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Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina
Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina is an national journal providing rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles concerned with tea and cinchona commodities based on the aspects, agronomy, plant breeding, soil science, crop protection, postharvest technology and social economy. Papers dealing with result of original research on the above aspects are welcomed with no page charge.
Articles by issue : Vol 18, No 1 (2015)
10
Articles
Correlations between morphological traits and catechin content on tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

Syahrian, Heri, Carsono, Nono, Rostini, Neni, Rahadi, Vitria Puspitasari, Sriyadi, Bambang

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Catechin content in tea plant is a major character in tea breeding program for a healthy beverage. A tea breeding program for high catechin content maybe will performed by indirect selecting a trait or traits that signi­ficantly correlated with high catechin content. This research was performed to identify mor­phological traits which maybe significantly correlated with high catechin content in tea plant. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used in this experiment using 10 selected clones. The experiment was performed in Gambung Experimental Station ot the Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona, Gambung, West Java. Catechin content, tri­choma density of young leaves, weight of p+2, size of mother leaves, chlorophyll content of mother leaf, stomatal density of mother leaf, mother leaf thickness, and mother leaf angle, were measured. The results indicated that stomatal density and mother leaf angle were significantly correlated. Based on path analysis indirect selection for high catechin content could be performed by selecting stomatal density considering to trichoma density, mother leaf angle and chlorophyll content. In addition, indirect selection for high catechin content could be performed by selecting other leaf angle independently without considering other morphological traits.

Antibacterial activity of white tea extract against gram positive and negative bacteria

Widyasanti, Asri, Hajar, Siti, Rohdiana, Dadan

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

This research was carried out to deter­mine antibacterial activity of white tea extract against gram positive and gram negative bacteria based on its MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration). Ethanol solution 96% were used to extract of white tea with a ratio of 1:9 (w/v) by using maceration method. Paper disc diffusion method was used to determination of the MIC. The concentrations were used of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% (w/v). The results of this research showed that MIC of white tea extract of 4%, 6%, 6% and 10% (w/v) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphy­lococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, respectively. The inhibition zone for 4 bacteria were 10.83 mm, 10.08 mm, 10.16 mm and 12.08 mm respectively. This result of research concluded that white tea extract have antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria

An assessment of genetic relationship in tea clones based on important chemical compound and yield potential

Sriyadi, Bambang

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Assembling of new excellence high yiel­ding and good quality tea clones was started from identification accession as gene sources, crossing design of parents, selection mother bushes and propagated vegetatively. Crossing beetwen two parent clones which near or remote genetic relationship in tea will failed. Assessment of genetic relationship clone accession was done using secondary datas from description of first and second tea clone gene­ration which cultivated in Indonesia. Data of yield potentials and main chemical com­pound of quality among others catechine, gallat cate­chine, catechine gallo and cafeine were ana­lysed using biplot and cluster analysis. The results showed that no correllation beetwen main chemical compound of quality and yield potentials. Biplot with two dimensions could be explained 92,5% variation of five characters and showed that yield has the highest and catechine the smallest variances. The first gene­ration of tea clones was separated to second at the 46,79% similarity levels. At the 15,60% similarity levels, there were six clusters. GMB 1, GMB 2, GMB 6, GMB 9, and GMB 10 clones were in one cluster was caused of they had high of yield and catechine. GMB 4 and GMB 5 had similarity on medium yields, GMB 7 and GMB 11 had similarity on medium catechine and the highest yield, and GMB 3 and GMB 8 had similarity on low catechine. PS 1 with the lowest catechine gallo was separated to the others. The sixth cluster were SA 40, Kiara 8, SA 35, RB 3, and Cin 143 were characterized by low catechine and yields. 

The study of extension performance and tea market opportunities to successful of tea farmer groups at Sodonghilir District, Tasikmalaya Regency

Sita, Kralawi

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

The good performance of extension activities and openness tea market oppor­tunities has been playing an important role in accelerate the successful of tea farmer groups. The successful of tea farmer groups itself can be seen from the functioning of the units in farmer group activities, namely unit of study, unit of production, unit of collaboration, and unit of business. This study are aimed to determine the successful of tea farmer groups in carrying out its functions and to determine the effect of extension performance and tea market opportunities to the successful of the tea farmer groups at Sodonghilir District, Tasikmalaya Regency. This study used mixed method approach with sequential explanantory strategy that analyzed by using path analysis. The sampling method that used in this study was proportional random sampling with 56 farmers or 25% of the sample population (225 farmers). The results show that the highest successful of tea farmer groups at Sodonghilir District on unit of production, unit of collaboration, and unit of business were still low. Extension performance and tea market opportunitiest significant influenced directly to the successful of tea farmer groups. The better extension performance and greater tea market oppor­tunities, so the higher the successful of farmer groups. The efforts to increase the successful of tea farmer groups can be done by increasing the institutional capacity of tea smallholders, extension performance, and disclosure oppor­tunities of policy and tea market. 

