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Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina
Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina is an national journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with tea and cinchona commodities based on the aspects, agronomy, plant breeding, soil science, crop protection, postharvest technology and social economy. Papers dealing with result of original research on the above aspects are welcomed with no page charge.
Articles by issue : Vol 19, No 1 (2016)
10
Articles
Antibacteririal avtivities of Bacillus cereus and Shigella dysenteriae of white tea extract in several variation of solvents

Widyasanti, Asri, Priantiwi, Andita Mega, Rohdiana, Dadan

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 19, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Tea is used in the food, cosmetic, and herbal drug industries. White tea is a kind of tea containing a relatively high polyphenol content compared to other kind of tea, and thus has the potential of being used as a natural antibacterial. The objective of this research was to study the antibacterial activity of of  white tea extract in several variation of  13 % (w/v) concentration of solvents to the activity of gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Shigella dysenteriae). Laboratorium experimental method was used in this descriptive study. The antibacterial activity study was comprised of estimating inhibition area and total of bacterial growth. The results revealed that white tea extract inhibited bacterial growth, indicating that white tea extract from the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and 96% ethanol solvents could be developed as an antibacterial material. The diameter of the inhibition area to Bacillus cereus bacteria for n - hexane , ethyl acetate, and  ethanol 13 % (w/ v)  solvents were 0.6 mm, 10.5 mm and 1.75 mm, respectively; while for Shigella dysenteriae bacteria were 0,5 mm, 9,86 mm  and 10,6 mm, respectively. The total growth of Bacillus cereus bacteria for n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol 13 % (w/v) solvent were 1.3 x 107, 6.0 x 106, and  1.1 x 104 CFU / ml , and of Shigella dysenteriae bacteria were  1.0 x 107,  6.5 x 106 and 4.6 x 106 CFU / ml, respectively.

Sustainability Implication of the Lestari Tea Certification Program Implementation on the Tea Small Holder at Campaka Subdistrict Cianjur

Hutagalung, Tulus Bangun

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 19, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

In order to increase the income of tea smallholder and maintain the sustainability of tea, Dewan Teh Indonesia collaborated with Business Watch Indonesia in establishing a local certification scheme that is called as Lestari Tea Certification Program. This certification program has been conducted at some areas since 2011 until 2013 and one of the areas was Campaka sub-district, Cianjur. This research aimed at analysing the sus­tainability impact of the certification program by questionnaire and interview data collection. Analysing sustainability is conducted by using Mann-Whitney test by comparing the per­ception of the tea farmers who participated and those who didn’t participate on the certification program. Independent sample t test is also used to test the differentiation of the mean the income and transportation vehicle and com­munication asset between member of Tea Lestari Certification Program and those who are not. Moreover, logistic regression is used to know which variable more influence the probability for the tea farmers to join the certification program. The output of Mann-Whitney test shows that there is significant difference on the aspect of environment, economy, and social between tea farmers that participated and those who didn’t participate on the certification program. Logistic reg­ression output shows that education level, size of plantation land, and location of village influence the probability of the tea farmers whether to join or not join the Lestari Tea Cerfication Program.

Optimization and characterization of green tea polyphenol extract from various solvents

Shabri, Shabri, Rohdiana, Dadan

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 19, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Tea has a high content of polyphenols with potent antioxidant activity and beneficial for health. Availability of polyphenols extract is still very limited. The aim of this study to optimation and characterization of green tea polyphenol extract base on some solvents. Parameters analyzed were polyphenol content and yield of some extraction process conditions. This result showed that extraction by the ratio of tea and solvent was 1 : 15 b/v, extracted by acetone 70% solution in temperature 600C for 15 minutes obtain polyphenol content of 53,30% b/b and total yield of 40,17% b/b.

Portfolio business to self-financing of research institution (Case study: Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona)

Bestari, Srihadiyati Ayu, Firdaus, M, Suprihatini, Rohayati, Andati, Trias

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 19, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Case of business portfolio for self financing of  Indonesia Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona is very interesting to study. In general, the research institute of tea in tea producing countries in the world receive finan­cing from the funds cess or levy or Government Budget. In PPTK, is a very rare case because the status of PPTK is a corporate. The unit of research and development as a cost center to produce innovations to increase the compe­titiveness of national commodity tea as well as Cinchona, should be financed from the portfolio business unit. Therefore, portfolio business strategies are needed in order to play optimally the role of  PPTK accordance with its mandate. The method used to determine the position of corporate is SWOT analysis especially  method to the value of  IFE and EFE. Furthermore, to determine the position and strategize potfolio business units use Boston Consulting Group (BCG) matrix. The results showed that the value of its IFE and EFE (-0.14; 0.11) is in quadrant II that  position of stability/ratio­nalization, which led to the Selective Main­tenance Strategy. BCG matrix of the mapping results, the majority of the business portfolio in PPTK be in the Quetion Mark. One business unit shoul be divested is Stevia estate due to its position of the Dog business group. Meanwhile, the business unit of  Cash Cow group are unit of garden and black tea factory and tea experiment garden of Simalungun. In order to better self financing of PPTK, several business units in the group of Question Mark with specific strategies should be push to move into the star groups, namely (1) unit of superior plant material production of tea and cinchona; (2) unit of garden and green tea factory; (3) laboratory services and expertise; and (4) unit of production of white tea and tea packaging.

