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Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina
Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina is an national journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with tea and cinchona commodities based on the aspects, agronomy, plant breeding, soil science, crop protection, postharvest technology and social economy. Papers dealing with result of original research on the above aspects are welcomed with no page charge.
Articles by issue : Vol 18, No 2 (2015)
10
Articles
Socio economic characteristics and its effect to tea farming management behavior of tea smallholders in West Java Province

Sita, Kralawi

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

The research aimed to: 1) described the socio-economic characteristics of tea small-holders in West Java Province; 2) described tea farming management behavior of tea small-holder in West Java Province; and 3) analyzed the effect of socio-economic characteristics to a behavior of tea farming management. The research took place in nine tea smallholder plantation center in West Java Province where the Program of National Tea Agribusiness Improvement Action held. The research method used descriptive study with quantitative app-roach. The sampling method used proportional random sampling with 320 respondents or at least 5% from population area. Data analyzed used multiple linear regression analysis with Backward Model through SPPS 21.0 program. The result showed that tea smallholders have a certain socio-economic characteristics in mana-ging their tea farming. Behavior tea small-holders in tea farming management showed similarities and differences. The limited access to productive resources, technology, informa-tion, market, financial and extension make management on tea farming not optimal. Eco-nomic variables i.e. gender, main job, tea pro-ductivity, tea prices, and tea farming income positively significant to tea farming mana-gement behavior of tea smallholders. Its va-riables have the power to encourage and to motivate potential influence and spirit of tea smallholders in managing their tea farming.

Antioxidant activity of ten grades of Indonesia black tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) liquor

Sudaryat, Yayat, Kusmiyati, Mimin, Pelangi, Citra Ratu, Rustamsyah, A, Rohdiana, Dadan

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Tea is one kind of plant that is popular as a beverage. These plants contain antioxidant potential of flavonoids derived from polyphenol compounds. The research aimed to examine the antioxidant activity and to determine the con-tent of total phenols and total flavonoids from ten grades of Indonesian black tea liqour. Antioxidant activity was measured by the method of free radical scavenging by DPPH, total phenol content measured by Follin-Ciocalteu method, and total flavonoid content was measured by the method of AlCl3. The results of this research showed that The highest total phenol content contained in Dust III with 225,80 mgGAE/100 g and the lowest content is BTL with 111,26 mgGAE/100 g. The test results showed that BBL has the highest total flavonoid content with 0,151 mg/g, while the lowest is BTL flavonoid with 0,086 mg/g. Meanwhile the highest antioxidant activity of ten grade of Indonesian black tea infusion obtained by Dust I, with IC50 97,00 μg/ml. Meanwhile the lowest antioxidant activity with IC50 178,56 μg/ml was obtained by BTL.

The effect of foliar fertilizer and pesticide methomyl in tea plantation after infested by pest: (2) The effect on population and attack intensity of Empoasca flavescens

Fauziah, Fani, Haq, Muthia Syafika, Karyudi, Dr., Rosyadi, Achmad Imron

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

The aim of this research was to obtain the effect of insecticide combination with nitrogen and zinc foliar fertilizers to Empoasca flave-scens. An experiment was conducted at Gam-bung Experimental Garden, Bandung, West Java. The trial was arranged in a randomized complete block design with nine treatments (A)methomyl; (B) methomyl + ZnSO4 1%; (C) me-thomyl + ZnSO4 2%; (D) methomyl + N 1%; (E) methomyl + N 1% + ZnSO4 1%; (F) metho-myl + N 1% + ZnSO4 2%; (G) methomyl + N 2%; (H) methomyl + N 2% + ZnSO4 1%; and (I) methomyl + N 2% + ZnSO4 2%, replicated three times. Each unit consisted of experiments is 40 plants. The treatments comprised: concen-tration of methomyl 0,5 gram/l with sprayed volume 200 l/ha. The level concentrations of nitrogen and zinc were 1% and 2%. The appli-cation of treatments was sprayed six times after plucking with 12 days interval, respectively. The population and intensity of E. flavescens attack were measured at the time of plucking. The effectiveness of treatment on the population as well as attack intensity of Empoasca con-ducted by measuring the rate of decline through a linear regression approach. The results showed that all of the treatments could reduce the population as well as the attack intensity of E. flavescens but there were no significantly different among others and were comparable to the chemical insecticide treatment. The fastest rate of decline were indicated by the treatment methomyl + N 2% + ZnSO4 1% and methomyl + N 2% + ZnSO4 2%.

