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BIOMA
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
BIOMA (ISSN 1410-8801) adalah Majalah Ilmiah Biologi yang bertujuan mewadahi semua informasi hasil penelitian, telaah pustaka, makalah teknis, dan kajian buku, dari berbagai cabang ilmu Biologi. Diharapkan penerbitan ini dapat berkontribusi dalam penyampaian informasi ilmiah yang merupakan mata rantai proses kegiatan ilmiah. Terbit sejak tahun 1999.
Articles by issue : Vol. 16, No.1, Tahun 2014
7
Articles
Struktur Komunitas Mikroartropoda Bryofauna Terestrial Di Zona Tropik Gunung Ungaran, Semarang, Jawa Tengah

Munarsih, Atik, Rahadian, Rully, Hadi, Mochamad

Bioma Vol. 16, No.1, Tahun 2014
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Bryofauna is all of the animal life which associated with moss. Actually, biodiversity of bryofauna have not been studied much in Indonesia. Research on community structure of terrestrial microarthropod bryofauna has been done in three different altitudes in the tropical zone of the Ungaran Mountain, Semarang, Central Java. The objective of this study is to compare community structure of bryofauna contained in three different altitudes in the tropical zone. The research was conducted from April to November 2012. Sampling was carried out at 3 stations with the different heights that are the station I with an altitude 750 m asl, the altitude of the station II with an altitude 980 m asl and the station III with an altitude of 1100 m asl. Sampling was done purposively using square plot method. Bryofauna identification was conducted in Ecology and Biosistematics Laboratory University of Diponegoro and Entomologi Laboratory of Zoology Departement Indonesian Institute of Sciences. The results shows that the tropical zone have5 classes, 16 orders and 31 suborders/family of bryofauna. Mesostigmata and Oribatida was the dominant taxa at all heights except at an altitude of 980 m asl, Oribatida was categorized as subdominant. Diversity of bryofauna at different heights shows that decreasing diversity patterns, along with the increasing altitude. In general, the distribution of bryofauna at different heights is quite spread evenly with the flattening index values ​​betweens 0.84 to 0.94. Bryofauna taxsa richness and diversity of bryophytes at different heights in the tropical zone showed the same pattern fluctuated. Taxa group which play a role as predator are taxa that the most abundant in the tropical zone of the Ungaran Mount.   Keywords:Bryofauna terrestrial, bryophytes, Ungaran mount, community structure

Potensi Tepung Umbi Dahlia Dan Ekstrak Inulin Dahlia Sebagai Sumber Karbon Dalam Produksi Fruktooligosakarida (FOS) Oleh Khamir Kluyveromyces marxianus DUCC-Y-003

Yuliana, Rida, Kusdiyantini, Endang, Izzati, Munifatul

Bioma Vol. 16, No.1, Tahun 2014
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi manfaat umbi dahlia dalam bentuk tepung umbi dan ekstrak inulin sebagai substrat untuk memproduksi FOS. Produksi FOS berlangsung secara mikrobial enzimatis dengan bantuan khamir Kluyveromyces marxianus DUCC-Y-003. Pengkulturan khamir pada media kultur berlangsung selama 60 jam dan dilakukan pengukuran tiap 6 jam. Pengukuran tersebut meliputi pertumbuhan khamir, kadar fruktosa medium dan kadar total gula medium. Penentuan FOS dilakukan dengan cara mengukur nilai derajat polimerisasi (DP). DP merupakan hasil perbandingan antara kadar total gula dengan kadar fruktosa pada media kultur. DP FOS berkisar antara 2-10 dan FOS komersil dengan DP 3-5. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok Faktorial (RAKF). Perlakuan terdiri atas S1D1 (substrat tepung, dosis 1 g), S1D2 (tepung, 3 g), S1D3 (tepung, 5 g), S2D1 (ekstrak inulin, 1 g), S2D2 (ekstrak inulin, 3 g), S2D3 (ekstrak inulin, 5 g). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan khamir tertinggi pada perlakuan penggunaan ekstrak inulin dengan dosis 1 gram, dan pertumbuhan terendah pada perlakuan penggunaan tepung dengan dosis 5 gram. Pada masing-masing perlakuan, menghasilkan produk FOS dengan nilai DP yang beragam selama waktu inkubasi 60 jam, hanya perlakuan S2D1 (ekstrak inulin, 1g) yang sudah menghasilkan ketiga jenis FOS komersil dalam waktu inkubasi 60 jam. Pada perlakuan S2D1, produk 1-kestosa dihasilkan saat inkubasi 42 jam, produk nystosa saat 48 jam dan produk fruktofurasylnystosa saat 60 jam. Kesimpulan hasil penelitian adalah perlakuan S2D1 paling efektif dalam menghasilkan FOS selama waktu inkubasi 60 jam, sedangkan perlakuan lain dapat menghasilkan FOS yang sama jika lama waktu inkubasi diperpanjang.   Kata kunci : inulin, inulinase, derajat polimerisasi, Kluyveromyces marxianus DUCC-Y-0003

