carotene, anthaxanthin, neoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein. C. vulgaris usually it lives in sea water with carotenoids, chlorophyll, tocopherol, ubiquinone and proteins. The quality of them is improved by protoplast fusion and identified further using moleculer analysis. This study aims to find out the characterization and identification of molecular fusan that is obtained from interspecies C. pyrenoidosa and C. vulgaris protoplast fusion process using 18SrDNA. Both C. pyrenoidosa and C. vulgaris are combined by protoplast fusion and then they were performed the isolation of DNA with CTAB modification method, followed by PCR gradient using primers 18S Chlorella and performed DNA sequencing. The result show that there are different characters between masterplan and fusan based on growth of fresh water and sea water medium. The success frequency of fusan as a result from protoplast fusion in the fresh water media is 21% and 6% for sea water medium. The results of the alignment between fresh water fusan and C. vulgaris masterplan from GeneBank shows that the base sequence homology is 93% C. pyrenoidosa masterplan from GeneBank is 90%. The result of molecular identification towards the sequence of fresh water fusan bases shows that there is a kinship relationship with the masterplan of C. pyrenoidosa 18S Chlorella and Chlorosphaera klebsii microalgae compared with some other species from Chlorophyta group with similarity value as many as 91%. It shows that the high variety genetic is based on variations of the base sequence and has a kinship with other species in the Chlorophyta group.                                      Keywords : Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Chlorella vulgaris, Protoplast Fusion, DNA Sequensing, 18SrDNA.

Struktur Komunitas Capung di Kawasan Wisata Curug Lawe Benowo Ungaran Barat

Herlambang, Alamsyah Elang Nusa, Hadi, Mochamad, Tarwotjo, Udi

Bioma Vol. 18, No.1, Tahun 2016
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Dragonflies have an important role for the stability of the ecosystem that is as predator and prey at the same time. The availability of food resources and optimal environmental conditions affect the species richness of dragonflies in the habitats. Reasearch on dragonfly comunity structure aims to find out the differences of community structure in each habitat type in the region of Curug Lawe Benowo. The research was conductet in 4 different stations which focus on species of dragonfly, amount of an individual species, habitats, environmental conditions, and the corellation between the variables. The method used is point count. The results showed that there are 19 dragonfly species which came from 7 different Family. The total number of individuals encountered from 4 stations is 205. The common species that can be found in all of the stations is Euphaea variegata. The level of diversity are medium, the level of evenness is fairly even. Similarity of species in any habitat types indicate that the habitats has a three kind of similarity levels that is fairly equal, less equal and not equal. Data analysis shows that there is a corellations between environmental conditions, and dragonfly species, affecting abundance and distributions of a dragonfly in the habitats, and can be used to describe dragonflies community structure in the region. Key words: Community structure, dragonfly, Curug Lawe-Benowo

Abundance and Diversity of Bryofauna in Coffee and Tea Vegetations

Rahadian, Rully, Perwati, Lilih Khotim, Baskoro, Karyadi

Bioma Vol. 18, No.1, Tahun 2016
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Forest alteration into agroecosystem affect many organisms including bryofauna which their survivorship depend much on their host. Coffee and tea plantation are common agroecosystem in Indonesia. So far, the effect of habitat alteration on Bryofauna community have not been known yet. The objective of this study is to determine community structure attributes i.e., abundance, diversity and composition of bryofauna living in coffee and tea vegetation. The study was located in Ungaran Mountain, District of Semarang Indonesia. Bryofauna were extracted from moss using Tullgren funnel method and were identified until possible taxa. Bryofauna sampling was conducted both in coffee and tea vegetation. Bryofauna were extracted from the moss using Tullgren funnel method. The result shows that Acari was the most abundant both in coffee and tea area. Generally, bryofauna was more abundant in the coffee vegetation than in the tea vegetation. The diversity of bryofauna was not affected neither by altitude nor vegetation. However, the diversity of bryofauna seems affected more by their host, bryophyte. Keywords: Bryofauna, Acari, coffee and tea vegetation.

