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BIOMA
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
BIOMA (ISSN 1410-8801) adalah Majalah Ilmiah Biologi yang bertujuan mewadahi semua informasi hasil penelitian, telaah pustaka, makalah teknis, dan kajian buku, dari berbagai cabang ilmu Biologi. Diharapkan penerbitan ini dapat berkontribusi dalam penyampaian informasi ilmiah yang merupakan mata rantai proses kegiatan ilmiah. Terbit sejak tahun 1999.
Articles by issue : Vol. 17, No.1, Tahun 2015
8
Articles
Potensi Cangkang Udang Laut (Penaeus monodon F.) Terhadap Profil Lipid Tikus Putih Hiperlipidemia

Isdadiyanto, Sri

Bioma Vol. 17, No.1, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to analyze the potency of sea shrimp carapace (Penaeus monodon F.) on lipid profiles of Sprague Dawley rats induced by high fat ration. The animals for this study were twenty adult male rats divided into four groups, i.e. group I as the control was fed with basal ration containing normal fat for 3 months, group II was fed ration containing high fat for 3 months, group III was fed ration containing high fat and given sea shrimp carapace 180 mg per kg body weight per day orally in 2 ml aquadest for 3 months, group IV was fed ration containing high fat for 3 months and after 1 month given sea shrimp carapace 180 mg per kg body weight per day orally in 2 ml aquadest for 2 months. Each group consisted of five animals. After 90 days, the rats were necropsied and the blood were collected to analyzes lipid profiles. Lipid profiles were measured using colorimetric enzymatic method and Roche/Hitachi cobas c systems automatically calculate.  The difference between treatments was statistical analysis by Anava, and continued by Lowest Significant Difference Test to locate the difference. The result showed that high fat diet decreased HDL level, but increased total cholesterol level and LDL level. Sea shrimp carapace increased HDL but decreased total cholesterol level and LDL level in rats by high fat induction.   Keywords: Sea shrimp carapace, Sprague Dawley rats, lipid profiles

Kualitas Simplisia Tanaman Biofarmaka Curcuma domestica Setelah Proses Pemanasan Pada Suhu Dan Waktu Bervariasi

Kusumaningrum, Hermin Pancasakti, Kusdiyantini, Endang, Pujiyanto, Sri

Bioma Vol. 17, No.1, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Curcuma domestica is one of traditional medicinal plants that is found in Gunungpati Semarang. However the dried product do not achieve optimal standard quality for simplicia  in terms of microbial contaminant and in an industrial scale household. Knowledge on how to use  sterilization   to produce better simplicia and reducing contaminant has not been known by farmers, yet. The purpose of this activity was to obtain the best heating treatment on sterilization of Curcuma simplicia using several temperature under sunlight and oven device. It was also want to  show microbial growth after heating at several times and their  influence on the quality of simplicia after treatment. The method was conducted by  simplicia sterilization of C. domestica using sunlight sterilization for a week and using oven at a temperature of 300C, 400C, 500C and 600C for 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 48 hours. The results showed that heating at temperature of 500C for 48 hours obtained the best simplicia, followed by heating at a temperature of 600C for 16-48 hours without contaminants after storing period for 3 months.   Key words :Curcuma, sterilization, heat, microbia

Inventarisasi Jenis Capung (Odonata) Pada Areal Persawahan Di Desa Pundenarum Kecamatan Karangawen Kabupaten Demak

Rizal, Samsul, Hadi, Mochamad

Bioma Vol. 17, No.1, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Paddy fields is one of the important ecosystem that support human life because here produced rice that is the main food to the human. Besides, paddy field ecosystem also have many diversity of insect, including dragonfly (Odonata). Dragonfly (Odonata) is one of the insect that used to be a predators to the pests in the paddy fields, such as Chilo sp and Nilaparvata lugen. The study on dragonfly was conducted in Pundenarum village, Karangawen, Demak. The objectives of this study is to identify the odonata specieses that lived in paddy field. Inventory of odonata specieses done with field by field method and direct catch using insect net. The result of this study is that 5 specieses of odonata were identified  in paddy field, i.e: Orthetrum sabina, Crocothemis servillia, Pantala flavescens, Agriocnemis femina dan Agriocnemis pygmea. The odonata specieses that identified is part of 2 family, i.e: Libellulidae and Coenagrionidae. It is also found that all species is part of the suborder Anisoptera (dragonfly) and Zygoptera (damselflies). Key word : dragonfly, Odonata, inventory, paddy field.