Keanekaragaman Marchantiophyta Epifit Zona Montana di Kawasan Gunung Ungaran, Jawa Tengah

Aristria, Desy, Perwati, Lilih Khotim, Wiryani, Erry

Bioma Vol. 16, No.1, Tahun 2014
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Bryophytes consisting of three division, there are Bryophyta (mosses), Marchantiophyta (liverworts) dan Anthocerotophyta (hornworts). Marchantiophyta are divided in two types, leafy liverworts and thallose liverworts. Mount Ungaran which has many diversity of Bryophytes but research about Bryophytes in this area are sparse. The aim of this research was to observe diversity of Marchantiophyta on tree trunks in montane zone (altitudes 1300 to 2050 meters above sea level). Sampling was conducted in April and May 2012 at three different altitudes ( 1355, 1660, and 2040 meters above sea level). Identification of Bryophytes was carried out at Laboratorium of Ecology and Biosistematics, Department Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia. The results shown there are 9 families with 26 species belonging to the division Marchantiophyta.   Keywords: Epiphytic Marchantiophyta, Mount Ungaran, diversity, montana zone.

Eksplorasi Jamur Alkalotoleran dari Desa Sukolilo Barat, Kecamatan Labang, Kabupaten Bangkalan, Madura, Jawa Timur

Lusiana, Helga, Rukmi, MG Isworo, Raharjo, Budi

Bioma Vol. 16, No.1, Tahun 2014
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Mold exploration from limestone hills West Sukolilo  village, District Labang, Bangkalan, Madura, East Java,  conducted to found the  alkalotolerant mold isolates and investigate their  amylolytic, proteolytic, and cellulolytic activity. Mold isolation were done using spread plate and dilution method  on  PDA and CMA at pH 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0. Twenty-seven mold isolates have been found consist of  four genus  i.e. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Curvularia, and Trichoderma. The result of amylolytic test  showed Trichoderma longibrachiatum (IMD-26) have the  highest activity at pH 8, while  Fusarium sp 2 (IMD-24) showed the highest activity at pH 9. Aspergillus flavus (IMD-7) showed highest proteolytic activity at pH 8, while Hyphomycete (IMD-27) showed the highest activity at pH 9. The highest cellulolytic activity at pH 8 showed by Trichoderma harzianum (IMD-25) and pH 9 by Fusarium sporotrichoides (IMD-20). Keyword : alkalotoleran mold, amylolytic, proteolytic, cellulolytic.

