cover
Filter by Year
BIOMA
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
BIOMA (ISSN 1410-8801) adalah Majalah Ilmiah Biologi yang bertujuan mewadahi semua informasi hasil penelitian, telaah pustaka, makalah teknis, dan kajian buku, dari berbagai cabang ilmu Biologi. Diharapkan penerbitan ini dapat berkontribusi dalam penyampaian informasi ilmiah yang merupakan mata rantai proses kegiatan ilmiah. Terbit sejak tahun 1999.
Articles by issue : Vol. 16, No.2, Tahun 2014
7
Articles
Kemampuan Tumbuhan Typha Angustifolia Dalam Sistem Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Untuk Pengolahan Limbah Cair Industri Kerupuk (Studi Kasus Limbah Cair Sentra Industri Kerupuk Desa Kenanga Kecamatan Sindang Kabupaten Indramayu Jawa Barat)

Abdulgani, Hamdani, Izzati, Munifatul, S, Sudarno

Bioma Vol. 16, No.2, Tahun 2014
Publisher : Bioma

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (426.136 KB)

Abstract

Industrial crackers centers at Kenanga Village has been able to lift the local economy,but that has been polluting the surrounding surface water contamination caused by wastewater discharged directly without any treatment in advance so that the water is black and smells foul . Therefore, the need of alternative wastewater treatment and in the study conducted by the artificial wetlands (constructed wetland) system Sub - surface Flow vertical flow with Typha angustifolia plant and use a medium sized sand 1 mm - 5 mm were previously washed first with media thickness of 30 cm and then operated intermittently using a peristaltic pump 6 times a day with the design of constructed wetlands construction made of wood coated with plastic and reactor dimensions 90 cm x 45 cm x 50 cm . As for the control (no treatment) using use the bucket size diameter 40 cm and height of 20 cm. This study aims to determine the ability of Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland with Typha angustifolia plants in lowering the concentration of TSS , BOD5 , COD , ammonia (NH3 – N) and sulfide (H2S) at 5,10 and 15 days of processing . The results showed a decrease in the concentration efficiency at consecutive time 5 , 10 and 15 days in Subsurface Flow Constructed wetland with Typha angustifolia for TSS 73,78%; 77,18%; 84,71%; BOD5 85,83%; 90,33%; 94,17%; COD 86,94%; 90,65%; 94,87%; Ammonia 76,07%; 84,25%; 87,52%; sulfide 94,56%; 99,18%; 99,81 %.

Diversitas Kapang Serasah Daun Talok (Muntingia calabura L.) Di Kawasan Desa Sukolilo Barat, Kecamatan Labang, Kabupaten Bangkalan, Madur

Miranti, Arum Krisna, Rukmi, MG Isworo, Suprihadi, Agung

Bioma Vol. 16, No.2, Tahun 2014
Publisher : Bioma

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (182.403 KB)

Abstract

Leaf litter is one kind of substrate which is good for mold’s growth because of its organic matters content particularly cellulose. Research on mold diversity on Talok (Muntingia calabura L.) leaf litter which grow abundance at Sukolilo Barat Village, Labang Subdistrict, Bangkalan, Madura was conducted in order to determined the diversity and to isolate xerophilic mold as well as to examined the enzymatic activity of the isolates. The isolation has been done by direct and indirect method on DG18 agar, MEA, and OA from three samples which is taken purposively. The enzyme activities observed were cellulolytic, amylolitic and proteolytic at 310C temperature. The results showed that 24 isolates found were come from 3 genus i.e. Aspergillus, Curvularia and Fusarium. The Aspergillus was the largest number found. The Shannon-Wiener Index of Diversity showed that the diversity of three leaf litter samples categorized medium. The highest cellulolytic, amylolitic and proteolytic activity at 310C incubation were showed by A. tamarii (ISM 1), A.aculeatus (ISM 10) , A. terreus sp. 3 (ISM 17) respectively. Keywords : Diversity, mold, talok litter leaf, Madura

Produksi Bioetanol Dari Rumput Laut dan Limbah Agar Gracilaria sp. dengan Metode Sakarifikasi Yang Berbeda

Adini, Saniha, Kusdiyantini, Endang, Budiharjo, Anto

Bioma Vol. 16, No.2, Tahun 2014
Publisher : Bioma

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (206.041 KB)