The oxidation reaction of quinine by potassium permanganate (KMnO4)

Rosalina, Reny, Alni, Anita, Mujahidin, Didin, Santoso, Joko

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Quinine was known widely as malarial drug and a bitter taste ini soft drink. Recently, quinine have been also applied in organo-catalysis process, separation and purification of chiral compounds from enantiomeric mixture by diasteromeric salt crystallization and chiral chromatography. Quinine contains various functional groups which easily transforms by oxidations. This research was to study the oxi-dation reaction of quinine by using potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as oxidator. The KMnO4 oxidation carried out under acidic con-ditions. The separation and purification of pro-ducts were done by radial chromatography with chloroform : metanol : tri ethyl amine (9:1:0.1) as eluent. The structure of products were cha-racterized by spectroscopic data including: in-frared spectroscopy, NMR, and mass spectro-metry as quinine-1-N-oxide and quininal.

The Influence of biofertilizer on abundance of Nitrogen Fixing bacteria and growth of Chinchona Plants (Chinchona ledreriana.) Clone Cib. 5

Antralina, Merry, Santoso, Joko, Kania, Dewi

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

The objective of this research was to eva-luate the effect of biofertilizer on the abundance of nitrogen fixing bacteria and growth of cin-chona plants (Cinchona ledgeriana Moens) clones Cib.5. The research was conducted at the Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona, Gambung, Bandung, from May 2011 until June 2011. A randomized block design was used with five treatments and five replication. Application of five concentration of biofertilizer were per-formed. Concentrations were: 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 cc/l of water. The results indicated that the application of biofertilizer gave the higher total bacterial population compared to the treatment without biofertilizer, but showed no significant effect on growth of Cinchona plants. Concen-tration of biofertilizer 8 cc/l gave the higher total bacterial population of nitrogen fixing.

Suppply chain analysis of Indonesia tea

Suprihatini, Rohayati

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Indonesian tea market share tend to decrease due to the weakness of competitive advantage of Indonesian tea. The weakness of Indonesian tea competitiveness should be cla-rified by supply chain. Primary data collected from survey as well as expert meeting. Analysis method applied in this research is supply chain analysis. Research results showed that in term of Indonesia tea production of 165.070 tons in 2006, tea volume to be processed to down-stream products for domestic consumption is around 62.776 tons. The rest is for export pur-poses consists of bulk black tea export (92.763 tons) as well as bulk green tea export (9.531 tons). This condition relatively stable up to 2013 due to Indonesia tea import volume around 20,000 ton disburse to domestic con-sumption (55%) as well as re-export purposes (45%). The most of smallholder tea production (63%) come to jasmine tea processors located in Central Java. Farm gate price of green leaf is around 15,8% of consumer price of jasmine tea. Total margin of supply chain from tea farmers to jasmine tea consumers is around Rp22.100,00/kg of made tea consists of Rp13.121,00/kg made tea (50% of total margin) as cost margin and Rp8.979,00/kg made tea (34,1%) as profit margin. To remedy supply chain of smallholder tea should remedy factors affecting supply chain. Priority factors should be improved i.e. (1) quality of tea in each chain, (2) availability as well as assistancy to credit access, and (3) conducive of trade policies.

Antioxidant activity, phenol total, and flavonoid total of green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) from three West Java tea estate

Kusmiyati, Mimin, Sudaryat, Yayat, Lutfiah, Isti Agnia, Rustamsyah, Ardi, Rohdiana, Dadan

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Green tea has bioactive component, it is polyphenol which has strong antioxidant. As the largest component of polyphenol, flavonoid is very effective as an antioxidant. The purpose of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, phenol total and flavonoid total in green tea from three different estates, they were Cikajang Kab. Garut, Taraju Kab. Tasikmalaya, and Ciwidey Kab. Bandung. The results of this study show that seven samples have good antioxidant activity, but green tea which came from Cikajang (P-IRT No. 810320501698) has the highest IC50 grade it was 21,44 μg/ml. Beside that samples from Cikajang (P-IRT No. 810320501698) has highest total phenol content it was 334,68± SD 0,89/100 g samples and also has the highest total flavonoid it was 0,34 mg Kuersetin/g samples ± SD 0,21. On the contrary, green tea which has the lowest IC50 grade came from Taraju, the grade was 28,03 μg/ml, the samples has the lowest total phenol content it was 208,91± SD 4,47 mgGAE/100 g, and also has the lowest total flavonoid it was 0,207 mg Kuersetin/g samples ± SD 0,00.