Masa Inkubasi Gejala Penyakit Hawar Daun Tanaman Kentang yang Diinduksi Ketahanannya oleh Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma viride

Purwantisari, Susiana, Priyatmojo, Achmadi, Sancayaningsih, Retno Peni, Kasiamdari, Rina Sri

Bioma Vol. 18, No.1, Tahun 2016
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Late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans, is probably the single most important disease of potatoes worldwide. Infected plants were quickly killed and were difficult for replanting, causing significant losses for the growers. Various control methods were examined including the use of biocontrol agents of Trichoderma spp.  The biocontrol potential of Trichoderma viride against potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, were studied  under greenhouse conditions. The research objective was to determine the ability of biocontrol agents Trichoderma viride to delay late blight disease incidence on potato plants in the field. The in vivo experiment was carried out at potato land area located at BALITSA in Cikole Sub District, Lembang District and Bandung Regency. Completely Randomized Design was used with six treatment and five replicates. The treatment tested consist of control (without pathogen fungal and antagonists fungus application too), control (with pathogen fungal application and without antagonist fungal application), chemical fungicide application, antagonist fungal application 2 weeks before planting, application 1 week after planting and both application 2 weeks before and 1 week after planting. Result of the research showed that application of antagonists fungal could delay disease intensity until 14 days. These antagonist could be used as biological agents initials to control leaf blight disease. Key words: Biological control, Potato late blight, Phytophthora infestans, Trichoderma viride

Struktur Komunitas Mikroartropoda Tanah di Lahan Penambangan Galian C Rowosari, Kecamatan Tembalang, Semarang

Larasati, Wiatri, Rahadian, Rully, Hadi, Mochamad

Bioma Vol. 18, No.1, Tahun 2016
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Rowosari miningsite isthe ‘C’ type of excavation area in Semarang. Mining activities may affect environmental disturbance, including on soil fauna. This research aims to determine the community structure of soil microarthropods in Rowosari mining area. The research was conducted in August-September 2015. Soil samples were taken on diagonal plot of 5x5 m2 with a five-point sampling on two stations, namely Post Mining Area (PoMA) and Pre Mining Area (PeMA). The analysis used in the research are relative abundance index, Shannon-Weiner diversity index, evenness index, and Sorensen similarity index. The results shows that there are 360-660 individuals/m2 from 10 ordo and 24 taxa found in Rowosari Excavation Site. The highest relative abundance index is Carabidae (22,22) in PoMA station and Prostigmata (21,21) in PeMA station. The diversity both station belongs to medium category (2,43-2,45). The highest evenness index is 0,95. The similarity taxa of soil microarthropods in two stations are categorized as medium. Community structure of soil microathropods in Post Mining Area and Pre Mining Areawere no significant differences. Keywords: Community structure, Soil microarthropods, Miningexcavation C.

Bobot, Indeks Kuning Telur (IKT), Dan Haugh Unit (Hu) Telur Ayam Ras Setelah Perlakuan Dengan Pembungkusan Pasta Rimpang Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb).

Putri, Dyah Ayu Maharani, Djaelani, Muhammad Anwar, Mardiati, Siti Muflichatun

Bioma Vol. 18, No.1, Tahun 2016
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Eggs are farm products that provide the greatest contribution to the achievement of community nutritional adequacy. The aims of the research was to an analyzed the quality of eggs in treatment without and with a temulawak rhizome pasta stored at 6,12, and 24 days. This research used  35 eggs consists of 7 treatment and 5 replication, namely PtT0 : as control, a group of eggs without packing temulawak rhizome pasta and without storage, PtT6 : a group of eggs without packing temulawak rhizome pasta after 6 days storage, PdT6 : a group of eggs with packing temulawak rhizome pasta after 6 days storage, PtT12 : a group of eggs without packing temulawak rhizome pasta after 12 days storage, PdT12 : a group of eggs with packing temulawak rhizome pasta after 12 days storage, PtT24 : a group of eggs without packing temulawak rhizome pasta after 24 days storage, and PdT24 : a group of eggs with packing temulawak rhizome pasta after 24 days storage. This research was analyzed used a completely randomized design (CRD). Variables measured were egg weight, yolk indeks, and Haugh Unit (HU). Data obtained from this study were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) if there is a real difference then continued further test using Duncan test at the level 95 %. The result  egg weight reducted and yolk index shows was significantly different in PtT6, PtT12, PtT24, and PdT24 and Haugh Unit (HU) shows was significantly different in PtT6, PtT12, PtT24. Conclusion of this research is gived temulawak rhizome pasta are able to maintain the quality of eggs were observed on days 6, 12, and 24. Key Word : Chicken egg,  Temulawak rhizome, Egg quality