Abstract

The Indonesia needs of Bioethanol were 390.000 kL in 2012, but the local ethanol production only able to cover less than 4% from the needed. The high demand of the bioethanol encourage for another innovation in ethanol production more efficient and effectively. Seaweeds and the residual pulp of Gracilaria sp. could be useful as substrate for bioethanol production, because of the high amount of polysaccharide, cellulose and galactan type. Unfortunately, this cellulose and galactan had through the saccharification process first, before they can be used as substrates in bioethanol production. This study examined the difference between two saccharification process which are acid hydrolisis using H2SO4 1% and enzymatic process using Aspergillus niger on the use seaweed and the residual pulp of Gracilaria sp. for bioethanol production. Bioethanol production been conducted for 5 days and in each 24 hour, the sampling for cell number variable, reduction sugar amount variable, and medium fermentation pH variable had been retrieved. The ethanol amount calculation in the last incubation phase conducted using distillate fermentation spesific gravity methode. The highest ethanol was obtained 5,50%  by treatment using seaweed medium with acid hydrolisis. The anova analysis result showed that interaction between medium variable and hydrolisis didn’t have signifficant influence toward ethanol product. It showed that seaweed and the residual pulp of Gracilaria sp. had same quality and they can be useful as main component of bioethanol production which are hydrolisis by enzymatic or acid hydrolisis.   Key Words :  Gracilaria sp., the residual pulp, saccharification, reducing sugar, ethanol

Lumut Daun Epifit Di Zona Tropik Kawasan Gunung Ungaran, Jawa Tengah

Mulyani, Eka, Perwati, Lilih Khotim, -, Murningsih

Bioma Vol. 16, No.2, Tahun 2014
Publisher : Bioma

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (76.193 KB)

Abstract

The tropical zone of Mount Ungaran is a tropical forest which are rich in diversity of flora. One of them is Bryophytes. Most of the Bryophytes of tropical forest are epiphytes. The largest group of Bryophytes is mosses (Bryophyta). However, research about epiphytic mosses in this area are sparse, so it is only a few information given about epiphytic mosses in this area. The aim of this research was to identify epiphytic mosses in tropical zone of Mount Ungaran altitudes 750, 980, and 1.100 meters above sea level, and also to determine the frequency attendance of species in this study site. This research was conducted in April through November 2012. Specimens was carried out at Laboratory of Ecology and Biosistematics, Department Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia. The results shown there are 35 species mosses. Diversity of epiphytic moses most commonly found at altitude 1.100 meters above sea level, as many as 17 species, while at altitudes 750 and 980 meters above sea level was found 15 species. Family Hypnaceae is the family with highest number of species (6 species) and has highest total amount of frequency attendance by 16,13%. Hypnum plumaeforme and Luisierella barbula were the species which had wide distribution. Both of them were found at all three altitudes. Species with the highest total amount of frequency attendance is Hylocomium splendens from family Hylocomiaceae with total amount by 9,68%. Key words : epiphytic mosses, Mount Ungaran, tropical zone

Seleksi Primer LCO – HCO, Primer bird-f1 – HCO Dan Primer bch – bcl Untuk Amplifikasi Gen COI DNA Mitokondria Itik Magelang (Anas javanica)

Setiyawan, Sonny Abdi, Budiharjo, Anto, Kusumaningrum, Hermin Pancasakti

Bioma Vol. 16, No.2, Tahun 2014
Publisher : Bioma

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (671.668 KB)

Abstract

Magelang duck is a wild type of local duck from Indonesia. The advantagesof Magelangduckcompare tootherlocalduck from Indonesiaareabilityto livein the highlandsandlowlands and high production of egg and meat. Geneticcharacterization of Magelangduck still not available until now.The aim of the research is selectprimers forampliflying COIgeneof mitochondrialDNAof MagelangduckusingLCO-HCO, bird-f1 -HCO, andbcl-bch primers.The research methodwas DNAisolationfrom Magelangduck. Followed by, selection of primer in silicoto find homologywithin COIsequenceusing ClustalX, Genedoc, and FastPCR programs. Amplification of COIgenewas performedusing PCRwith all primerpairs. Result showed partial homology with all primer in COI sequence. TheamplificationusingtheLCO-HCO primer produced  primerdimer.Primerbirdf1-HCOand bch-bcl primers showed no amplification.   Key words: Magelang duck, COI gene, mitochondrial DNA, primer

Potensi Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck Dalam Remediasi Logam Berat Cd Dan Pb Skala Laboratorium.