Keanekaragaman Makroarthropoda Tanah di Lahan Persawahan Padi Organik dan Anorganik, Desa Bakalrejo Kecamatan Susukan Kabupaten Semarang

Witriyanto, Roma, Hadi, Mochamad, Rahadian, Rully

Bioma Vol. 17, No.1, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Inorganic paddies system has a negative impact as pests become resistant, environmental pollution and residual hazard. People who are aware of the impact of the application of synthetic chemicals have been applying organic farming. This research aimed to compare the abundance, diversity and dominance of soil macroarthropods  in the organic and inorganic paddies field in Village Bakalrejo, Susukan District of Kabupaten Semarang. Sampling of soil macroarthropods method used pit fall traps . Fifteen pit fall traps were set up in the research area and they were divided into three line whith respective line are 5 pit fall traps. Soil macroarthropods  which has been found were identified up to family taxon. The results of the research shows abundance of soil macroarthropods organic rice in paddy fields higher (297) than in inorganic paddy fields (236). Diversity of soil macroarthropods in every phase of rice growth (vegetative, reproductive, ripening and post-harvest) was higher in organic paddy fields (1,479; 1,644; 1,561; 1,019) than inorganic paddy fields (1.391; 0.595; 1.286; 1.002). Based on the relative abundance index, soil macroarthropods family dominated organic paddy fields in every phase of rice growth (vegetative, reproductive, ripening, and post-harvest) was lower (Gryllidae: 39.4%; Carabidae: 46.7%; Formicidae: 44.1 %; Formicidae: 48.8%) than in the inorganic paddy fields (Carabidae: 35.5%; Carabidae: 57.4%; Formicidae: 56.3%; Formicidae: 77.6%). Key words :  biodiversity, soil macroarthropods, organic farming.

Perilaku Vektor Malaria Anopheles farauti Laveran (Diptera: Culicidae) Di Ekosistem Pantai (Kabupaten Biak Numfor) Dan Ekosistem Rawa (Kabupaten Asmat) Propinsi Papua

Kawulur, Hanna, Soesilohadi, RC Hidayat, Hadisusanto, Suwarno, Trisyono, Andi

Bioma Vol. 17, No.1, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Biak Numfor and Asmat districts reported as malaria endemic areas in Papua (Papua Global Fund, 2011). Anopheles farauti mosquito is one of the malaria vectors in the region. Malaria control efforts have been made but there are still many cases of malaria. Malaria control will provide maximum results if there is a match between the vector behavior and programs undertaken. The purpose of this study was to determine the bionomics factors (behavioral) of malaria vector An. farauti mosquitoes in coastal ecosystems (Biak Numfor) and swamp (Asmat); namely: (a). density (b) age and (c) blood-seeking behavior. The method used in this study is human landing collection, resting collection and ELISA blood-feed. The results showed that the population density of An. farauti mosquito did not have a positive relationship with the number of malaria patients in both study areas. The activity of An. farauti mosquito on blood-seeking at the coastal and swamp ecosystems lasted all night but mainly at 18:00 to 19:00 hour. The study also showed that blood-seeking activity mostly done outside of the house. Age estimation of An. farauti mosquito population at coastal ecosystems ranging from 16-18 days, while in the swamp ecosystem is 12-14 days. Population density, approximately age and blood-seeking behavior indicates that An. farauti mosquitoes on the coastal and swamp ecosystems have the potential to be an effective malaria vector.   Keywords: Malaria, Vector, Behavior

Perkecambahan Biji Dan Pertumbuhan Kecambah Varietas Sorgum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Pada Cekaman Krom Heksavalen

Kasmiyati, Sri, S, Santosa, Priyambada, Irfan Dwidja, Dewi, Kumala, Sandradewi, Rintawati

Bioma Vol. 17, No.1, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

In contrast to other toxic trace metals, Cr has received little attention. Since valence level of chromium determines its toxicity, chromium is categorized as unique heavy metal. Chromium hexavalent (Cr6+) has the biggest toxicity among other valence levels. Seed germination and seedling growth are sensitive to heavy metal stresses. This research aimed to find out the responses of seed germination and seedling growth of 12 sorghum varieties toward Cr6+. Seed germination and seedling growth experiment was done on 12 sorghum varieties (Badik, UPCA-1, Keris, Keris M3, hegari Genjah, Gambela, Selayer, Sangkur, Mandau, Batari, Kawali, dan Numbu), planted in petridishes with Cr6+ treatment in form of chromate (K2CrO4) and dichromate (K2Cr2O7) compounds with 0, 50 and 500 mg of Cr/l concentration for a week. The parameters measured were the number of seeds germinate each day; the length of radicle and plumule, and fresh and dry weight at the end of experiment. The results showed that higher concentration of Cr6+ both in form of dichromate and chromate, significantly decreased  the length of radicle and plumule, fresh and dry weight, and SVI (seedling vigor index) value. However, index germination (GI) value and percentage of germination of the 12 varieties sorgum significantly increased in the treatment of 50 mg Cr/l Cr6+ in form of dichromate and chromate. The treatment of dichromate compound showed bigger effect than chromate toward variables of seed germination and seedling growth of sorghum. It was noticed that 12 sorghum varieties possessed an integrated complex of adaptation to cope with the range of form of compound and concentration of Cr6+. Based on the responses of seed germination and seedling growth, Kawali, Hegari, Keris, Keris M3, Mandau, and Selayer varieties was more susceptible toward Cr6+ toxicity, and Sangkur, Selayer, Batari, and Numbu was more tolerant than other varieties. Keywords : chromate, dichromate, Sorghum bicolor, seedling, hexavalent chromium