Production of fungal pectinase enzyme through solid substrate fermentation of estate waste for improvement of enzymatic oxidation and increasing the quality of CTC tea

Panji, Tri, Suharyanto, Suharyanto, Shabri, Shabri, Rohdiana, Dadan, Yusianto, Yusianto

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Enzymes, especially pectinase, plays an important role in the processing of tea that determines the quality and the color appearance of black tea. The main obstacle encountered in the application of enzymes in food processing in general, and in particular in the processing of black tea is the price of commercial enzyme that are still very expen­sive, because it is still imported. Indonesia has a high fungal diversitythat is potential as producer of commercial pectinase enzyme. To reduce the cost of production, fermentation was done using solid waste of plantation that rich of pectin content such as cocoa pod husk that has not been optimally utilized. The research aimed to develop the production technology for pectinase enzymes of fungi through solid substrate fermentation for applications in the processing of CTC black tea. Research includes the isolation and selection of local superior fungi producing enzymes pectinase, optimiza­tion of enzyme production by fungi isolates were selected through a solid substrate fermen­tation using cocoa pod husk waste, production optimization included optimization of fermen­tation time and substrate composition, enzyme extraction of fermented substrate, and appli­cation of pectinase enzyme extracts in the processing of CTC black tea and sensory test of fermented tea. The results showed that it has been obtained isolates of Aspergillus niger on Pectinase Screening Agar Medium (PSAM) which was capable of producing pectinase enzyme on growing media of mix cocoa pod husk and rice bran with additional of enrichment media. The optimum conditions of pectinase production was obtained in the composition of cacao pod husk: rice bran (80:20 w/w) plus enrichment media, the incubation time of 9 days, which produced pectinase activity of 125 U/mL. Applications of pectinase on enzymatic oxidation of CTC tea proved that it was capable of raising the quality of the tea flavor, though the tea gradedid not change.

The decreasing activity of white tea and green tea on smokers lipids profile

Kushargina, Rosyanne, Rimbawan, Rimbawan, Setiawan, Budi, Rohdiana, Dadan

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Smoking habit have many negative effect, including increased lipids profile. Researching on the effects of tea on lipids profile on smokers has been carried out using green tea. Research using white tea has been limited, therefore, this study aimed to analyze the effect of white tea than green tea on lipids profile in smokers, using paired sample of clinical trials design. The subjects were medium smokers (11-21 cigarettes/day) aged 30-45 years and have milddyslipidemia. Each subject was asked to drink tea in two times. Firstly, all subjects were asked to drink 3 x 200 ml white tea/day for 28 days. Secondly, treatment will be start after two weeks washout period, and they were asked to drink 3 x 200 ml of green tea/day for 28 days. Lipids profile (trigliserida (TG); cholesterol total (TC); low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)) of blood serum has been measured four times, at pre-post intervention of white tea and at pre-post intervention of green tea. The lipids profile were significantly decreased after white tea intervention (paired sample t-test, p<0,05). After green tea intervention,the lipids profile were decreased but significant (paired sample t-test, p<0,05) only for LDL-C. The independent sample t-test analysis showed that white tea has higher effect in decreasing the lipids profile greater than green tea, however not significantly different (p>0,05). This study was proved that white tea is more potential than green tea to decreasing lipids profile of smokers.

The application of technology portable fertigation system in the dry month in tea plantation

Rahardjo, Pudjo, Wulansari, Restu, Pranoto, Eko

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

The research aims at providing multi­function both irrigation and fertilizer appli­cations (fertigation) and calculates the produc­tion of shoots and evaluated plant health during dry season. This research was carried out on Gambung Research Station using clone GMB7. Randomized block design was used in this study with six treatments and four replications. The treatments i.e. a. control (without irrigation, without fertilization); b. without irrigation, fer­ti­lization through the soil; c. irrigation 7 mm/day every 3 days (without fertilization); d. irrigation 7 mm/day every 6 days (without fertilization); e. fertigation 7 mm/day every 3 days; and f. fertigation 7 mm/day every 6 days. Observations were made from September-October 2014 with 4 times of plucking. All treatments were significantly different on the yield, number of both pecco and banji. The fertigation treatment using 21 mm of water (7 mm/day every 3 days) showed the highest shoot production of 15,56%. The highest number of pecco shoots and ratio of the number pecco/number of banji in treatment using 21 mm of water (7 mm/day every 3 days) of 32,25%. The highest number of banji found in the control treatment (without irrigation without fertilization) was 74,94%. From this research it can be concluded that the fertigation treatment can give good impact to production maintain and plant health in the dry season.

