Nusa Penida, Bali was designated as a Marine Protected Area (MPA) by the Klungkung Local Government in 2010 with support from the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Republic of Indonesia. Mangrove forests located in Nusa Lembongan Island inside the Nusa Penida MPA jurisdiction have decreased in biomass quality and vegetation cover. It’s over the last decades due to influences from natural phenomena and human activities, which obstruct mangrove growth. Study the mangrove forest changes related to the marine protected areas implementation are important to explain the impact of the regulation and its influence on future conservation management in the region. Mangrove forest in Nusa Penida MPA can be monitored using remote sensing technology, specifically Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Landsat satellite imagery combined with visual and statistical analysis. The NDVI helps in identifying the health of vegetation cover in the region across three different time frames 2003, 2010, and 2017. The results showed that the NDVI decreased slightly between 2003 and 2010. It’s also increased significantly by 2017, where a mostly positive change occurred landwards and adverse change happened in the middle of the mangrove forest towards the sea.
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