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BIOMA
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
BIOMA (ISSN 1410-8801) adalah Majalah Ilmiah Biologi yang bertujuan mewadahi semua informasi hasil penelitian, telaah pustaka, makalah teknis, dan kajian buku, dari berbagai cabang ilmu Biologi. Diharapkan penerbitan ini dapat berkontribusi dalam penyampaian informasi ilmiah yang merupakan mata rantai proses kegiatan ilmiah. Terbit sejak tahun 1999.
Articles by issue : Vol. 17, No.2, Tahun 2015
9
Articles
Allelopathic Effect of Cyperus rotundus L. on Seed Germination and Initial Growth of Glycine max L. cv. Grobogan

Darmanti, Sri, -, Santosa, Dewi, Kumala, Nugroho, L Hartanto

Bioma Vol. 17, No.2, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Allelopathy is a phenomenon of direct or indirect, beneficial or adverse effects of a plant on its own or another plant through the release of chemicals into the environment. This experiment was carried out to determine the allelopathic effect of Cyperus rotundus L. (purple nutsedge) tuber aqueous extract on seed germination and initial growth of Glycine max L. (soybean) seedlings. The experiment was performed in completely randomized (CRD) design with five replications, using a range of concentrations of aqueous tuber extracts of nutsedge, i.e.: 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The petri dish experiment showed that with increase of the tuber extract concentration, a significant increase was noted in mean germination time (MGT), significant decreases in germination index (GI), growth tolerance index (GTI), wet weight seedling, dry weight seedling and  length of soybean seedling.   Key words : allelopathy, aqueous extracts, germination, Cyperus rotundus L., Glycine max L.

Beberapa Aspek Biologi Parasitoid Apantheles sp pada Inangnya, Spodopera litura, Fab. setelah Perlakuan Ekstrak Daun dan Ranting Aglaia odorata (Lour)

Tarwotjo, Udi

Bioma Vol. 17, No.2, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

The objectives of this study were to evaluate effect of leaf and branch extract of the Aglaia odorata against:  emergences of adult Apantheles sp emerged from S. litura larvae, (2) the extract effect to live cycle and reproduction of  Apantheles sp (3) and its effect against the  morphology character some of parasitoid. The metode was used by of leaf-dip method. The leaf and branch effectivity bioassay used by of Ricinus communis leaf . The leaf disk were dipped in the extract solution on six concentration  for 10 s, and air dried. Each leaf disks was placed  six bottles glass and ten larvae were placed in each botlle, each concentration was replicated four time. Data collected  were subjected an anaysis of variance followed by mean comparation based of Duncan´t New Multiple Range Test. The imago Apantheles sp. emerged from host, S.  litura larvae was recorded of live cycle, its reproduction, and morphology character. The result showed that the length of pre adult stage of emerging parasitoids from of S.  litura larvae treated with 85,99 ppm was 45 percent, and with 21,95 ppm was 22,22 percent. The extract toxicity to natural enemies such as parasitoids relatively non toxis. The live cycle of female adult parasitoid was 16,90 and 6,20 days. Reproduction capacity of adult female parasitoids of 85,99 mg/L was 69,4 eggs/adult, which was statistically different from control, whereas of 21,95 treatment, it was 65,40 eggs/adult and its was not significant to control. Key words: Aglaia odorata, Lour, Spodoptera litura,, morphology character, Apanteles sp

Dinamika Struktur Makrobentos sebagai Dasar Pengendalian Wideng (Sesarma sp) Perusak Tanggul Tambak Berbasis Pemanfaatan Sampah Plastik sebagai Penguat di Kawasan Ekowisata Mangrove Tapak, Tugurejo Semarang