Potency of tea plant indigenous microbe on plant growth and to against blister blight disease (Exobasidium vexans Massee)

Fauziah, Fani, Setiawati, Mieke Rochimi, Susilowati, Dwi Ningsih, Pranoto, Eko, Rachmiati, Yati

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 19, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

The chemical control method of blister blight (Exobasidium vexans Massee) on tea could inflict various negative impacts. In order to obtain an environmentally sound control method of blister blight disease, a nursery trial has been conducted to know the effectiveness of bacterial combinations. The trial was carried out at Gambung experimental garden, with seven treatments and four replications. The indigenous microbial codes are Azoto II-1, Endo-5 and Endo-76. The treatments tested comprised: control (without bacteria),  Azoto II-1 25% + Endo-5 75%; Azoto II-1 50% + Endo-5 50%; Azoto II-1 75% + Endo-5 25%;  Azoto II-1 25% + Endo-76 75%; Azoto II-1 50% + Endo-76 50%; and Azoto II-1 75% + Endo-76 25%. All of the treatments was applied as a soil drench, 50 ml/plant with bacterial concentration at 0,5%. The parameter observed was blister blight disease intensity, plant heights, stem diameter, leaves number, root length, and root volume. The results showed that the combination of Azoto II-1 75% + Endo-5 25% could suppress the intensity of blister blight disease with disease intensity 1.27%. The treatments also affected plant heights, stem diameter, leaves number, root length, and root volume, 15.32 cm; 3.38 cm; 8.05 cm; 18.25 cm and 2.37 cm, respectively.

The effectiveness of botanical insect glue Surawung langit (Salvinia hyspanica) and mass controlling application technique on Empoasca in tea plant

Sucherman, Odih, Harianto, Sugeng, Darana, Sobar

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 19, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Empoasca (Empoasca flavescens) is a major pest of tea plant in almost all elevations and can lead of lost production more than 40%.  Chemical insecticide is still use to control this pest. In a long term, this  could be increase the cost as well as environmental damage. To support an environmentally sound control method, an experiment has been conducted by using active ingredient of surawung langit leaf extract and using of mass controlling tool. The experiment was carried out at a productive tea plant of two years prunning, clone GMB-7, block B4, Pasir Sarongge Experimental Garden, Cianjur.   The experiment was arra­nged in a factorial randomized block design with eight treatments, and replicated three times. The aim the experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of botanical insect glue surawing langit (salvinia hyspanica) and mass controlling application technique on empoasca in tea plant. Result showed that botanical insect glue surawing langit at 10 and 20% applied using mass controlling tool with two blowers were effective in catching of Empoasca as swell as its attack intensity and shoot production. 

Prunning technique and foliar fertilizer application to improve yield of pecco in fourth prunning year of tea plant

haq, muthia syafika, Mastur, Adhi Irianto, Karyudi, Dr H

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 19, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Effect of prunning technique and foliar fertilizer application had been conducted to improve yield of pecco in the Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona experiment station, Gambung, Indonesia with altitude of 1.350 m above sea level, and with andysol soil type. The experiment was held from July to October 2015 in tea production field area containing 480 plants. The clone was GMB 7and was in the fourth prunning year, interval of plucking pecco was seven days. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four treatments, replicated six times. Foliar fertilizer application was performed following every plucking. The results indicated that breaking apical dominance of tea short by 5 cm–10 cm of prunning above plucking table combined with foliar fertilizer application of N 1% and ZnSo4 2% + 0,1% of humic acid, could increase weight of pecco per plot in the first nine weeks of the prunning. This treatment was better than the other three. But the percentage of pecco shoots was low, lower than 50%, the weight of one pecco was also very low 0,7 g, indicating that the treatment of harvesting pecco in the fourth prunning year was not recomended to be practiced in improving yield of pecco.

