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BIOMA
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
BIOMA (ISSN 1410-8801) adalah Majalah Ilmiah Biologi yang bertujuan mewadahi semua informasi hasil penelitian, telaah pustaka, makalah teknis, dan kajian buku, dari berbagai cabang ilmu Biologi. Diharapkan penerbitan ini dapat berkontribusi dalam penyampaian informasi ilmiah yang merupakan mata rantai proses kegiatan ilmiah. Terbit sejak tahun 1999.
Articles by issue : Vol. 14, No. 2, Tahun 2012
7
Articles
Chromosomes and Mitotic Cell Division Phase In Onion Roots After 24 Hours Acetoorcein Soaking Time

Kusumaningrum, Hermin Pancasakti, Lunggani, Arina Tri, Nurhakim, Muhammad Amal

Bioma Vol. 14, No. 2, Tahun 2012
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Onions (Allium cepa) are usually used in vitro to assess effect of chemical subtances by allowing developing roots to come into contact with substances to be tested. Acetic orcein staining of onion chromosomes has remained a standard method of preparation. However, aceto-orcein stain is corrosive and poisonous chemical substances since it containing oxidising agents such as organic peroxides, the toxic substances which are are cyanides, acid corrosives agents, and  also radioactive substances.  This research study mitotic activity in the roots of onion plants to determine the effects of soaking time of aceto orcein dye on actively dividing root cells. A series of several root tip from each bulb was harvested were soaked in 1, 3 and 24 hours on aceto-orcein stain and processed further for cytological studies by the aceto-orcein squash technique. The research  was carried out to study the effect of to mitotic index and chromosomal aberration  on  onion root. It will determine the percentage of cells that are undergoing mitosis. The squash techniques were used to observe mitosis in the tip of onion root cells during actively mitotic division cells time. Mitotic divisions occur in several phases, consist of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and interphase. Experiment were repeated six times for every soaking time. The data was analyzed by using T-Test. The result showed that various duration of soaking time significantly influenced the  reduction of mitotic index value. The lowest mitotic index  on glyphosate concentration 100 ppm i.e. 10. 73% and 7.19% for the duration  of soaking time 3 and 6 hours. The highest mitotic index on  glyphosate concentration 0 ppm i.e.  37.71% and 32.76% for the duration  of soaking time 3 and 6 hours. The result also showed that the chromosomal aberration were increased significantly. The lowest  chromosomal aberration  obtained i.e. 2.55% and 2.96% for the duration of aceto orcein soaking time 1, 3 and 24 hours. The highest chromosomal aberration obtained i.e. 21.71% and 36.26% for the duration of soaking time 1,3 and 24 hours. The type of chromosomal aberration were abnormal prophase, stickiness, bridge, abnormal anaphase, clumping chromosome, c- metaphase,  change of nucleous  shape and size. At 72h, their cytotoxic effects on the root tips showed strong growth retardation in high concentrations of all the wastewaters. Compared to the control, treatment with the wastewaters resulted in root growth inhibition with EC50 values of 35, 50 and 62% for bottling, rubber and brewery effluents respectively, and decrease in mitotic index with increasing concentration for all samples and these were statistically significant (p<0.05). Chromosomal aberrations induced in the onion root tip cells were mostly sticky chromosomes and bridges. Chromosomes with disturbed spindles and fragments were also present in appreciable amounts. Based on the EC50 values, the bottling wastewater was most toxic, followed by rubber effluent while effluents from the brewery were least toxic. The findings in this study indicate that there are toxic chemicals present in the wastewaters which are responsible for the observed genotoxic effects on the onion root tip cells. The study also reveals that the Allium test is a useful and reliable tool for the genotoxicity screening of industrial effluents which could be employed by environmental managers before these effluents are finally discharged into the environment.     Key words: chromosomes, onion roots, acetoorcein

Dinamika Populasi Wideng (Sesarma spp) dan Tangkapan (Populasi) Scylla di Kawasan Mangrove Tapak, Tugurejo Semarang : Suatu Kajian Pemberdayaan Predator untuk Mengendalikan Wideng Hama Bibit Mangrove Berbasis Manajemen Ekosistem