Hidayat, Jafron Wasiq, Muhammad, Fuad, Arifin, Zaenal

Bioma Vol. 17, No.2, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Wideng merupakan biota asosiasi hutan mangrove yang sangat penting perannya dalam degradasi serasah mangrove.Wideng mempunyai perilaku membuat lubang pada pematang yang merugikan petani. Sementara pada sisi yang lain, secara fisik hutan  mengrove banyak didapati sampah plastik yang berasal dari hulu. Keberadan sampah sangat mengganggu kehidupan bakau maupun biota asosiasinya, terlebih aktifitas pariwisataPerlu dilakukan pengelolaan untuk mengendalikan wideng di tambak, sekaligus mendorong tercapainya estetika kawasan  mangrove yang mendukung Ekowisata. Tujuan umum penelitian adalah memanfaatkan sampah plastik sebagai penguat tanggul tambak yang tahan pelubangan wideng (Sesarma sp) untuk mendukung ekowisata mangrove. Hal ini dilakukan dengan mengkajiadanya dinamika spasial populasi Sesarma spp dan makrobentos asosiasi dan tingkat kesukaan substrat (pematang) yang diberi alas berbagai bahan.Kajian  observasi dilakukan secara sampling dengan analisis Struktur Komunitas. Adapun kajian pelubangan menggunakan RAL dengan uji lanjut t-test. Hasil sampling makrobentos di jumpai 16 jenis dengan jenis yang umum ditemukan adalah Cerithidea spp, Neries spp dan Sesarma sp.Sesarma sp cenderung mengikuti keberadaan bahan organik, terutama bahan serasah mangrove. Pada perlakuan penguatan pematang menggunakan bahan sampah memperlihatkan pematang yang disisipi bahan serasah cenderung disukai wideng,  diikuti bahan sampah plastik dan bahan plastik lembaran. Secara praktek, petambak sebaiknya memungut sampah untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai penguat dengan menyisipkannya pada lumpur bahan tanggul. Prioritas lokasi yaitu di muara tengah dan depan yang banyak ditemukan wideng dan serasah. Mekanisme pelaksanaan penguatan tanggul dapat difasilitasi oleh kelompok tani. Luaran penelitian disamping tanggul menjadi kuat, tidak menarik bagi wideng, kawasan menjadi bersih, juga tidak perluperlu memotong ranting mangrove untuk digunakan sebagai aran (landasan lumpur).   Kata Kunci :Wideng, perusak tanggul, sampah plastik

Perbandingan Komposisi Tumbuhan Lumut Epifit Pada Hutan Alam Dan Pemanfaatan Hutan Di Sepanjang Gradien Ketinggian Gunung Ungaran, Jawa Tengah

Perwati, Lilih Khotim, Rahadian, Rully, Baskoro, Karyadi

BIOMA Vol. 17, No.2, Tahun 2015
Publisher : BIOMA

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Abstract

Perbedaan ketinggian tempat dan perubahan habitat karena alih fungsi hutan di pegunungan berdampak terhadap kondisi klimatik yang akan mempengaruhi distribusi dan komposisi tumbuhan lumut. Penelitian dampak perbedaan ketinggian tempat dan perubahan alih fungsi hutan telah dilakukan di lereng Gunung Ungaran pada ketingiian 750 – 2040 m.dpl, di hutan alam, perkebunan kopi dan teh. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengkaji komposisi tumbuhan lumut pada hutan alam maupun berrbagai alih fungsi hutan di sepanjang gradien ketinggian pegunungan. Pengambilan sampel lumut menggunakan kuadrat berukuran 20 x 30 cm yang diposisikan pada ketinggian pohon antara 0-2 m. Sejumlah 103 spesies lumut epifit berhasil diidentifikasi, meliputi 58 pesies anggota lumut sejati dan 45 spesies lumut hati. Komposisi lumut di hutan alam lebih beragam dari pada di perkebunan kopi dan teh. Famili Lejeunacea merupakan famili yang mempunyai jumlah spesies terbanyak. Terdapat 7 bentuk kehidupan tumbuhan lumut epifit pada lokasi penelitian. Bentuk Mats dan Turf merupakan bentuk yang paling umum di lokasi penelitian, sementara itu bentuk Pendant dan Dendroid hanya ditemukan di hutan alam yang mempunyai kelembaban udara lebih tinggi.   Kata kunci: Bryophytes, epifit, altitude, alih fungsi hutan, life form,