Strategic formulation to increase white tea competitiveness (Case study: Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona)

Hage, Stevan Gneissanda, Daryanto, Arief, Sahara, Sahara

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

White tea is a new product in Indonesia’s tea industry. It is a product developed by Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona in order to revive Indonesia’s tea industry. White tea has uniqueness in its relatively high price and high market demand that not affected by its high price. The increasing number from Indonesia’s middle class income could also become white tea’s new potential consumer because they put quality and health first than the price. White tea’s high price and demand attract new players in this industry. The appearence of new competitors make this in-dustry more competitive. That’s why it’s necce-sary to find a way to win the compettion and to keep the domination in the white tea industry through strategic formulation. There were two steps in strategic formulation used to produce the strategies. The first is analyzing the com-pany environment using internal factor evalua-tion (IFE) and external factor evaluation (EFE). The second is using internal and exter-nal (IE) matrix and strength weakness oppor-tunity and threat (SWOT) analysis. IE matrix showed the position of company using infor-mation from IFE and EFE. SWOT analysis resulted strategies using information from the company’s strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat. IFE and EFE showed that the company has strong internal power and good respond to external factors. IE matrix showed that com-pany is in grow and build stage. IE matrix and SWOT analysis showed that the alternative strategies for the company are market pene-tration, market development, product develop-ment, forward integration, backward integ-ration, and side integration.

Comparison of some exogeneous solubillizing phosphate bacteria on Andisol as Indonesia dominant native tea soil

Setiawati, Mieke Rochimi, Pranoto, Eko

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Tea was planting an upland area with Andisol as the dominant soil ordo. Andisol has a special characteristic i.e. low soil pH and it has more mineral that causing low of soil phos-phate soluble, especially for tea plants, there-fore the rule of solubilizing phosphate bacteria will be needed. Laboratory scale experiments were conducted to study the capability activities of some solubilizing phosphate bacterias name-ly Pseudomonas cepaceae, P. malei, Bacillus mycoides, and B. subtilis. The experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design with six treatments and four replications. The result on statistical analysis shown that there were no significant differences in increasing of the soil phosphate soluble. Nevertheless, the treatment D (Bacillus mycoides) produced the highest soil phosphate soluble. The capability of bacteria to increase soil phosphate soluble was depended on its habitat, especially soil pH. Even all of the isolates were the superior solubilizing phosphate bacterias in agricultural food plants with neutral soil pH, but they have not significantly different on Andisol. There-fore, the using of indigenous isolates on tea plant areas was suggested.

The effect of arbuscular mychorizal fungi (AMF) and root plant growth regulator (rPGR) in increasing number of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) planting material

Suherman, Cucu, Rizky, Wieny H, Dewi, Intan Ratna

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Among problems encountered in the availability of quality seedlings in nurseries is a low percentage of seedlings ready to plant. The seedling will remain stunted if no treatment is provided. Therefore, there must be some treat-ments carry in the nursery, as increase seedling ready to plant. One of the problems causing lack of good seedling growth is less than optimal growth and the role of the root, thus, the increase in the growth of the tea plant seeds can be cultivated among others through im-proved root system. The objective of this re-search was to determine the effect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth regulator (PGR) against the percentage of root seedlings were ready to plant. Root growth can be accelerated by the application of PGR roots, ability to function and role of the roots can be improved by application of biological fertilizers such as AMF. The experimental design used was a randomized block design combined con-centration of PGR roots consisting of Z0: 0 mg/mL; Z1: 25 mg/mL; Z2: 50 mg/mL; Z3: 75 mg/mL with a dose of FMA consisting of: F0: 0 g FMA/plant; F1: 5,0 g FMA/plant; F2: 7,5 g FMA/plant and F3: 10,0 g FMA/plant. The experiment was conducted at the Gambung Experimental Station at the Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona, Bandung, West Java, at a height of ± 1.350 m above sea level with the type of Andisols. Rainfall including B-type according to the classification of Schmidt and Fergusson (1951). The experiments resulted in the conclusion FMA 7,5 g dose combination treatment plants PGR-1 with a concentration of 25 mg/mL root, generating growth in both the percentage of root infection, seedling height, the number of leaves, and the amount of leaf chlorophyll and the percentage of tea planting material. The treatment resulted in a 35% increase in plant height, a number of leaves nearly 68% and the amount of chlorophyll is 83% higher compared to treatment without the FMA and without PGR. The percentage of 12 months old planting material with treatment reached 78,11% higher than the treatment without AMF and PGR which reached 49,28%.