Hidayat, Jafron Wasiq, Anggoro, Sutrisno, Hendrarto, Ign Boedi

Bioma Vol. 14, No. 2, Tahun 2012
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Kondisi kerusakan hutan mangrove sudah sangat memprihatinkan. Gangguan hama wideng (Sesarma spp) mempengaruhi keberhasilan penghijauan. Wideng merupakan hama minor yang dapat bergeser sifatnya jika populasinya tinggi pada kondisi tertentu. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan penelitian tentang dinamika populasi wideng, sehingga dapat mengetahui waktu kapan wideng berpotensi menjadi hama. Kajian yang sama juga ditujukan terhadap pemangsa potensialnya yaitu Scylla yang ditujukankan untuk mengetahui tekanan  predator terhadap wideng dan peluang pemberdayaannya sebagai pakan budidaya. Penelitian bersifat observasional yang dilakukan di kawasan mangrove Tapak, Tugurejo. Sampling dilakukan di enam stasiun yang dipilih secara justified random sampling. Kajian eksperimental menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap(RAL) dengan tiga perlakuan dan tiga ulangan yang dilanjut dengan uji Beda Terkecil. Hasil memperlihatkan bahwa populasi wideng mengikuti pola unimodal dengan puncak populasi pada bulan Nopember mencapai 30/m2.Kepiting Scylla memasuki musim tangkap sejak Oktober hingga Maret dan mencapai puncaknya pada bulan Pebruari. Kepadatan populasi tersebut selaras dengan keberadaan wideng yang juga tinggi populasinya, sehingga dapat dipergunakan sebagai pakan budidaya sekaligus menekan sifat hamanya.Kepiting bakau menyukai wideng pada semua ukuran, dimana tidak membedakan ukuran badan wideng mangsanya  pada hari ke-5, meskipun pada hari ke-3 memperlihatkan kecenderungan menyukai ukuran badan yang kecil; sehingga wideng bersifat fleksibel sebagai pakan budidaya Scylla.   Kata kunci : Dinamika populasi, wideng, Scylla spp, tingkat predasi

Kajian Daya Dukung Ekowisata Hutan Mangrove Blanakan, Subang, Jawa Barat

Muhammad, Fuad, Basuni, Sambas, Munandar, Aris, Purnomo, Herry

Bioma Vol. 14, No. 2, Tahun 2012
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Growth in tourist arrivals at ecotourism mangrove in Blanakan can cause a threat to the preservation of conservation areas and tourist attraction. This happens when the utilization of the region exceeds its carrying capacity. The aims of This study  to identify the carrying capacity of ecotourism mangrove in Blanakan as conservation areas are used for tourism activities. The results showed that the carrying capacity the ecotourism mangrove in Blanakan is 425 visitors per day. Pollution load simulation results showed that ecotourism mangrove Blanakan  had suffered pollution by phosphate, ammonia pollution carrying capacity will be passed  in 2019 and organic waste in the year 2011 to 2013, while nitrate and garbage until the year 2032 has not been exceeded.   Key words: ecotourism, mangrove, carrying capacity

Pengaruh Pemberian Kompos Sampah Rumah Tangga Terhadap Pertumbuhan Chlorella vulgaris Pada Skala Laboratorium

Hafizhah, Reka, Hariyati, Riche

Bioma Vol. 14, No. 2, Tahun 2012
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Accumulation household organic waste caused environtment disturbances such as bad odor, methan occur, stoppage canal water, and disease spread. Organic waste processing are needed in order to reduce this problem. Processing household waste into composs was one way to reduce organic waste accumulation. The objective of this study is to determine optimal dose household composs for Chlorella vulgaris growth. Research are done in two phase within 9 days of each. Composs liquid doses for main research are 6%,7%,8%, 10%, and Walne fertilizer used as control. Result show effect of household composs on Chlorella vulgaris growth. Optimal doses for Chlorella vulgaris growth are composs liquid doses  8% and 10%.   Key word: Household composs, Growth, Chlorella vulgaris.