Perbedaan Somatometri Itik Tegal, Itik Magelang Dan Itik Pengging

Wulandari, Desi, -, Sunarno, Saraswati, Tyas Rini

Bioma Vol. 17, No.2, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Local ducks in Indonesia there are several kinds, for example Tegal ducks, Magelang ducks and Pengging duck each having characteristics different somatometri. Research on somatometri ducks that includes body weight, leg length, beak length, wing length, body length, and long-neck ducks important to know somatometri of each duck. This study aimed to analyze the differences somatometri at Tegal ducks, Magelang ducks and Pengging duck, which includes weight, leg length, beak length, wing length, body length, and a long neck. Ducks were used in this study maintained in the Central Breeding and Raising Ducks Work Unit Non Ruminant Livestock Banyubiru, Ambarawa. The study was conducted by measuring somatometri of each six monthold ducks. Duck samples taken from three different types of ducks that Tegal duck, Pengging duck and Magelang duck, of each type of sample taken many ducks as 6 tails. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the differentiating factor is the type of duck. If the data were analyzed contained a real difference, then do a further test using the test Least Significant Differences (LSD) at 95% confidence level. The results showed that there was no significant difference in all parameters of the study. Conclusion of the study three types of ducks will have somatometri not unlike that includes, weight, leg length, beak length, wing length, body length and the length of the neck. It was because give feed and feed same time.   Keywords: Local Ducks in Central Java, Somatometri, Tegal ducks, Magelang ducks, Pengging duck

Profil Kolestrol Darah Tikus Setelah Pemberian Virgin Coconut Oil Dan Minyak Zaitun

Djaelani, Muhammad Anwar

Bioma Vol. 17, No.2, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Tingginya kadar kolestrol dalam tubuh menjadi pemicu munculnya berbagai penyakit. Masyarakat berusaha menurunkan kadar kolesterol dalam tubuhnya. Komponen VCO berupa asam lemak jenuh sekitar 90% dan asam lemak tak jenuh sekitar 10%. Asam lemak jenuh VCO didominasi oleh asam laurat. VCO mengandung  asam laurat dan asam kaprilat. Keduanya merupakan asam lemak rantai sedang yang biasa disebut Medium Chain Fatty Acid (MCFA).  Minyak zaitun atau Olive oil mengandung lemak tak jenuh yang tinggi terutama asam oleat dan polifenol. Polifenol merupakan  antioksidan  yang  dapat  mengikat LDL teroksidasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji efek asam lemak jenuh yang menggunakan VCO dan efek asam lemak tak jenuh yang menggunakan minyak zaitun terhadap profil kolesterol darah pada tikus putih. Penelitian ini menggunakan Tikus putih jantan sebanyak 25 ekor yang dibagi dalam 5 kelompok perlakuan yaitu P1 adalah kelompok kontrol, P2 kelompok yang diberi VCO 5 mL/kg pakan, P3 kelompok yang diberi VCO 10 mL/kg pakan, P4 kelompok yang diberi minyak zaitun 5 mL/kg pakan dan P5 kelompok yang diberi minyak zaitun 10 mL/kg pakan. Tiap perlakuan diulang sebanyak 5 kali. Perlakuan selama 4 minggu. Variabel yang diamati meliputi kadar Kolesterol total, HDL dan LDL darah tikus. Data yang didapat, dianalisis menggunakan ANOVA. Hasil yang didapat menunjukkan pada perlakuan  dengan VCO menunjukkan pengaruh yang tidak signifikan terhadap perubahan ketiga variabel penelitian. Pada perlakuan  dengan minyak zaitun kadar HDL tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antar kelompok perlakuan, kadar Kolesterol total pada kelompok perlakuan menunjukkan penurununan yang tidak signifikan dan kadar LDL pada kelompok perlakuan 10 mL/kg pakan menunjukkan penurununan yang signifikan. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian VCO tidak berpengaruh pada profil kolestrol darah tikus normolipidemia, dan minyak zaitun  berpotensi menimbulkan respon penurunan profil kolesterol tikus pada kadar ≥10 mL/kg pakan.   Kata kunci: tikus putih, Kolesterol total, HDL dan LDL, Minyak Zaitun, VCO.