Alkaloid profile of endophytic Diaporthe spp. from Cinchona calisaya

Radiastuti, Nani, Rahayu, Gayuh, Okane, Izumi, Hidayat, Iman, Achmadi, Suminar S.

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

Endophytic fungi have been known as potential source of bioactive compound, similar to their host.  This study was conducted to identify endophytic Diaporthe spp. isolated from Cinchona calisaya and to explore their potential in producing alkaloids, particularly quinine. A total of 39 strains of Diaporthe spp. were identified using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and EF1-α gene. Seventeen strains have species name and they represent eight species of Diaporthe i.e. D. cynaroidis, D. endophytica, D. ganjae, D. gardeniae, D. litchicola, D. phaseolorum, D. pseudomangiferae, and D. rhoina. The re­maining 22 strains represents 15 groups of unidentified Diaporthe sp. High performance liquid chromatography analyses of chloroform extract of 21-days old static cultures of all fungi in potato dextrose broth showed that these strains produce totally 82 different alkaloids. Each strain producedabout 2-38 different alkaloids. Sixteen out of 39 strains (41%), i.e. one strain each of D. endophytica, D. gar­deniae,  D. phaseolorum, and  D. pseudo­mangiferae, 2 strains of D. litchicola, and 10 strains of unidentified Diaporthe were able to produce quinine. The quinine concentration ranges from 1.1 mg/l to 155.2 mg/l. By using Jaccard’s similarity index 0.44 as the cutting score, UPGMA analyses of alkaloid profile of these strains shows that these strains forms 23 clusters. Alkaloid profile clustering does not support the phylogenetic grouping. This indicates that the alkaloid profile is strain dependent. Some potential strains should be further investigated for optimization of their quinine production.

Influence of biological control agents Helicoverpa armigera Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (HaNPV) on intensity of the attack twig caterpillar (Ectropis bhurmitra Wlk) and yield of tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) clone GMB 7

Antralina, Merry, Santoso, Joko

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of Helicoverpa armigera Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (HaNPV) on attack intensity of twig caterpillar (Ectropis bhurmitra Wlk) and the yield of clone Gambung 7 tea plant. The research was conducted at the Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona, Gambung, Bandung, from May 2011 till June 2011. A  randomized block design was used with five treatments and replicated four replications. Application of five controls method for the twig caterpillar were performed. HaNPV at  4 x 106 PIB/mI, and 4 x 104 PIB/ml, Bacillus turingiensis (Thuricide) 1 g/L, Spinosad (Tracer 120 SC) 0,5 ml/L, and chemical insecticides (Electric 500 EC) 0,5 ml/L. The results indicated that HaNPV at both the density gave the same effect compare to other insecticides tested on the attack intensity of twig caterpillar as well as yield of tea plant clone Gambung 7.

Foliar Fertilizer and Pesticide Methomyl 25% in Tea Plantation after Infested by Pest. (1) Effect of Productivity Increasing and Yield Components

haq, muthia syafika, Fauziah, Fani, Karyudi, Karyudi

Jurnal Penelitian Teh dan Kina Vol 18, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Research Institute for Tea and Cinchona

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Abstract

The experiment of effect of Foliar Fertilizer (N& ZnSo4) and pesticide compatibility with Methomyl 25% compound to increasing Tea Productivity (Camellia sinensis) has been conducted in Research Institute for Tea and Chincona experimental plantation1350 m above sea level and andysol type soil. The experiment started from November 2013 – Februari 2014  in produced tea area with 1.080 plant population. Material plantswere GMB 4 clones with second pruning year and 12 days plucking interval. The experiment was arranged on randomized block design with 9 treatments and 3 replicate. Foliar fertilizer and pesticide combination which has been examined  were  (1) Methomyl 25% (control), (2) Methomyl 25% + Zn 1%, (3) Methomyl 25% + Zn 2%, (4) Methomyl 25% + N 1%, (5) Methomyl 25% + N 2%, (6) Methomyl 25% + N 1% + Zn 1%, (7) Methomyl 25% + N 1% + Zn 2%, (8) Methomyl25% + N 2% + Zn 1%and (9) Methomyl25% + N 2% + Zn 2. Spraying application done every after plucking. The results  showed that skiffing treatment can control the tea plantation that infested by pest and stimulate the new bud growth. The results  also showed that productivity increased significantly up to37, 48 % (2.781 gr/40 plants) when the plants were treated with Methomyl + N 1% + Zn 2%.But,the increased production is accompanied by an increase of banjhi because plant still using their nutrition to recovering after pest infested. The weight of pecco which grown from the  lateral buds is relatively small because of skiffing. Bud growth rate after given treatment was obtained only 3-4 cm/ 6 days caused by lack of light intensity at the time of reserached