Purnamawat, Florensia Setyaningsih, Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih, Izzati, Munifatul

Bioma Vol. 16, No.2, Tahun 2014
Publisher : Bioma

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (190.676 KB)

Abstract

Salah satu dampak negatif modernisasi dan industrialisasi adalah pencemaran lingkungan. Perairan merupakan salah satu lingkungan yang paling terbebani bahan pencemar karena banyaknya limbah rumah tangga maupun industri yang akhirnya masuk ke lingkungan perairan. Salah satu bahan pencemar perairan yang paling membahayakan adalah logam berat karena bersifat non-biodegradable. Oleh karena itu perlu upaya penanganan maupun pencegahan terhadap bahan pencemar tersebut. Pengolahan limbah secara fisiko-kimiawi dinilai mahal, menurunkan biodiversitas, banyak lumpur yang dihasilkan, dan kurang efektif pada konsentrasi logam di bawah 50 mg/l. Bioremediasi merupakan salah satu metode perbaikan lingkungan yang lebih ramah lingkungan karena menggunakan agen hayati seperti bakteri, jamur, protista, dan tanaman. Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck merupakan mikroalga bersel satu yang banyak tumbuh di perairan tawar dan laut, telah dimanfaatkan masyarakat sebagai bahan pakan, suplemen, biofuel dan bioremediasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji potensi C. vulgaris sebagai agen bioremediasi terhadap cemaran logam berat Cd dan Pb skala laboratorium. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL). C. vulgaris ditumbuhkan dalam media kultur yang telah diberi pupuk Walne selama 76 hari. Media kultur ditambah ion logam Cd dan Pb dengan 3 konsentrasi yang berbeda yaitu  1 ppm, 3 ppm, dan 5 ppm, masing-masing 3 kali ulangan. Medium kultur tanpa penambahan logam dianggap sebagai kontrol. Kandungan logam berat dalam medium dan dalam sel C. vulgaris diukur dengan AAS. Hal yang diamati dalam penelitian ini adalah pola pertumbuhan populasi C. vulgaris, persentase penurunan logam Cd dan Pb oleh C. vulgaris, besarnya akumulasi logam dalam C. vulgaris, serta nilai Bioconcentration Factor (BCF). Berdasarkan penelitian tersebut terbukti bahwa C. vulgaris terbukti mampu menurunkan konsentrasi ion Cd dan Pb dalam perairan. Prosentase penurunan konsentrasi ion Pb dalam media kontrol, 1 ppm, 3 ppm, dan 5 ppm berturut-turut  70%, 80%, 62%, dan 52% sedangkan dalam media Cd pada konsentrasi serupa berturut-turut 67%, 79%, 56%, dan 51%. C.  vulgaris mampu mengakumulasi  Cd lebih besar daripada Pb. Berdasarkan nilai BCF  terhadap  Cd maupun Pb, C. vulgaris tergolong akumulator logam.   Kata kunci : logam berat, bioremediasi, Chlorella vulgaris,  bioakumulasi.

Kemampuan Fusan F1 Dalam Memproduksi Inulinase

-, Wijanarka, Soetarto, Endang Sutariningsih, Dewi, Kumala, Indrianto, Ari

Bioma Vol. 16, No.2, Tahun 2014
Publisher : Bioma

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (75.57 KB)

Abstract

Fusan F1 was the result of the fusion of the Pichia manshurica and Rhodosporidium paludigenum. The second type of yeast has the ability to produce inulinase.  Inulinase (EC. 3.2.1.7) is an enzyme that is classified as a hydrolase enzyme, this enzyme has the ability to break down complex inulin into simpler components that fructose. Fructose was a monosaccharide with huge potential for the manufacture of butanol, iOS, pullan, FOS and ethanol. The purpose of research to determine the ability fusan F1 in producing inulinase and to determine the specific growth rate (μ), as well as the generation time (g) fusan F1.The results showed that fusan F1 at the 18 th hour was able to produce inulinase of 0.61 mol / min. These results are higher than the parental namely P. manshurica (0.56 mol / min) and Rh. paludigenum (0.33 mol / min). While The specific growth rate (μ) and generation time (g) fusan F1 respecly 0.25 h and 2.7/ h. Keywords: Fusan F1; inulinase; the specific growth; generation time