Populasi Penggerek Batang Padi pada Ekosistem Sawah Organik dan Sawah Anorganik

Hadi, Mochamad, Soesilohadi, RC Hidayat, Wagiman, FX, Soehardjono, Yayuk Rahayuningsih

Bioma Vol. 17, No.2, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Rice stem borer (RSB ) is a major pest for rice in Central Java in the past ten years as well as previous years . The presence of RSB occurs during the rice growing season with a high intensity , especially in the rainy season . RSB which is the main type, yellow RSB Scirpophaga incertulas Walker  and white S. innonata. Walker . Other types are pink  Sesamia inferens Walker , striped Chilo suppressalis Walker, headed black C. polychrysus Meyrick , and shiny C. auricilius Dudgeon. Organic farming in Central Java is still not widely applied so it is still very less information available, including information on the fluctuations in species diversity and population abundance of RSB. In this study examined the types and abundance fluctuations keenekaragaman RSB populations in rice field ecosystem organic and inorganic. Research will be conducted for one year (3 times transplanting rice) paddy ecosystems in organic and inorganic  Bakalrejo Village, District Susukan, Semarang regency. The results showed that the dominant RSB is yellow S. incertulas. Yellow RSB found in every season paddy rice planting in both organic and inorganic rice. While the pink, shiny and white RSB, occasionally encountered. The RSB encountered seem to prefer the ecosystem tend rice paddy organic than inorganic . Keywords : rice stem borer ( RSB ) , organic rice ecosystem, inorganic rice ecosystem.

Ratio Kadar Ldl/Hdl Tikus Putih Sprague Dawley Hiperlipidemia Setelah Diberi Cangkang Udang Laut (Penaeus monodon F.)

Isdadiyanto, Sri

Bioma Vol. 17, No.2, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to analyze the ratio of LDL/HDL level of Sprague Dawley rats induced by high fat ration after given of sea shrimp carapace (Penaeus monodon F.). The animals for this study were twenty adult male rats divided into four groups, i.e. group I as the control was fed with basal ration containing normal fat for 3 months, group II was fed ration containing high fat for 3 months, group III was fed ration containing high fat and given sea shrimp carapace 180 mg per kg body weight per day orally in 2 ml aquadest for 3 months, group IV was fed ration containing high fat for 3 months and after 1 month given sea shrimp carapace 180 mg per kg body weight per day orally in 2 ml aquadest for 2 months. Each group consisted of five animals. After 90 days, the rats were necropsied and the blood were collected to analyzes ratio of LDL/HDL level. LDL level and HDL level were measured using colorimetric enzymatic method and Roche/Hitachi cobas c systems automatically calculate.  The difference between treatments was statistical analysis by Anava, and continued by Lowest Significant Difference Test to locate the difference. The result showed that high fat diet increased ratio of LDL/HDL level and Sea shrimp carapace decreased ratio of LDL/HDL level.   Keywords: Sea shrimp carapace, Sprague Dawley rats, ratio of LDL/HDL level

Perbandingan Komposisi Tumbuhan Lumut Epifit Pada Hutan Alam, Kebun Kopi dan Kebun Teh di Sepanjang Gradien Ketinggian Gunung Ungaran, Jawa Tengah

Perwati, Lilih Khotim, Rahadian, Rully, Baskoro, Karyadi

Bioma Vol. 17, No.2, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Study on the impact of differences in altitude and land use changes was conducted in natural forest, coffee and tea plantations in along altitudinal gradient of Ungaran mountain from 750 to 2040 m a.s.l. The objective of this study were to compare composition of epiphytic bryophytes species in third sites. Epiphytic bryophytes sampling were done in plots 20 x 30 cm were applied on height of tree betwen 0-2 m. A total of 103 species of epiphytics bryophytes were identified, involve 58 species of mosses (Bryophyta Division) and 45 species of liverworts (Marchantiophyta Division). The composition of bryophytes in natural forest is more diverse than in coffee and tea plantations. Lejeunaceae have the highest number of species. There are seven life forms of epiphytic bryophytes in the present study i.e. Turf, Cushion, Mats, Wefts, Dendroid, Pendant  and Fans. The most common is Mats and Turf form, while Pendant and Dendroid form only found in natural forest.   Key words: Bryophytes, epiphytes, altitude, land use changes, life form