Efektivitas Tanaman Lemna (Lemna perpusilla Torr) Sebagai Agen Fitoremediasi Pada Keramba Jaring Apung (KJA) Disekitar Tanjungmas Semarang

U, Umarudin, Nur, Jumriah, Wulandari, Ayu, Izzati, Munifatul

Bioma Vol. 17, No.1, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

The port of Tanjung Emas, Semarang as the main port in Central Java that have activity increases pollution impact. Hence the need for special attention and handling by using aquatic plants Lemna perpusilla. The purpose of this research is to know the physical condition of floating around the net keramba Tanjungmas city of Semarang. Designing the application fitoremediasi on floating around the net keramba Tanjungmas city of Semarang and Knowing the prospects of development of fitoremidiasi. This paper uses a case study research methods (case study), which this method has the goal to provide a detailed description of the background, traits and characters typical of cases of water are there in KJA around the Tanjugmas City of Semarang by taking the research object. While this research is the observation and interview is open ended. So that the data obtained indicate that the physical condition of floating around the net keramba Tanjungmas Semarang blackened water greenish colours, smells, and oily. Application design fitoremidiasi by Lemna perpusilla utilize water plants and fish seed banding continued with the observed results. As well as direct application on the KJA in the waters of Tanjung Mas with lemna and seed density setting fish whitefish. Fitoremidiasi development prospects by looking at opportunities to fish bandeng and Lemna perpusilla. Key words: Fitoremediasi, KJA, Fish Bandeng, Lemna perpusilla, Pollution.  

Indeks Keragaman Serangga Hama Pada Tanaman Padi (Oryza sativa L.) Di Lahan Persawahan Padi Dataran Tinggi Desa Sukawening, Kecamatan Ciwidey, Kabupaten Bandung

Sianipar, Martua Suhunan, Djaya, Luciana, Santosa, Entun, Soesilohadi, RC Hidayat, Natawigena, W Darajat, Bangun, Mey Priandi

Bioma Vol. 17, No.1, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Kemampuan Indonesia dalam memenuhi kebutuhan beras nasional sangat penting. Akan tetapi, usaha pemenuhan kebutuhan beras ini tidak selamanya berjalan dengan lancar karena terganggunya produktivitas padi. Salah satu penyebab turunnya produktivitas padi di Indonesia karena adanya serangan serangga hama. Beberapa kendala yang menyebabkan gagalnya petani dalam mengendalikan serangga hama karena petani masih belum melakukan identifikasi serangga hama dan gejala serangan dengan baik. Penelitian yang dilaksanakan akhir tahun 2012 ini yang berlokasi di Lahan Persawahan Padi Dataran Tinggi Desa Sukawening, Kecamatan Ciwidey, Kabupaten Bandung, Jawa Barat bertujuan meng inventarisasi dan mendapatkan nilai keragaman jenis serangga hama pada tanaman padi. Penangkapan serangga hama yang dilakukan dengan menggunakan perangkap kuning, perangkap jaring dan perangkap cahaya. Hasil penangkapan serangga diidentifikasi di laboratorium. Indeks keragaman serangga dianalisis dengan menggunakan perhitungan Shannon- Weinner. Serangga hama yang dominan diperoleh pada fase vegetative yaitu Scirpophaga incertulas, Thaia oryzivora, dan Orselia oryzae. Serangga hama minor diperoleh yaitu Dicladispa armigera, Leptispa pygmaea, dan Melanitis ledaismene. Serangga hama yang dominan diperoleh pada fase generative yaitu Leptocorisa acuta, Scirpophaga incertulas, dan Thaiaoryzivora. Serangga hama minor diperoleh yaitu Nilaparvata lugens, Sogatella furcifera, dan Cofana spectra. Indeks keragaman serangga hama yang diperoleh pada ketiga lahan percobaan ada diantara sedang hingga tinggi.Pada fase vegetatif indeks keragaman tertinggi sebesar 4,74 pada pengamatan ke 6 dan terendah pada pengamatan ke 1 sebesar 2,22. Pada fase generatif indeks keragaman tertinggi pada pengamatan ke 9 sebesar 4,86 dan terendah pada pengamatan ke 12 sebesar 1,37.   Kata kunci :indeks keragaman, serangga hama, padi, Kabupaten Bandung.