Biokonsentrasi Faktor Logam Berat Pb, Cd, Cr dan Cu pada Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus Linn.) di Karamba Danau Rawa Pening

Hidayah, Anny Miftakhul, -, Purwanto, Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih

Bioma Vol. 16, No.1, Tahun 2014
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Lake Rawapening has potential as an aquaculture development especially for caged aquaculture activities. Water quality is one of the important requirements in aquaculture bussiness sustainability and safe fish production for human consumption. Previous researches showed that the cage regions of Lake Rawapening have decreased its water quality in the presence of heavy metal content of Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu in water, sediment and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn.). This research aimed to determine the value of bio-concentration factors of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn.) which is cultured in cages Lake Rawapening and maximum daily consumption of tilapia that  is safe for human consumption. Sampling was done by purposive random sampling at three cages stations. The results showed that the highest BCF values of heavy metals in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn.) was on Cu 146-172, while the lowest metal on Cd metal 1.25-2. According to the category of the BCF rate, Cu was categorized as moderately accumulated, whereas Pb, Cd, and Cr were categorized as low accumulated.  so that farmed tilapia cages are suitable for consumption. Daily consumption of farmed tilapia in Lake Rawapening was maximum 1,4 kg/day   Keywords: Lake Rawapening, heavy metals, tilapia, BCF .

Karakterisasi Genetik Fragmen Gen Penyandi RNA Polimerase Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV) yang Menginfeksi Udang Vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone.) dari Lampung, Gresik dan Pontianak

Sudjito, Yason Lukman, Handayani, Christina Retna, Kusumaningrum, Hermin Pancasakti, Budiharjo, Anto

Bioma Vol. 16, No.1, Tahun 2014
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

A massive death of vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone.) due to Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV) infection has occurred in Indonesia recently and still cannot be eradicated efficiently. The fast reproduction of IMNV depends on the RdRp gene that encodes for RNA polymerase. Genetic characterization of IMNV RdRp gene from Indonesia is important in order to compare with other IMNV to find out genetic variation as a base for combating this virus. IMNV-infected vannamei were taken from major aquaculture region in Indonesia (Lampung, Gresik and Pontianak). RNA polymerase coding genes (12 and 13 region) from infected vannamei were amplified using RT-PCR with appropriate primer. Amplification products were sequenced and the results were analyzed using BioEdit 7.1.3.0, ClustalW2, CLC free workbench 6.6.2. and ClustalX programs. Results showed that homology value of IMNV RdRp gene  from Lampung and Gresik were 98,04-9958% compared with IMNV from Brazil (Acc. No. AY570982). Amino acid analysis revealed homology value of IMNV RdRp gene  from Lampung  and Gresik were 100% and 99.04% compared with IMNV from Brasil. IMNV RdRp gene  from Pontianak cannot be analysed due to low quality of RNA.   Key words: vannamei, IMNV, RdRp, genetic characterization

Kloning Gen pcbC dari Penicillium chrysogenum ke dalam Plasmid pPICZA untuk Pengembangan Produksi Penisilin G

Wiharyani, Risma, Hardianto, Dudi, Kusumaningrum, Hermin Pancasakti, Budiharjo, Anto

Bioma Vol. 16, No.1, Tahun 2014
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Availability of drugs in Indonesia is still limited by the high prices of drugs due to on the imported raw materials that reaches 95%. Developing antibiotic raw materials can be achieved by increasing of penicillin G production, which is the raw material for the formation of semisynthetic penicillin derivatives through the production of 6-aminopenisillanic acid (6-APA). One of the important enzyme in the penicillin G biosynthesis is Isopenisilin N Synthase (IPNS) that encodes by pcbC gene on Penicillium chrysogenum. This study aimed to obtain a recombinant of pcbC gene fragments that is inserted into pPICZA plasmid. Amplification of pcbC gene used pcbC-F and pcbC-R primers. The pcbC gene fragment was inserted into pPICZA vector and then transformed into TOP 10 F’. The results showed that the recombinant of the pcbC gene fragment from P. chrysogenum has been obtained. Analysis of DNA sequences using the BLAST program showed that the pcbC gene fragment has high homology (99%) with the  pcbC gene from P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 and P. chrysogenum AS-P-78 which encodes IPNS   Keywords: pcbC Gene, Penicillium chrysogenum, cloning, penicillin G