Peta Batimetri Danau Rawapening

Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih

Bioma Vol. 14, No. 2, Tahun 2012
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Lake has an important function as source of water;  maintain biodiversity; source of protein; manage toxicity; device to reduce river flooding; source  of groundwater; device climate; transportation and touris;  medium; and for cultural and religion activities. Semi natural lake of Rawapening has function for hydroelectricity power, irrigation for agriculture, fisheries, and tourism. For maintaning those functions, lake batimetric map is required for limnological study as well as for basic informasi for development lake management. However, there is no batimetric map of Rawapening Lake after1976  lake’s sketch by Goltenboth. Therefore, this survey was conducted in order to update batimetric map of Rawapening. On August 16th, 2008, echosounding was donecfross section and lake edge every 30 second. Recorded data on the GPS then interpolated to the lake depth form in every dot of echosounding.The deepest part of Rawapening Lake was 18 metres, around Bukit Cinta spring. Comparing to Goltenboth sketch, the Rawapening Lake depth was not quite change. North West part of the lake remain has 2-4.7 metres depth. However, based on sedimentation rate, the shallowness lake was very sharply, and predicted that in 2021 Rawapening Lake will full of sediment. Maintaning lake depth is a must to maintain lake’s function.   Key words: batimetri, Danau Rawapening, limnologi

Respon Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Senyawa Antioksidan pada Kalus Rosela (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) dari Eksplan yang Berbeda secara in vitro

Noviati, Agustin, Nurchayati, Yulita, Setiari, Nintya

Bioma Vol. 14, No. 2, Tahun 2012
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Callus induction method can be used as tool in producing plant secondary metabolites. One of this compound found in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is antioxidant agent i.e ascorbic acid and carotenoid. The callus could be induced from any kind of explants in tissue culture. The aims of this experiment is to select explant which can encourage of callus formation beside high level of antioxidant compounds. The treatment of experiment was three kinds of explants i.e section of leaf, petiole and flower sepal. Sterilized explants were planted in MS (Murashige&Skoog) combined with 2 mg/L NAA dan 5 mg/L BAP.  This experiment has been conducted by completly randomized design with 5 replicates Growth variable, included fresh weight callus, growth presentation, callus respons and biochemical variable like content of ascorbic acid and carotenoid were analyzed.  The data were analyzed by analysis of varian and Duncan’s test at 95% significant level. Thed results showed that all kinds of explant dedifferentiated into callus which antioxidant content. Callus from leaf section had the higgest fresh weight with high level ascorbic acid. Whereas the higgest carotenoid level was obtained from callus-derived flower sepals. It conclused that  in vitro callus was useful for producing plant biochemical compounds.   Keywords : Callus induction, antioxidant agents, explants, ascorbic acid, cartenoid

Struktur Komunitas Gulma Padi (Oryza sativa L.) Sawah Organik dan Sawah Anorganik di Desa Ketapang, Kec. Susukan, Kab. Semarang

Utami, Sri, Purdyaningrum, Lila Ris

Bioma Vol. 14, No. 2, Tahun 2012
Publisher : Bioma

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Abstract

Penurunan produktifitas padi disebabkan antara lain oleh kompetisi antara gulma dan tanaman padi. Padi merupakan jenis tanaman pangan yang sangat penting karena merupakan sumber makanan pokok. Adanya sistem pertanian yang berbeda memungkinkan jenis gulma dan dominansinya berbeda pula. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui struktur komunitas gulma padi pada sistem pertanian organik dan pertanian anorganik. Tehnik sampling dengan metode acak. Plot yang digunakan berukuran 1 m x 1 m dan masing-masing stasiun diambil 5 plot. Sampling gulma dilakukan dengan mencatat jenis-jenis gulma dan menghitung jumlah individu masing-masing spesies.. Dilakukan juga pengukuran faktor lingkungan. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh 10 jenis gulma padi sawah organik dan 12 jenis gulma padi sawah anorganik. Total individu gulma padi organik lebih banyak dibanding gulma padi anorganik. Jenis gulma padi sawah organik yang mempunyai dominansi tinggi  yaitu Azolla pinnata, Pistia stratiotes dan Salvinia molesta sedangkan pada sawah anorganik Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Eleocharis acicularis dan Monochoria vaginalis. Tingkat kesamaan antara komunitas gulma padi sawah organik dan anorganik kecil. Kata kunci : kompetisi, produktifitas, gulma, sistem.pertanian