Identification of catechin content and its derivates of tea germplasm collection clones

Syahrian, Heri

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 19, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Katekin merupakan salah satu poliphenol utama pada tanaman teh yang menjadikan teh sebagai minuman yang baik untuk dikonsumsi. Program pemuliaan tanaman teh dalam merakit klon yang memiliki kandungan katekin tinggi tidak dapat dilepaskan dari plasma nutfah teh. Informasi akan kandungan katekin klon koleksi plasma nutfah dapat menjadi pegangan bagi pemulia dalam melakukan seleksi tetua untuk proses persilangan buatan. Selain itu klon – klon koleksi plasma nutfah dengan kandungan katekin tinggi dapat dikembangkan langsung sebagai klon anjuran yang dapat meningkatkan kandungan katekin bagi para pekebun. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan katekin pada klon koleksi plasma nutfah teh. Percobaan dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Gambung Pusat Penelitian Teh dan Kina, Kabupaten Bandung, Jawa Barat. Ketinggian tempat 1300 mdpl, dengan jenis tanah Andisol. Analisis kandungan katekin dilakukan di laboratorium dengan menggunakan metode yang tertera pada AOAC (1984). Bahan tanaman yang digunakan merupakan klon teh generasi pertama koleksi plasma nutfah sebanyak 10 klon, yaitu klon: Cin 20, Cin 29, Cin 149, RS 1, RB 1, RB 2, PS 354, PS 385, KP 2, SA 73. Karakter yang diamati dalam percobaan ini adalah kandungan katekin total, EGC, ECG dan EGCG. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis keragaman dan uji lanjut menggunakan uji gerombol Scott-Knott. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah (1) Kandungan katekin total dan derivatnya daiantara klon koleksi aksesi plasma nutfah berbeda-beda; (2) Klon dengan kandungan katekin total tertinggi adalah klon RB 1 dan terendah adalah  klon RS 1dan Cin 149; (3) Klon dengan kandungan EGCG yang tertinggi adalah klon RB 1 dan RB 2 dan terendah adalah klon Cin 149 dan RS 1. (4) Klon dengan kandungan ECG tertinggi terdapat pada klon Cin 149 dan terendah pada klon PS 354 dan Cin 20.

The influence of El-Nino on microclimate change and soil water content in Gambung tea plantation

Rezamela, Erdiansyah, Dalimoenthe, Salwa Lubnan

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 19, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

The very strong intensity of 2015 El-Nino affected on microclimate change and soil water content of Gambung Tea Plantation. The observation results indicated that in the year of 2015 Gambung was experienced four dry months (with rainfall <60 mm), with maximum air temperature 30,8ºC and air humidity dropped to 65%. These condition were not suitable for tea plant to grow well, which normally required two dry months at minimum (rainfall < 60 mm), air temperature of 18–25ºC, and with relative humidity of above 70%. The affected areas by drought were present in a map (see Figure 3 of the text). About 65% of the total blocks (north section about 80% and south section about 50%) of Gambung tea plantation were affected by drought. The worst affected were blocks A6 (north section) and B8 (south section). In these blocks, about 54.70% of plant were in normal growth condition; 14.65% were in temporary and permanent wilting status; 25.34% in the state of dropping their leaves; 5.19% of the plants with dried buds twigs, and 0.12% with dried twigs and dried old branches. The soil water content (at 10 cm depth) in these blocks dropped to 7.02% and 4.99% from normally required at minimum 30%.

Characteristic of kombucha tea concentrate purified through stirred microfiltration cell (Smfc) from local green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) as functional drink for relaxation

Susilowati, Agustine

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 19, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

L-theanine is amino acid contained in tea (Camellia sp.) leaves having ability as relaxation compound. Combination of L-theanine and other compounds produced from fermentation of green tea extract by Kombucha starter generates Kombucha tea with unique taste and better relaxation functional. The concentrate of Kombucha tea as functional drink for relaxation (anti stress) was produced by purification on fermented green te extract through 0.2 µm MF membrane fitted in stirred microfiltration cell (SMFC)  at stirrer rotation speed of 200 rpm and 400 rpm, and pressure of 30 psia. Purification was conducted on 4 grades of Kombucha tea from local green tea extract with rich L-theanine, such as Pekoe, Dewata, Arraca Kiara and Arraca Yabukita as a result of purification by MF module. Kombucha tea produced through fermentation at 1 part of permeate and 1 part of water ratio using Kombucha (5%, v/v) starter riched by sucrose of 10% (w/v) under room temperature for 7 days. Based on the best L-theanine concentration, the result of experiment showed that SMFC at stirrer rotation speed of 400 rpm was able to retain L-theanine in retentate from Kombucha tea of Arraca Kiara, Arraca Yabukita, Dewata, and Pekoe grades, subsequent 29.1, 96,53, 44.62 and 71.54% (w/v) from prior to process as feed. In other words, optimization condition was reached at Kombucha tea of Arraca Yabukita grade producing retentate or concentrate of Kom­bucha tea with L-theanine, total poly­phenol, reducing sugar, total solids, and total of titratable acids of 2.5605% (w/w), 3.4314% (w/w), 14 mg/mL, 4.8947% (w/w), and 0.2195% (v/v) respectively.